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1.
Eur Respir J ; 63(4)2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423624

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) working group proposed recommendations for managing allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) a decade ago. There is a need to update these recommendations due to advances in diagnostics and therapeutics. METHODS: An international expert group was convened to develop guidelines for managing ABPA (caused by Aspergillus spp.) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM; caused by fungi other than Aspergillus spp.) in adults and children using a modified Delphi method (two online rounds and one in-person meeting). We defined consensus as ≥70% agreement or disagreement. The terms "recommend" and "suggest" are used when the consensus was ≥70% and <70%, respectively. RESULTS: We recommend screening for A. fumigatus sensitisation using fungus-specific IgE in all newly diagnosed asthmatic adults at tertiary care but only difficult-to-treat asthmatic children. We recommend diagnosing ABPA in those with predisposing conditions or compatible clinico-radiological presentation, with a mandatory demonstration of fungal sensitisation and serum total IgE ≥500 IU·mL-1 and two of the following: fungal-specific IgG, peripheral blood eosinophilia or suggestive imaging. ABPM is considered in those with an ABPA-like presentation but normal A. fumigatus-IgE. Additionally, diagnosing ABPM requires repeated growth of the causative fungus from sputum. We do not routinely recommend treating asymptomatic ABPA patients. We recommend oral prednisolone or itraconazole monotherapy for treating acute ABPA (newly diagnosed or exacerbation), with prednisolone and itraconazole combination only for treating recurrent ABPA exacerbations. We have devised an objective multidimensional criterion to assess treatment response. CONCLUSION: We have framed consensus guidelines for diagnosing, classifying and treating ABPA/M for patient care and research.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva , Adulto , Niño , Animales , Humanos , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/tratamiento farmacológico , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/tratamiento farmacológico , Itraconazol/uso terapéutico , Micología , Prednisolona , Inmunoglobulina E
2.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 30(3): 368-374, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081413

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis (CAROM), ascertain factors associated with CAPM among patients with COVID-19, and identify factors associated with 12-week mortality in CAPM. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentre cohort study. All study participants had COVID-19. We enrolled CAPM, CAROM, and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis (controls; age-matched). We collected information on demography, predisposing factors, and details of COVID-19 illness. Univariable analysis was used to compare CAPM and CAROM. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with CAPM (with hypoxemia during COVID-19 as the primary exposure) and at 12-week mortality. RESULTS: We included 1724 cases (CAPM [n = 122], CAROM [n = 1602]) and 3911 controls. Male sex, renal transplantation, multimorbidity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, intensive care admission, and cumulative glucocorticoid dose for COVID-19 were significantly higher in CAPM than in CAROM. On multivariable analysis, COVID-19-related hypoxemia (aOR, 2.384; 95% CI, 1.209-4.700), male sex, rural residence, diabetes mellitus, serum C-reactive protein, glucocorticoid, and zinc use during COVID-19 were independently associated with CAPM. CAPM reported a higher 12-week mortality than CAROM (56 of the 107 [52.3%] vs. 413 of the 1356 [30.5%]; p = 0.0001). Hypoxemia during COVID-19 (aOR [95% CI], 3.70 [1.34-10.25]) and Aspergillus co-infection (aOR [95% CI], 5.40 [1.23-23.64]) were independently associated with mortality in CAPM, whereas surgery was associated with better survival. DISCUSSION: CAPM is a distinct entity with a higher mortality than CAROM. Hypoxemia during COVID-19 illness is associated with CAPM. COVID-19 hypoxemia and Aspergillus co-infection were associated with higher mortality in CAPM.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Masculino , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Glucocorticoides , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , India/epidemiología , Hipoxia/complicaciones
3.
Lung India ; 40(5): 429-433, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37787356

