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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4750, 2020 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179763

RESUMEN

Intensive diabetes control has been associated with increased mortality in type 2 diabetes (T2DM); this has been suggested to be due to increased hypoglycemia. We measured hypoglycemia-induced changes in endothelial parameters, oxidative stress markers and inflammation at baseline and after a 24-hour period in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects versus age-matched controls. Case-control study: 10 T2DM and 8 control subjects. Blood glucose was reduced from 5 (90 mg/dl) to hypoglycemic levels of 2.8 mmol/L (50 mg/dl) for 1 hour by incremental hyperinsulinemic clamps using baseline and 24 hour samples. Measures of endothelial parameters, oxidative stress and inflammation at baseline and at 24-hours post hypoglycemia were performed: proteomic (Somalogic) analysis for inflammatory markers complemented by C-reactive protein (hsCRP) measurement, and proteomic markers and urinary isoprostanes for oxidative measures, together with endothelial function. Between baseline and 24 -hours after hypoglycemia, 15 of 140 inflammatory proteins differed in T2DM whilst only 1 of 140 differed in controls; all returned to baseline at 24-hours. However, elevated hsCRP levels were seen at 24-hours in T2DM (2.4 mg/L (1.2-5.4) vs. 3.9 mg/L (1.8-6.1), Baseline vs 24-hours, P < 0.05). In patients with T2DM, between baseline and 24-hour after hypoglycemia, only one of 15 oxidative stress proteins differed and this was not seen in controls. An increase (P = 0.016) from baseline (73.4 ng/mL) to 24 hours after hypoglycemia (91.7 ng/mL) was seen for urinary isoprostanes. Hypoglycemia resulted in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers being elevated in T2DM subjects but not controls 24-hours after the event.

2.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066363

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (AP) medications is the cornerstone treatment for schizophrenia and some other psychiatric diseases. However, some observational studies suggest that these medications might increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and pulmonary embolism (PE). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess whether AP medications are associated with the development of VTE or PE, and to assess the risk based on any type of AP drugs, quality of studies and after adjustment of risk factors. DATA SOURCES: To identify relevant studies, we searched PubMed and EMBASE databases up to February 2019. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles for relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION: Twenty studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in our meta-analysis after screening relevant observational cohort and case-control studies. PRIMARY OUTCOME: The primary outcome of our meta-analysis was the occurrence of all VTE or PE only attributed to exposure to AP medication compared with non-exposure to AP medications. RESULTS: Exposure to AP drugs was associated with a significant increase in the risk of VTE (RR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.30-1.80, I2 = 85 %) and PE (RR 3.69, 95 % CI 1.23-11.07, I2 = 90 %). In the subgroup meta-analysis, the use of low-potency AP drugs was associated with a higher risk of VTE, (RR 1.90, 95 % CI 1.04-3.47, I2 = 78 %). CONCLUSIONS: AP exposure was associated with a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of VTE and a 3.7-fold increase in the risk of PE. Low-potency AP drugs were associated with a higher risk of VTE. However, high heterogeneity among studies limits the generalizability of the results.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985384

RESUMEN

Cancer is a condition where there is uncontrolled growth of cells resulting in high mortality. It is the second most frequent cause of death worldwide. Bortezomib (BTZ) is a Proteasome Inhibitor (PI) that is used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. It is the first PI that has received approval of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat mantle cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. High incidence of side-effects, limited dose, low water solubility, fast clearance, and drug resistance are the significant limitations of BTZ. Therefore, various drug delivery systems have been tried to overcome these limitations of BTZ in cancer therapy. Nanotechnology can potentially enhance the aqueous solubility of BTZ, increase its bioavailability and control the release of BTZ at the site of administration. The lipid-based nanocarriers such as liposomes, solid lipid NPs and microemulsions are some of the developments in nanotechnology, which could potentially enhance the therapeutic benefits of BTZ.

4.
Life Sci ; 244: 117305, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953161

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disorder involving multiple deleterious molecular pathways and cellular defects leading to disturbance in the biologic milieu. It is currently a global health concern with growing incidence, especially among younger adults. There is an unmet need to find new therapeutic targets for the management of diabetes. Vitamin D is a promising target in the pathophysiology of DM, especially since vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with diabetes compared to people without diabetes. Evidence suggests that it can play significant roles in improving peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, however, the exact pathophysiological mechanism is not clarified yet. In this current study, we have reviewed the evidence on the effect of vitamin D in improving insulin resistance via distinct molecular pathways.


