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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 214: 108161, 2020 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688072

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of current (past 30 days) marijuana use and its associations with demographic, other substance use, chronic disease, physical health and mental health measures among women of reproductive age (18-44 years) in 12 US states. METHODS: This analysis used 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 16,556 women of reproductive age in 12 US states. Women self-reported current marijuana use and covariates. Weighted χ2 statistics and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated accounting for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Among women of reproductive age, 9.9 % reported current marijuana use. Current cigarette use (aPR: 2.0, 95 % CI: 1.6, 2.6), current e-cigarette use (aPR: 1.9, 95 % CI: 1.4, 2.6), binge drinking (aPR: 2.6, 95 % CI: 1.9, 3.6), ever having received a depression diagnosis (aPR: 1.6, 95 % CI: 1.2, 2.1), and ≥14 days of poor mental health in the past 30 days (aPR: 1.8, 95 % CI: 1.3, 2.4) were all associated with higher adjusted prevalence of current marijuana use. Reporting ≥14 days of poor physical health within the last 30 was associated with a 40 % lower adjusted prevalence of current marijuana use (aPR: 0.6, 95 % CI: 0.4, 0.8). CONCLUSION: Current marijuana use among women of reproductive age was associated with other substance use, poor mental health, and depression. As state laws concerning marijuana use continue to change, it is important to monitor usage patterns and to assess associated health risks in this population.

2.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 209: 107900, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061947

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of modes of marijuana use (e.g., smoked, vaped, eaten, dabbed, etc.), and of multi-modal use has not been assessed across multiple states, and can inform marijuana prevention and education work, given that certain modes of use are associated with specific public health risks. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of different modalities of reported marijuana use among adults in 12 states. METHODS: Data came from 6174 adult marijuana users age 18 and older who responded to questions about past month and mode of marijuana use on the 2016 BRFSS surveys in 12 states with varied state marijuana policies. We used weighted frequencies for descriptive analyses, and logistic regression to identify correlates of multi-modal use. RESULTS: The prevalence of past month (current) marijuana use among adults in these states was 9.1 % (males = 12.0 %, females= 6.3 %). Among current marijuana users, 33.7 % reported multiple methods of marijuana use, 90.1 % reported any marijuana smoking (e.g., joints, blunts, bongs, bowls), 58.3 % reported only smoking (no other modes of consumption), 24.5 % reported any edible use, 4.5 % reported using only edibles, 19.4 % reported any marijuana vaping, 2.1 % reported only vaping, 14.5 % reported any dabbing (flash vaporization/inhalation of highly concentrated marijuana), and 0.4 % reported only dabbing. Correlates of multimodal use are also examined. CONCLUSION: Multi-modal use of marijuana is common, and use of non-smoked marijuana (edibles, vaping, dabbing) often occurs in conjunction with other modes of marijuana use. Ongoing surveillance of marijuana modes of use and multi-modal use is warranted to inform public education and prevention.

3.
Addiction ; 115(7): 1320-1329, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899566

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Eleven US states and the District of Columbia have legalized the non-medical use of marijuana. Public marijuana smoking is generally prohibited, although some states have considered exemptions. This study assessed attitudes about public marijuana smoking, perceptions of harm from marijuana second-hand smoke (SHS) and self-reported marijuana SHS exposure. DESIGN: Internet panel survey fielded in June-July 2018. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: US adults aged ≥ 18 years (n = 4088). MEASUREMENTS: Current (past-30 day) tobacco product use, current marijuana use, opinions about public indoor marijuana smoking, perceptions of harm from marijuana SHS and self-reported past-7 day exposure to marijuana SHS in public indoor or outdoor areas were assessed. Weighted prevalence estimates were computed and correlates were assessed using logistic and multinomial regression. FINDINGS: Overall, 27.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 25.7, 29.1] of adults reported past-week marijuana SHS exposure in indoor and/or outdoor public areas; younger adults, blacks, Hispanics, those in the Northeast or West, and current marijuana and/or tobacco users were more commonly exposed (Ps < 0.0001). More than half of adults (52.4%; 95% CI = 50.7, 54.2) regarded marijuana SHS as harmful, and most (81.0%; 95% CI = 79.5, 82.4) opposed public marijuana smoking. Correlates of favoring public marijuana smoking included being male, younger (Ps < 0.01), black or Hispanic, past-month tobacco and/or marijuana users and perceiving no/low harm from marijuana SHS (Ps < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: While one in four US adults report recent marijuana second-hand smoke exposure, a majority believe marijuana second-hand smoke is harmful and most oppose public marijuana smoking.