RESUMEN

Background: Forced vital capacity (FVC) and six-minute walk distance (6MWD) are robust markers in interstitial lung diseases (ILD) to assess severity and prognosis. It is unknown whether high-resolution computed tomography pattern has any independent effect on the exercise capacity in ILD. We compared six-minute walk test (6MWT) parameters between usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and non-UIP ILD after adjusting for FVC. Methods: Data from a tertiary care ILD clinic were retrospectively analysed. Based on HRCT, patients were classified as UIP and non-UIP. 6MWT parameters and FVC were recorded for enrolled patients. 6MWD, distance-saturation product (DSP) and exertional desaturation were compared between UIP and non-UIP, using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with per cent predicted FVC as covariate. Patients were grouped as mild (≥70%), moderate (51%-69%) and severe (≤50%) based on FVC severity. Results: Out of 169 patients enrolled, only patients with all three data points: spirometry, 6MWT and HRCT were included in the analysis (n = 139). UIP group comprised 56 (40.3%), while non-UIP group had 83 (59.7%) patients. More females and lesser smokers were present in non-UIP group. Mean predicted FVC% was similar between the two HRCT groups (P = 0.611) and had a statistically significant, though very weak to weak correlation with 6MWT parameters {6MWD (r = 0.138); pred 6MWD% (r = 0.170); desaturation (r = -0.227); DSP index (r = 0.166)}. Analysis of covariance showed no statistically significant difference in the 6MWT parameters between UIP and non-UIP groups for similar FVC levels. Conclusion: For a similar level of lung function, exercise capacity was similar for patients with UIP and non-UIP pattern ILD.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37194448

RESUMEN

During and following the COVID-19 pandemic, the world has witnessed a surge in high-flow oxygen therapy (HFOT) use. The ability to provide high oxygenation levels with remarkable comfort levels has been the grounds for the same. Despite the advantages, delay in intubation leading to poor overall outcomes has been noticed in subgroup of patients on HFOT. ROX index has been proposed to be a useful indicator to predict HFOT success. In this study, we have examined the utility of the ROX index prospectively in cases of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) due to infective etiologies. Seventy participants were screened, and 55 were recruited for the study. The majority of participants were males (56.4%), with diabetes mellitus being the most common comorbidity (29.1%). The mean age of the study subjects was 46.27±15.6 years. COVID-19 (70.9%) was the most common etiology for AHRF, followed by scrub typhus (21.8%). Nineteen (34.5%) experienced HFOT failure and 9 (16.4%) subjects died during the study period. Demographic characteristics did not differ between either of the two groups (HFOT success versus failure and survived group versus expired group). ROX index was significantly different between the HFOT success versus failure group at baseline, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h. The best cut-off of ROX index at baseline and 2 h were 4.4 (sensitivity 91.7%, specificity 86.7%) and 4.3 (sensitivity 94.4% and specificity 86.7%), respectively. ROX index was found to be an efficient tool in predicting HFOT failure in cases with AHRF with infective etiology.

7.
Elife ; 112022 12 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36475542

RESUMEN

Drugs that target human thymidylate synthase (hTS), a dimeric enzyme, are widely used in anticancer therapy. However, treatment with classical substrate-site-directed TS inhibitors induces over-expression of this protein and development of drug resistance. We thus pursued an alternative strategy that led us to the discovery of TS-dimer destabilizers. These compounds bind at the monomer-monomer interface and shift the dimerization equilibrium of both the recombinant and the intracellular protein toward the inactive monomers. A structural, spectroscopic, and kinetic investigation has provided evidence and quantitative information on the effects of the interaction of these small molecules with hTS. Focusing on the best among them, E7, we have shown that it inhibits hTS in cancer cells and accelerates its proteasomal degradation, thus causing a decrease in the enzyme intracellular level. E7 also showed a superior anticancer profile to fluorouracil in a mouse model of human pancreatic and ovarian cancer. Thus, over sixty years after the discovery of the first TS prodrug inhibitor, fluorouracil, E7 breaks the link between TS inhibition and enhanced expression in response, providing a strategy to fight drug-resistant cancers.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Ováricas , Timidilato Sintasa , Femenino , Animales , Ratones , Humanos , Sitios de Unión , Timidilato Sintasa/química , Timidilato Sintasa/metabolismo , Fluorouracilo/farmacología , Neoplasias Ováricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/farmacología
8.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(9): 983-995, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36154545

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: As millions of people worldwide recover from COVID-19, a substantial proportion continue to have persistent symptoms, pulmonary function abnormalities, and radiological findings suggestive of post-COVID interstitial lung disease (ILD). To date, there is limited scientific evidence on the management of post-COVID ILD, necessitating a consensus-based approach. AREAS COVERED: A panel of experts in pulmonology and thoracic radiology was constituted. Key questions regarding the management of post-COVID ILD were identified. A search was performed on PubMed and EMBASE and updated till 1 March 2022. The relevant literature regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of post-COVID ILD was summarized. Subsequently, suggestions regarding the management of these patients were framed, and a consensus was obtained using the Delphi approach. Those suggestions which were approved by over 80% of the panelists were accepted. The final document was approved by all panel members. EXPERT OPINION: Dedicated facilities should be established for the care of patients with post-COVID ILD. Symptom screening, pulmonary function testing, and thoracic imaging have a role in the diagnosis. The pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic options for the management of post-COVID ILD are discussed. Further research into the pathophysiology and management of post-COVID ILD will improve our understanding of this condition.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales , Humanos , Técnica Delfos , COVID-19/complicaciones , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/etiología , Consenso , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen
9.
Cureus ; 14(5): e25108, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733480