Asunto(s)
Intolerancia a la Glucosa/prevención & control , Homeostasis , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Animales , Intolerancia a la Glucosa/etiología , Humanos
5.
Life Sci ; 244: 117329, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954747

RESUMEN

MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding pieces of RNA that are involved in a variety of physiologic processes such as apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell cycle and cell survival. These multifunctional nucleotides are also capable of preventing oxidative damages by modulating antioxidant defense systems in a variety of milieu, such as in diabetes. Although the exact molecular mechanisms by which miRs modulate the antioxidant defense elements are unclear, some evidence suggests that they may exert these effects via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. This intracellular mechanism is crucial in the maintenance of the physiologic redox balance by regulating the expression and activity of various cellular antioxidative defense elements and thereby plays a pivotal role in the development of oxidative stress. Any impairment in the Nrf2 signaling pathway may result in oxidative damage-dependent complications such as various diabetic complications, neurological disorders and cancer. In the current review, we discuss the modulatory effects of miRs on the Nrf2 signaling pathway, which can potentially be novel therapeutic targets.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones de la Diabetes/prevención & control , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , MicroARNs/genética , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/prevención & control , Estrés Oxidativo , Animales , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/genética , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/metabolismo , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/patología , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/genética , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/metabolismo , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/patología , Transducción de Señal
6.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(4): 107518, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924528

RESUMEN

AIMS: Investigate if abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) affects post-myocardial infarction (MI) prognosis in patients with hospital-related hyperglycaemia (HRH) but without known diabetes mellitus (KDM). METHODS: Post-MI survivors without KDM underwent pre-discharge oral glucose tolerance test. Cardiovascular death and non-fatal re-infarction (MACE) were recorded. We compare the ability of admission (APG), fasting (FPG) and 2 h post-load (2 h-PG) plasma glucose to predict MACE in patients with (HRH) and without HRH (NoHRH). RESULTS: 50.2% and 73% of NoHRH and HRH had AGT respectively. MACE occurred in 19.5% and 18.1% in HRH and NoHRH groups. MACE-free survival was lower in patient with AGT in both groups (NoHRH: HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.19-2.78, p = 0.005; HRH: HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.24-4.96, p = 0.010). AGT predicted MACE-free survival (NoHRH: HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.02-2.51, p = 0.042; HRH: HR 3.09, 95% CI 1.07-8.94, p = 0.037). 2 h-PG, but not FPG or APG, independently predicted MACE free survival (NoHRH: HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.27, p ≤0.001 and HRH: HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.03-1.37, p = 0.020). Addition of AGT and 2 h-PG, not FPG or APG, improved net reclassification of events in both groups. CONCLUSION: Post-MI prognosis is worse with AGT irrespective of presence of HRH. 2 h-PG, predicts prognosis in HRH and NoHRH groups.

7.
Pharmacol Res ; 153: 104662, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982487

RESUMEN

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are one class of the small regulatory RNAs that can impact the expression of numerous genes including incretin hormones and their G protein-coupled receptors. Incretin peptides, including GLP-1, GLP-2, and GIP, are released from the gastrointestinal tract and have an crucial role in the glucose hemostasis and pancreatic beta-cell function. These hormones and their analogs with a longer half-life, glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1RA), modify the expression of miRNAs. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) is an enzyme that degrades the incretin hormones and is inactivated by DPP-4 inhibitors, which are a class of compounds used in the management of type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 inhibitors may also increase or reduce the expression of miRNAs. In this review, we describe the possible interactions between miRNAs and incretin hormones and the relevance of such interactions to physiological processes and diseases.