4.
Addict Behav Rep ; 10: 100222, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828201

RESUMEN

Introduction: Electronic vapor products (EVPs), including e-cigarettes, can be used to aerosolize many substances. Examination of substances used in EVPs by US adults has been limited; we assessed past-year use of EVPs to deliver various substances. Methods: Data came from the 2017 SummerStyles Survey, a web-based survey of US adults (N = 4107). Ever EVP users were asked if they had used nicotine, marijuana, flavors or "something else" in an EVP during the past year. Weighted estimates for any, exclusive, and combined EVP substance use were calculated among ever (n = 586) and current (past 30-day; n = 121) EVP users. Results: Past-year use of nicotine, flavors, and marijuana in EVPs was 30.7%, 23.6%, and 12.5% among ever EVP users, respectively; and 72.3%, 54.6%, and 17.8% among current EVP users. Among ever EVP users, the most commonly used substances were nicotine only (29.6%), nicotine plus flavors (27.2%), flavors only (16.4%), and marijuana only (14.9%). Among current EVP users, the most common substances used were nicotine plus flavors (39.1%), nicotine only (29.6%), and flavors only (11.2%). Among ever users, males and 18-29 year olds were more likely to report use of flavors than females and respondents ≥30 years. Conclusions: Approximately 7 in 10 current EVP users reported nicotine use, about 1 in 2 used flavors, and nearly 1 in 6 used marijuana. These findings suggest that EVPs are used to consume a variety of substances and could guide efforts to address tobacco and non-tobacco substance use.

5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(28): 621-626, 2019 Jul 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318853

RESUMEN

From 1965 to 2017, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years decreased from 42.4% to 14.0%, in part because of increases in smoking cessation (1,2). Increasing smoking cessation can reduce smoking-related disease, death, and health care expenditures (3). Increases in cessation are driven in large part by increases in quit attempts (4). Healthy People 2020 objective 4.1 calls for increasing the proportion of U.S. adult cigarette smokers who made a past-year quit attempt to ≥80% (5). To assess state-specific trends in the prevalence of past-year quit attempts among adult cigarette smokers, CDC analyzed data from the 2011-2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys for all 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), Guam, and Puerto Rico. During 2011-2017, quit attempt prevalence increased in four states (Kansas, Louisiana, Virginia, and West Virginia), declined in two states (New York and Tennessee), and did not significantly change in the remaining 44 states, DC, and two territories. In 2017, the prevalence of past-year quit attempts ranged from 58.6% in Wisconsin to 72.3% in Guam, with a median of 65.4%. In 2017, older smokers were less likely than younger smokers to make a quit attempt in most states. Implementation of comprehensive state tobacco control programs and evidence-based tobacco control interventions, including barrier-free access to cessation treatments, can increase the number of smokers who make quit attempts and succeed in quitting (2,3).


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Fumar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
Tob Control ; 28(6): 685-688, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023856

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Assess use and reasons for use of electronic vapour products (EVPs) shaped like universal serial bus (USB) flash drives among adults in the USA. METHODS: Data came from SummerStyles, an internet survey of US adults aged ≥18 (N=4088) fielded in June to July 2018. Respondents were shown product images and asked about ever use, current (past 30 days) use and reasons for use. Weighted point estimates and adjusted ORs were assessed. RESULTS: In 2018, 7.9% of participants had ever used flash drive-shaped EVPs, including 25.7% of current cigarette smokers and 45.9% of current EVP users. Moreover, 2.0% reported current use, including 6.8% of cigarette smokers and 34.3% of EVP users. Leading reasons for ever use were 'to deliver nicotine' (30.7%) and 'friend or family member used them' (30.2%). CONCLUSIONS: About one in 13 US adults have ever used flash drive-shaped EVPs, with use being highest among current EVP users. Nicotine content and friend/family use are drivers of ever use. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Understanding use of emerging EVP types can inform strategies to maximise any potential benefits for adult cessation and minimise risks of youth initiation.