RESUMEN

Background Among patients hospitalized for severe pneumonia due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19), clinical stability and normal resting peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels are widely used as a discharge criterion after recovery. It is unknown whether a test to assess the functional exercise capacity, like a six-minute walk test (6MWT), can add to the appropriateness of discharge criteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care COVID-19 hospital in India from 01st to 31st May 2021. All patients considered fit for discharge after recovery from "severe" COVID-19 pneumonia were subjected to 6MWT. Fitness for discharge was assessed by clinical stability and resting SpO2 above 93% for three consecutive days. Patients were considered to have failed the 6MWT if there was ≥4% fall in SpO2 or if they could not complete the test. Serum samples were analyzed for levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at the time of discharge. Results Fifty-three discharge-ready patients with a mean age of 54.54 ± 14.35 years with a male preponderance (60.38%) were analyzed. Thirty-three (62.26%) patients failed the 6MWT with a median six-minute walk distance (6MWD) of 270 m (60-360). A total of 45 (84.91%) patients had a fall in SpO2 during the test. The median change in SpO2 (∆SpO2) was 5% ranging from -6% to 8%. Serum LDH was significantly higher among patients who failed the 6MWT with a median LDH of 334 IU/L (38.96-2339) versus 261 IU/L (49.2-494) (p = 0.02). The difference was not significant for CRP or IL-6. There was no statistically significant correlation between the inflammatory markers with either 6MWD or (∆SpO2). Conclusion Two-thirds of the patients considered fit for discharge after recovery from severe COVID-19 pneumonia failed 6MWT, implying reduced functional exercise capacity and exertional hypoxia. Serum LDH levels were higher in these patients but not in other inflammatory markers. None of the inflammatory markers at discharge correlated with 6MWD or ∆SpO2 of 6MWT.

10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 861866, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35402294

RESUMEN

Background: The modified International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) working group (AWG) criteria lists up to five components for diagnosing ABPA in asthmatics. Whether eliminating specific components of the existing criteria would have the same diagnostic utility as the original remains unknown. Objective: To evaluate the performance of several simplified criteria for diagnosing ABPA. Methods: We compared the performance of seven new criteria (after excluding or modifying one or more of the components of the ISHAM-AWG criteria) with the modified ISHAM-AWG criteria in asthmatic subjects using latent class analysis (LCA). We also tested the performance of the newer criteria using accuracy measures against a multidisciplinary team (MDT) diagnosis of ABPA. We considered the diagnostic accuracy of the newer criteria to be acceptable if the correct classification and false-negative rates were >95% and <5%, respectively, on an MDT evaluation. Results: We analyzed data from 543 asthmatic subjects (58.8% women; mean age, 36.8 years). Using LCA, the sensitivity of the A.fumigatus-specific IgE-based criteria ranged from 92-99%, while the specificity varied between 92% and 100%. The MDT diagnosed ABPA in 106 (19.5%) subjects. Using MDT as the reference standard, the correct classification and false-negative rates were >95% for three of the seven and <5% for four of the seven newer criteria. Conclusions: We found several of the newly developed criteria to perform, like the modified ISHAM-AWG criteria, for diagnosing ABPA complicating asthma. A prospective study in current clinical algorithms is required for validating our observations.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica , Asma , Animales , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/complicaciones , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/diagnóstico , Aspergillus fumigatus , Asma/complicaciones , Asma/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina E , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos
11.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443412