8.
Life Sci ; 240: 117090, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765648

RESUMEN

Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a relatively newer class of anti-hyperglycemic medications that reduce blood glucose by inhibition of renal glucose re-uptake, thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. Although glycosuria is the primary mechanism of action of these agents, there is some evidence suggesting they can reduce insulin resistance and induce peripheral insulin sensitivity. Identifying the molecular mechanisms by which these medications improve glucose homeostasis can help us to develop newer forms of SGLT2i with lesser side effects. We have reviewed the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways by which SGLT2i therapy improve insulin sensitivity and ameliorates insulin resistance.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Resistencia a la Insulina , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2/uso terapéutico , Transportador 2 de Sodio-Glucosa/metabolismo , Animales , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico
9.
Biofactors ; 46(1): 5-20, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580521

RESUMEN

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) result from progressive deterioration of selectively susceptible neuron populations in different central nervous system (CNS) regions. NDs are classified in accordance with the primary clinical manifestations (e.g., parkinsonism, dementia, or motor neuron disease), the anatomic basis of neurodegeneration (e.g., frontotemporal degenerations, extrapyramidal disorders, or spinocerebellar degenerations), and fundamental molecular abnormalities (e.g., mutations, mitochondrial dysfunction, and its related molecular alterations). NDs include the Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease, among others. There is a growing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and its related mutations in the form of oxidative/nitrosative stress and neurotoxic compounds play major roles in the pathogenesis of various NDs. Curcumin, a polyphenol and nontoxic compound, obtained from turmeric, has been shown to have a therapeutic beneficial effect in various disorders especially on the CNS cells. It has been shown that curcumin has considerable neuro- and mitochondria-protective properties against broad-spectrum neurotoxic compounds and diseases/injury-associating NDs. In this article, we have reviewed the various effects of curcumin on mitochondrial dysfunction in NDs.

10.
Gerontology ; 66(1): 2-14, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256166

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In view of the existing uncertainty about the implications of intentional weight loss in older obese adults, the present review (a) summarizes the available evidence from epidemiological and interventional studies concerning the effects of weight loss through lifestyle modifications on skeletal health parameters in older overweight/obese individuals, (b) proposes mechanisms that link weight loss to bone loss in this age group, and (c) identifies appropriate animal models. Main Findings and Future Directions: Based on prospective epidemiological studies, weight loss is associated with bone loss, impaired bone macro- and microstructure, and increased fracture risk in the elderly. Data from interventional studies confirm the negative effects of intentional weight loss achieved by lifestyle modifications on skeletal health outcomes in obese older individuals. These effects appear to be modest following a single weight loss attempt, but may persist in the longer term, and presumably, during subsequent weight loss efforts. Current evidence suggests that resistance exercise coupled with caloric restriction mitigates bone and muscle loss. However, alternative strategies do not exist for older individuals, especially those who are unable or unwilling to exercise. Clinical weight loss studies in obese older individuals and preclinical research in relevant animal models with obesity and osteoporosis are required. These will advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of weight-loss-associated skeletal alterations and provide evidence on how bone loss can be counteracted or prevented.

11.
Life Sci ; 241: 117152, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837333

RESUMEN

GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) are two classes of antidiabetic agents used in the management of diabetes based on incretin hormones. There is emerging evidence that they have anti-inflammatory effects. Since most long-term complications of diabetes have a background of chronic inflammation, these agents may be beneficial against diabetic complications not only due to their hypoglycemic potential but also via their anti-inflammatory effects. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which GLP-1RAs and DPP-4i exert their anti-inflammatory effects are not clearly understood. In this review, we discuss the potential molecular pathways by which these incretin-based therapies exert their anti-inflammatory effects.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Incretinas/uso terapéutico , Inflamación/prevención & control , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/inmunología , Humanos
12.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 30(2): 93-101, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935726

RESUMEN

The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a precisely targeted bacterial defense system, used to control invading viruses. This technology has many potential applications including genetic changes in somatic and germ cells and the creation of knockout animals. Compared to other genome editing techniques such as zinc-finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENS), the CRISPR/Cas9 system is much easier and more efficient. Most importantly, the multifunctional capacity of this technology allows simultaneous editing of several genes. The CRISPR/Cas9 system also potentially has the ability to prevent and treat human diseases. The present article addresses some key points related to the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system as a powerful tool in cardiovascular research and as a new strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

13.
Pharmacol Res ; 152: 104611, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863868

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus is a potent upstream event in the molecular pathophysiology which gives rise to various diabetes-related complications. There are several classes of anti-diabetic medications that have been developed to normalize blood glucose concentrations through a variety of molecular mechanisms. Beyond glucose-lowering effects, these agents may also provide further therapeutic potential. For instance, there is a high incidence of diabetes-induced neuronal disorders among patients with diabetes, who may also develop neurodegenerative and psychological complications. If anti-diabetic agents can modify the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of neuronal comorbidities, this could potentially be translated to reducing the risk of other neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, memory deficits and cognition impairments among patients with diabetes. This review aimed to shed light on some of the potentially beneficial aspects of anti-diabetic agents in lowering the risk or treating neuronal disorders by reviewing the molecular mechanisms by which these agents can potentially modulate neuronal behaviors.