7.
Prev Med Rep ; 11: 37-41, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984136

RESUMEN

As recreational marijuana expands, standardized surveillance measures examining the retail environment are critical for informing policy and enforcement. We conducted a reliability and generalizability study using a previously developed tool involving assessment of a sample of 25 randomly selected Seattle recreational marijuana retailers (20 recreational; 5 recreational/medical) in 2017. The tool assessed: 1) contextual/neighborhood features (i.e., facilities nearby); 2) compliance/security (e.g., age-of-sale signage, age verification); and 3) marketing (i.e., promotions, product availability, price). We found that retailers were commonly within two blocks of restaurants (n = 23), grocery stores (n = 17), liquor stores (n = 13), and bars/clubs (n = 11). Additionally, two were within two blocks of schools, and four were within two blocks of parks. Almost all (n = 23) had exterior signage indicating the minimum age requirement, and 23 verified age. Two retailers had exterior ads for marijuana, and 24 had interior ads. Overall, there were 76 interior ads (M = 3.04; SD = 1.84), most commonly for edibles (n = 28). At least one price promotion/discount was recorded in 17 retailers, most commonly in the form of loyalty membership programs (n = 10) or daily/weekly deals (n = 10). One retailer displayed potential health harms/warnings, while three posted some health claim. Products available across product categories were similar; we also noted instances of selling retailer-branded apparel/ paraphernalia (which is prohibited). Lowest price/unit across product categories demonstrated low variability across retailers. This study documented high inter-rater reliability of the surveillance tool (Kappas = 0.73 to 1.00). In conclusion, this tool can be used in future research and practice aimed at examining retailers marketing practices and regulatory compliance.

9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 185: 238-244, 2018 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471228

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Past-month marijuana and tobacco use (co-use) are increasing among U.S. adults, but little is known about the prevalence of co-use among U.S. youth. This study uses nationally representative data to assess the prevalence, correlates, and trends in co-use of marijuana and tobacco, tobacco-only use, and marijuana-only use among U.S. youth. METHODS: Data came from 176,245 youth ages 12-17 who responded to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health - a nationally representative, household interview survey - between 2005 and 2014. Prevalence, demographics and substance use characteristics from 2013 to 14 were assessed across three groups: past-month users of marijuana and tobacco (co-users), past-month tobacco-only users, and past-month marijuana-only users. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess demographic correlates of each group. Linear and quadratic trends were assessed from 2005 to 2014 using logistic regression with orthogonal polynomials. RESULTS: In 2013-14, 5.4% of youth reported past-month co-use of tobacco and marijuana, 2.2% reported marijuana-only use, and 3.9% reported tobacco-only use. Co-use was associated with higher prevalence of past year marijuana dependence (vs. marijuana-only users), and higher past-month risky alcohol and other illicit drug use (vs. both tobacco and marijuana-only use groups). Co-use did not increase significantly between 2005 and 2014; tobacco-only use declined, and marijuana-only use increased. CONCLUSIONS: Co-use of marijuana and tobacco is more prevalent than tobacco-only or marijuana-only use in U.S. youth. Given changing tobacco and marijuana policies, ongoing surveillance and studies that seek to increase our understanding of co-use behaviors in youth are critical.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos
10.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(3): 362-369, 2018 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28064202