RESUMEN

Tuberculosis is one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans and the top cause of infectious death worldwide caused by M. tuberculosis complex. Tuberculosis may be pulmonary, extra-pulmonary or both. Nervous system tuberculosis is relatively rare and has protean nature of symptoms so poses diagnostic difficulty. Neurological manifestations of tuberculosis includes 1) intracranial 2) spinal 3) peripheral nerve tuberculosis. Central nervous system tuberculosis accounts about 5% of extra pulmonary cases and 1% all tuberculosis. MATERIAL: Here we are presenting the series of 10 cases which have wide variety of neuropathogenic nature of tuberculosis. OBSERVATION: Here we are presenting the series of 10 cases which have wide variety of neuropathogenic nature of tuberculosis. These includes 1) Tubercular cortical vein thrombosis -patient who is a known case of pulmonary tuberculosis presented with severe headache, seizure and altered behavior, MRI brain shows cortical vein thrombosis and normal coagulation profile (Review of literature shows only 4 cases). 2)Tubercular myelitis/ arachnoiditis-presented with low backache and bilateral lower limb weakness,CSF panel and MRI L S spine shows tubercular arachnoiditis/myelitis. 3)Tubercular peripheral neuropathy; patient who is a non- diabetic presented with pain abdomen and bilateral lower limb tingling and numbness with no past history of treatment with anti-tubercular drug, CECT abdomen shows ileocecal tuberculosis and NCS study shows sensory affection of lower limb nerve. 4)Tuberculoma-patient presented with severe headache, seizure and altered behavior, MRI brain shows tuberculoma. 5) and 6) are tubercular vascular infarct in 1 of these 2 cases patient was having multiple necrotic foci and few foci of cavitation in left hilar region which is extending into left inferior pulmonary vein and even reaching upto left atrium. 7) and 8) cases are pott's spine who presented with low backache. 9) and 10) are tubercular meningitis and tubercular meningitis with hydrocephalus respectively. These patients were treated according to their diagnosis and for focal neurological deficit physiotherapy was advised. Except a case of septic foci emboli from left atrium which shows moderate recovery rest all cases shows good recovery at discharge. CONCLUSION: There is paucity of literature on neuropathogenic nature of tuberculosis. In this case series we are presenting the series of 10 cases of tubercular nervous system manifestations so that it will helps to diagnose the disease as early as possible and allows us to initiate the prompt treatment so that we can mitigate the significant morbidity and mortality among survivors of nervous system tubercular disease.


Asunto(s)
Aracnoiditis , Dolor de la Región Lumbar , Mielitis , Tuberculoma , Tuberculosis Meníngea , Cefalea/etiología , Humanos , Convulsiones/etiología , Tuberculosis Meníngea/complicaciones , Tuberculosis Meníngea/diagnóstico
12.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443430

RESUMEN

Sjogren syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterised by lymphocytic infiltration and inflammation of the exocrine glands resulting in decreased secretion of involved glands which manifests mostly as dry eye and dry mouth. The prevalence of the disease is reported to be about 10.3 per 10,000 population. It is more common in females with a male: female ratio of 16:1. Extra glandular manifestations are seen in up to 1/3rd of the cases. Renal involvement is seen in 4.9% of patients with Sjogren syndrome. MATERIAL: Here we present three cases of Sjogren Syndrome who presented to our hospital with hypokalaemic quadriparesis. OBSERVATION: On evaluation all three of the patients were found to have renal tubular acidosis type 1. None of these patients had any symptom of Sjogren syndrome before the onset of quadriparesis. All of these patients had acute onset progressive areflexic quadriparesis with involvement of facial muscles and drooping of eyelids without sensory or bladder bowel involvement. One of these patients had respiratory muscle paralysis severe enough to mandate mechanical ventilation. Arterial Blood Gas analysis and urine electrolyte analysis were suggestive of type 1 renal tubular acidosis. ANA positive in 2 of the 3 patients. Anti-SSA & anti-SSB antibodies were positive in all three patients. Supportive measures and IV fluid and electrolyte correction was done. There was complete recovery of power in all three patients and were discharged on oral medications.Renal Tubular Acidosis is characterised by inability of the nephrons to maintain physiologic acid base balance. This usually results from a defect in the tubular transport mechanisms. Distal Renal tubular acidosis (as in these patients) is further defined by an alkalotic urinary pH(>5.5) and profound hypokalemia due to impairment in H+ secretion in ditstal tubular alpha-intercalated cells. Owing to this imbalance of ionic transport in distal tubules there can be nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, rickets and severe muscle weakness. Sjogren syndrome is one of the etiologies leading to development of T1RTA.T1RTA can be the presenting feature of Sjogren Syndrome. CONCLUSION: Though a rare manifestation of the disease if can be the presenting symptom. Work up for RTA (ABG, urine electrolytes, Urine PH and osmolarity etc) in patients with hypokalaemic paresis can help establish the etiological diagnosis(ANA, anti-SSA,anti-SSB) and help prevent future relapses of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Acidosis Tubular Renal , Hipopotasemia , Síndrome de Sjögren , Acidosis Tubular Renal/complicaciones , Acidosis Tubular Renal/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Hipopotasemia/complicaciones , Masculino , Cuadriplejía/complicaciones , Recurrencia , Síndrome de Sjögren/complicaciones , Síndrome de Sjögren/diagnóstico
13.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(9): e240-e253, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390293