14.
Biofactors ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846136

RESUMEN

Microglia are the primary innate immune system cells in the central nervous system (CNS). They are crucial for the immunity, neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, neurotrophic support, phagocytosis of cellular debris, and maintaining the CNS integrity and homeostasis. Invasion by pathogens as well as in CNS injuries and damages results in activation of microglia known as microgliosis. The activated microglia have the capacity to release proinflammatory mediators leading to neuroinflammation. However, uncontrolled neuroinflammation can give rise to various neurological disorders (NDs), especially the neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, multiple sclerosis (MS), Huntington's disease (HD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and stroke. Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are among the most widely prescribed medications for the management of hypercholesterolemia worldwide. It can be used for primary prevention in healthy individuals who are at higher risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases as well as the secondary prevention in patients with cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases disease. A growing body of evidence has indicated that statins have the potential to attenuate the proinflammatory mediators and subsequent NDs by controlling the microglial activation and consequent reduction in neuroinflammatory mediators. In this review, we have discussed the recent studies on the effects of statins on microglia activation and neuroinflammation.

15.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e027767, 2019 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780584

RESUMEN

Numerical data in biology and medicine are commonly presented as mean or median with error or confidence limits, to the exclusion of individual values. Analysis of our own and others' data indicates that this practice risks excluding 'Goldilocks' effects in which a biological variable falls within a range between 'too much' and 'too little' with a region between where its function is 'just right'; a concept captured by the Swedish term 'Lagom'. This was confirmed by a narrative search of the literature using the PubMed database, which revealed numerous relationships of biological and clinical phenomena of the Goldilocks/Lagom form including quantitative and qualitative examples from the health and social sciences. Some possible mechanisms underlying these phenomena are considered. We conclude that retrospective analysis of existing data will most likely reveal a vast number of such distributions to the benefit of medical understanding and clinical care and that a transparent approach of presenting each value within a dataset individually should be adopted to ensure a more complete evaluation of research studies in future.

16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781027

RESUMEN

Background: Sub-inflammation and insulin resistance characterize women with PCOS. Data on dietary modulation of inflammation among PCOS women is scant, particularly from Indian subcontinent. The present study aimed to assess the effect of plant based vs. animal origin diets on serum markers of inflammation (primary outcome measure). Methods: This observational case-control study compared age and BMI matched PCOS and apparently healthy women from two populations following different dietary practices. The vegetarian women from New-Delhi (n = 82 PCOS and n = 179 healthy) and non-vegetarian women from Srinagar (n = 62 PCOS and n = 141 healthy) formed the groups. Using a uniform methodology, detailed clinical, biochemical, hormonal, and inflammatory marker assessment was undertaken. Results: The mean age of the overall cohort was 26.23 ± 4.59 years with a mean BMI of 24.39 ± 3.72 kg/m2. Overall pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, hs-CRP and serum resistin) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) and anti-inflammatory markers (IL-10 and adiponectin) were lower among women with PCOS than healthy subjects. On comparing vegetarian women with non-vegetarians, higher daily calorie intake (1895.46 ± 258.19 vs. 1860.13 ± 323.96 Kcal) with a higher protein and fat and lower carbohydrate intake was recorded in the latter, although the percent energy derived from carbohydrates was higher among vegetarians. Clinical and biochemical parameters were comparable among the groups except mFG score, total serum testosterone and serum lipid levels which were higher among non-vegetarian women as compared to their vegetarian counterparts from both categories (PCOS and healthy). Interestingly, vegetarian women with PCOS and healthy women had higher serum pro-inflammatory and lower anti-inflammatory markers compared to their non-vegetarian counterparts. Conclusion: Women with PCOS consuming Indian vegetarian diet have higher pro-inflammatory and lower anti-inflammatory marker levels than their age and BMI matched healthy non-vegetarian counterparts. This interesting observation can be attributed to the dietary composition, among other factors and needs confirmation from well-designed randomized studies on a larger cohort. Clinical Trial Registration: The study was registered with CTRI database under registration number CTRI/2013/09/003996.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16306, 2019 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705013