RESUMEN

Background: Given increasing co-marijuana and tobacco use in the United States, this study aimed to explore the overlap between menthol cigarette use (MCU) and marijuana. Methods: Data came from past month US cigarette smokers 12 years and older responding to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2005 and 2014 (N = 51 500). Prevalence, demographics and substance use characteristics from 2013 to 2014 were assessed across four groups, based on past month marijuana and tobacco use: cigarette smokers with marijuana and MCU, with marijuana but no MCU, with no marijuana but MCU, and with use of neither. Multivariable logistic regression explored the relationship between MCU, marijuana, and dependence. Linear and quadratic trends were assessed using logistic regression with orthogonal polynomials. Results: Past month marijuana/MCU among cigarette smokers was 8.3% in 2013-2014. Overall, marijuana/MCU was significantly higher among blacks versus whites (20.8% vs. 5.8%, p < .0001), though among 12-25 year olds, prevalence was significantly higher among whites versus blacks (6.3% vs. 0.9% for 12-17-year-olds; 39.2% vs. 26.8% for 18-25-year-olds). Marijuana/MCU increased significantly between 2005 and 2014 overall, and among whites and blacks. No adjusted associations were found between marijuana, MCU and nicotine or marijuana dependence. Conclusions: Past month marijuana/MCU among cigarette smokers is increasing in the United States, with specific racial and age-based disparities. Research about the implications of consuming both marijuana and menthol, and the potential overlap in consumption of flavors across the products is warranted to better inform future preventive and treatment approaches. Implications: This is the first study to assess the overlap between MCU and marijuana use among a nationally representative sample of US current smokers ages 12 and older. Findings from this study suggest that past month marijuana and menthol use among cigarette smokers is increasing in the United States, with specific racial/ethnic and age-based disparities. More research about the implications of consuming both marijuana and menthol, and the potential overlap in consumption of flavors in marijuana and tobacco products is warranted to better understand what preventive and treatment approaches may be needed.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/tendencias , Aromatizantes , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/tendencias , Fumar Marihuana/tendencias , Mentol , Productos de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Fumar Marihuana/psicología , Mentol/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumadores/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
Subst Use Misuse ; 53(3): 357-369, 2018 02 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28792283

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Marijuana-tobacco co-use has increased recently, particularly in young adults. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a mixed-methods study to: (1) examine reasons for co-use; and (2) develop a scale assessing reasons for co-use among participants in a longitudinal cohort study of 3,418 students aged 18-25 from 7 Georgia colleges and universities. METHODS: Phone-based semi-structured interviews were conducted in Summer 2015 among 46 current (past 30-day, n = 26) or lifetime (n = 20) marijuana users. Subsequently, scale items were developed and included at Wave 3. Participants reporting past 4-month tobacco and marijuana use (n = 328) completed the Reasons for Marijuana-Tobacco Co-use section. RESULTS: Per qualitative data, reasons for marijuana-tobacco co-use included synergistic effects, one triggering or preceding the other's use, using one to reduce the other's use, co-administration, social context, and experimentation. The survey subsample included 37.1% who used cigarettes, 30.4% LCCs, 9.4% smokeless, 23.7% e-cigarettes, and 30.4% hookah. Four subscale factors emerged: (1) Instrumentality, indicating synergistic effects; (2) Displacement, indicating using one product to reduce/quit the other; (3) Social context, indicating use in different settings/social situations; and (4) Experimentation, indicating experimentation with both but no specific reasons for co-use. These subscales demonstrated distinct associations with tobacco type used; nicotine dependence; marijuana and alcohol use frequency; tobacco and marijuana use motives, respectively; perceptions of tobacco and marijuana; and parental and friend use. Including these subscales in regressions predicting nicotine dependence and days of marijuana use significantly contributed to each model. CONCLUSIONS: These findings might inform theoretical frameworks upon which marijuana-tobacco co-use occurs and direct future intervention studies.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana/psicología , Motivación , Estudiantes/psicología , Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
12.
Health Educ Res ; 32(6): 465-472, 2017 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237032

RESUMEN

As recreational marijuana expands, it is critical to develop standardized surveillance measures to study the retail environment. To this end, our research team developed and piloted a tool assessing recreational marijuana retailers in a convenience sample of 20 Denver retailers in 2016. The tool assesses: (i) compliance and security (e.g. age-of-sale signage, ID checks, security cameras); (ii) marketing (i.e. promotions, product availability and price) and (iii) contextual and neighborhood features (i.e. retailer type, facilities nearby). Most shops (90.0%) indicated the minimum age requirement, all verified age. All shops posted interior ads (M = 2.6/retailer, SD = 3.4), primarily to promote edibles and other non-smoked products. Price promotions were common in shops (73.7%), 57.9% used social media promotions and 31.6% had take-away materials (e.g. menus, party promotions). Nearly half of the shops (42.1%) advertised health claims. All shops offered bud, joints, honey oil, tinctures, kief, beverages, edibles and topicals; fewer sold clones and seeds. Six shops (31.6%) sold shop-branded apparel and/or paraphernalia. Prices for bud varied within and between stores ($20-$45/'eighth', ∼3.5 g). Twelve were recreational only, and eight were both recreational and medicinal. Liquor stores were commonly proximal. Reliability assessments with larger, representative samples are needed to create a standardized marijuana retail surveillance tool.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Vigilancia de Productos Comercializados/métodos , Factores de Edad , Colorado , Comercio/métodos , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Características de la Residencia , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
13.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 177: 130-135, 2017 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28599211