RESUMEN

COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) remains an underdiagnosed entity. Using a modified Delphi method, we have formulated a consensus statement for the diagnosis and management of CAPM. We selected 26 experts from various disciplines who are involved in managing CAPM. Three rounds of the Delphi process were held to reach consensus (≥70% agreement or disagreement) or dissensus. A consensus was achieved for 84 of the 89 statements. Pulmonary mucormycosis occurring within 3 months of COVID-19 diagnosis was labelled CAPM and classified further as proven, probable, and possible. We recommend flexible bronchoscopy to enable early diagnosis. The experts proposed definitions to categorise dual infections with aspergillosis and mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. We recommend liposomal amphotericin B (5 mg/kg per day) and early surgery as central to the management of mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. We recommend response assessment at 4-6 weeks using clinical and imaging parameters. Posaconazole or isavuconazole was recommended as maintenance therapy following initial response, but no consensus was reached for the duration of treatment. In patients with stable or progressive disease, the experts recommended salvage therapy with posaconazole or isavuconazole. CAPM is a rare but under-reported complication of COVID-19. Although we have proposed recommendations for defining, diagnosing, and managing CAPM, more extensive research is required.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Antifúngicos , Prueba de COVID-19 , Técnica Delfos , Humanos
14.
Cureus ; 14(3): e22847, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382199

RESUMEN

Background Computed tomography (CT) scans and CT severity scores (CTSS) are widely used to assess the severity and prognosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). CTSS has performed well as a predictor in differentiating severe from non-severe cases. However, it is not known if CTSS performs similarly in hospitalized severe cases with hypoxia at admission. Methods We conducted a retrospective comparative study at a COVID-care center from Western India between 25th April and 31st May 2021, enrolling all consecutive severe COVID-19 patients with hypoxemia (peripheral oxygen saturation < 94%). Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, ferritin, and CT thorax were done within 24h of admission before being initiated on any anti-COVID-19 therapy. CTSS was calculated by visual assessment and categorized into three severity categories and was correlated with laboratory markers and overall survival (OS). Statistical analysis was done using John's Macintosh Project (JMP) 15.0.0 ver. 3.0.0 (Cary, North Carolina). Results The median age of the study population (n-298) was 59 years (24-95) with a male preponderance (61.41%, n=183). The 15 and 30-day survivals were 67.64% and 59.90%, respectively. CTSS did not correlate with age, gender, time from vaccination, symptoms, or comorbidities but had a significant though weak correlation with LDH (p=0.009), D-dimer (p=0.006), and NLR (p=0.019). Comparing demographic and laboratory aspects using CT severity categories, only NLR (p=0.0146) and D-dimer (p=0.0006) had significant differences. The 15d-OS of mild, moderate, and severe CT categories were 88.62%, 70.39%, and 52.62%, respectively, while 30d-OS of three categories were 59.08%, 63.96%, and 49.12%, respectively. Conclusion Among hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients with hypoxemia at admission, CT severity categories correlate well with outcomes but not inflammatory markers at admission.

16.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(6): 668-674, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34316147

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a common cause of hospitalization in high altitude areas with significant morbidity. The clinical presentation of HAPE can overlap with a broad spectrum of cardiopulmonary diseases. Also, it is associated with varied radiological manifestations mimicking other conditions and often leading to unnecessary and inappropriate treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The primary aim of the study was to study the various radiological manifestations of HAPE through real-world chest radiographs. We present six different chest X-ray patterns of HAPE as a pictorial assay, at initial presentation, and after the resolution of symptoms with supplemental oxygen therapy and bed rest alone. RESULTS: HAPE can present as bilateral symmetrical perihilar opacities, bilateral symmetrical diffuse opacities, unilateral diffuse opacities, bilateral asymmetrical focal opacities, and even lobar consolidation with lower zone or less commonly upper zonal predilection. These presentations can mimic many common conditions like heart failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism, aspiration pneumonitis, pneumonia, malignancy, and tuberculosis. CONCLUSION: A holistic clinical-radiological correlation coupled with analysis of the temporal course can help high-altitude physicians in differentiating true HAPE from its mimics. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Yanamandra U, Vardhan V, Saxena P, Singh P, Gupta A, Mulajkar D, et al. Radiographical Spectrum of High-altitude Pulmonary Edema: A Pictorial Essay. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(6):668-674.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(1): 328-335.e1, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890756