RESUMEN

Several studies have shown the expression of small non-coding microRNA (miRNA) changes in PCOS and their expression in follicular fluid has been described, though the number of studies remains small. In this prospective cohort study, miRNA were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 29 weight and aged matched anovulatory women with PCOS and 30 women without from follicular fluid taken at the time of oocyte retrieval who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF); miRNA levels were determined from a miRNA data set. 176 miRNA were detected, of which 29 differed significantly between normal women and PCOS women. Of these, the top 7 (p < 0.015) were miR-381-3p, miR-199b-5p, miR-93-3p, miR-361-3p, miR-127-3p, miR-382-5p, miR-425-3p. In PCOS, miR-382-5p correlated with age and free androgen index (FAI), miR-199b-5p correlated with anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and miR-93-3p correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP). In normal controls, miR-127-3p, miR-382-5p and miR-425-3p correlated with the fertilisation rate; miR-127-3p correlated with insulin resistance and miR-381-3p correlated with FAI. Ingenuity pathway assessment revealed that 12 of the significantly altered miRNA related to reproductive pathways, 12 miRNA related to the inflammatory disease pathway and 6 were implicated in benign pelvic disease. MiRNAs differed in the follicular fluid between PCOS and normal control women, correlating with age, FAI, inflammation and AMH in PCOS, and with BMI, fertilization rate (3 miRNA), insulin resistance, FAI and inflammation in control women, according to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.

18.
IUBMB Life ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633881

RESUMEN

In cell transfer therapy (CTT), immune cells such as innate immune-derived natural killer cells and dendritic cells as well as acquired immune-related T lymphocytes such as tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and cytokine-activated or genetically modified peripheral blood T cells are used in the management of cancer. These therapies are increasingly becoming the most used treatment modality in cancer after tumor resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. In adoptive cell transfer, the lymphocytes isolated from either a donor or the patient are modified ex vivo and reinfused to target malignant cells. Transferring in vitro-manipulated immune cells produces a continuous antitumor immune response. In this review, we evaluate the recent advances in CTT for the management of various malignancies.

19.
Life Sci ; 237: 116950, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605709

RESUMEN

C-peptide is a small peptide connecting two chains of proinsulin molecule and is dissociated before the release of insulin. It is secreted in an equimolar amount to insulin from the pancreatic beta-cells into the circulation. Recent evidence demonstrates that it has other physiologic activities beyond its structural function. C-peptide modulates intracellular signaling pathways in various pathophysiologic states and, could potentially be a new therapeutic target for different disorders including diabetic complications. There is growing evidence that c-peptide has modulatory effects on the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Although we have little direct evidence, pharmacological properties of c-peptide suggest that it can provide potent renoprotective effects especially, in a c-peptide deficient milieu as in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we describe possible molecular mechanisms by which c-peptide may improve renal efficiency in a diabetic milieu.


Asunto(s)
Péptido C/uso terapéutico , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/prevención & control , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicaciones , Nefropatías Diabéticas/prevención & control , Animales , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/etiología , Nefropatías Diabéticas/etiología , Humanos
20.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512150

RESUMEN

Cardiac fibrosis stems from the changes in the expression of fibrotic genes in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) in response to the tissue damage induced by various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) leading to their transformation into active myofibroblasts, which produce high amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins leading, in turn, to excessive deposition of ECM in cardiac tissue. The excessive accumulation of ECM elements causes heart stiffness, tissue scarring, electrical conduction disruption and finally cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Curcumin (Cur; also known as diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa with an influence on an extensive spectrum of biological phenomena including cell proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, pathogenesis, chemoprevention, apoptosis, angiogenesis and cardiac pathological changes. Cumulative evidence has suggested a beneficial role for Cur in improving disrupted cardiac function developed by cardiac fibrosis by establishing a balance between degradation and synthesis of ECM components. There are various molecular mechanisms contributing to the development of cardiac fibrosis. We presented a review of Cur effects on cardiac fibrosis and the discovered underlying mechanisms by them Cur interact to establish its cardio-protective effects.

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