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The ideal criteria for diagnosing allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) remain unknown because of the lack of a criterion standard. Latent class analysis using a probabilistic modeling technique can circumvent the need for a reference standard. OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic performance of various criteria used for evaluating ABPA. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled consecutive cases of bronchial asthma and performed a series of investigations used for the diagnosis of ABPA. We used latent class analysis to analyze the performance of various existing and novel diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Of the 543 subjects (mean age, 37 years; 319 women), 338 (62.2%) and 205 (37.8%) were labeled as "mild-to-moderate" and "severe" asthma cases, respectively. The subjects with severe asthma had a longer duration of asthma and a higher number of exacerbations in the previous year. The prevalence of Aspergillus fumigatus sensitization was 41% and 30%, using the A fumigatus-specific IgE and skin test, respectively. The prevalence of ABPA was 16%, using both the Rosenberg-Patterson and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM)-ABPA Working Group criteria. The ISHAM criteria were slightly more sensitive (89% vs 81%) and specific (99% vs 98%) than the Patterson criteria. We obtained optimal diagnostic performance by altering the existing ISHAM criteria (serum total IgE >500 international units/mL, excluding the skin test, and using computed tomography of thorax instead of chest radiograph). CONCLUSIONS: The ISHAM-ABPA Working Group criteria were only marginally better than the Patterson criteria in diagnosing ABPA among patients with asthma younger than 66 years. The diagnostic performance however improved by modifying the prevailing ISHAM criteria, but with increased cost.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica , Asma , Adulto , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/epidemiología , Aspergillus fumigatus , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina E , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Masculino
19.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 21(11): 91, 2020 Sep 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920711

RESUMEN

The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes. In Table 2, under the column 'Lead to death' in Row 5 [CheckMate-026], the figures should read as '0.7' for Experimental Arm and '1.1' for Comparator. Right now, these are printed as 0.007 and 0.011 respectively.

20.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 21(8): 69, 2020 07 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720019

RESUMEN

OPINION STATEMENT: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the management of metastatic and selected cases of unresectable advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Importantly for patients, this implies that in the absence of a targetable oncogenic driver [especially epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements] and in the presence of high programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression (≥ 50%), they are eligible for mono-therapy with pembrolizumab thereby avoiding chemotherapy as the first line of treatment. This mono-immunotherapy approach for high PD-L1 metastatic NSCLC is associated with improved overall survival (OS) and radiological responses (RR) with lesser toxicity as compared with conventional platinum doublet chemotherapy for both non-squamous and squamous histological types.However, majority of NSCLC patients either have no or low expression of PD-L1 (< 50%) and such patients derive greater benefit from a combination of PD-1/PD-L1 ICIs with platinum doublet chemotherapy as compared with chemotherapy alone. Again, benefits are seen for both OS and RRs. However, combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy, in general, does lead to higher toxicity than those seen with either of the two alone.Additionally, for non-squamous NSCLC patients, clinicians should not initiate ICI treatment till the results of common targetable genetic alterations like EGFR mutation, ALK, and ROS1 gene rearrangement testing are known (preferably on broad next generation sequencing) and are negative (even if results of PD-L1 testing are available)-as targeted therapies remain the cornerstone of treatment for patients harboring these oncogenic drivers.It is worth mentioning that PD-1 and PD-L1 ICIs are very expensive, and their usage is associated with occurrence of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) which occasionally can be severe. Hence, it is important to discuss efficacy, toxicity, and cost-related to ICI treatment with each and every patient at diagnosis in order to help them decide if they are willing to go ahead with this form of therapy either singly (for high PD-L1 expressors) or in combination with chemotherapy (for others).


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/uso terapéutico , Algoritmos , Antineoplásicos Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Antineoplásicos Inmunológicos/efectos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Biomarcadores de Tumor , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/etiología , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/mortalidad , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Humanos , Proteínas de Punto de Control Inmunitario , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidad , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento
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