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Marijuana and tobacco are the most commonly used illicit and licit drugs during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine a nationally representative sample of US pregnant women and to: (1) determine the prevalence of past month marijuana and tobacco co-use, (2) identify characteristics that distinguish marijuana and tobacco co-users from users of marijuana only, tobacco only, or neither, and (3) compare characteristics that differ between pregnant and non-pregnant co-users of marijuana and tobacco. METHODS: Data were obtained from 497,218 US women (8721 pregnant) ages 12-49 who participated in the 2005-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Prevalence and demographic and substance use characteristics were compared across groups using weighted estimates and chi-squared tests. Multinomial logistic regression identified demographic and substance use correlates of co-use. RESULTS: Co-use among pregnant and non-pregnant women was significantly more prevalent than marijuana-only use but was less common than tobacco-only use. In unadjusted frequencies, pregnant co-users significantly differed from non-pregnant co-users across several domains. Among pregnant women, multivariate correlates of co-use of tobacco and marijuana vs. tobacco-only use were ages 12-17, non-Hispanic black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and past month polytobacco, any alcohol, and other drug use (all adjusted odds ratios≥2.0). CONCLUSIONS: In this first examination of the prevalence and correlates of co-use of marijuana and tobacco among a nationally representative group of pregnant women, pregnant co-users were more likely to report other high risk behaviors compared with non-pregnant co-users and users of a single substance, suggesting disparities worthy of further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Fumar Marihuana/tendencias , Mujeres Embarazadas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Fumar Marihuana/efectos adversos , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Uso de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Tabaquismo/diagnóstico , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
Addict Behav ; 73: 165-171, 2017 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525833

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Approximately 70% of current (past 30-day) adult marijuana users are current tobacco users, which may complicate tobacco cessation. We assessed prevalence and trends in tobacco cessation among adult ever tobacco users, by marijuana use status. METHODS: Data came from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a cross-sectional, nationally representative, household survey of U.S. civilians. Analyses included current, former, and never marijuana users aged≥18 reporting ever tobacco use (cigarette, cigar, chew/snuff). We computed weighted estimates (2013-2014) of current tobacco use, recent tobacco cessation (quit 30days to 12months), and sustained tobacco cessation (quit>12months) and adjusted trends in tobacco use and cessation (2005-2014) by marijuana use status. We also assessed the association between marijuana and tobacco use status. RESULTS: In 2013-2014, among current adult marijuana users reporting ever tobacco use, 69.1% were current tobacco users (vs. 38.5% of former marijuana users, p<0.0001, and 28.2% of never marijuana users, p<0.0001); 9.1% reported recent tobacco cessation (vs. 8.4% of former marijuana users, p<0.01, and 6.3% of never marijuana users, p<0.001), and 21.8% reported sustained tobacco cessation (vs. 53.1% of former marijuana users, p<0.01, and 65.5% of never marijuana users, p<0.0001). Between 2005 and 2014, current tobacco use declined and sustained tobacco cessation increased among all marijuana use groups. CONCLUSIONS: Current marijuana users who ever used tobacco had double the prevalence (vs. never-marijuana users) of current tobacco use, and significantly lower sustained abstinence. Interventions addressing tobacco cessation in the context of use of marijuana and other substances may be warranted.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana/psicología , Cese del Uso de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
BMJ Open ; 7(4): e013079, 2017 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365587

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Approximately 10% (40 000) of US quitline enrollees who smoke cigarettes report current use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS); however, little is known about callers' ENDS use. Our aim was to describe why and how quitline callers use ENDS, their beliefs about ENDS and the impact of ENDS use on callers' quit processes and use of FDA-approved cessation medications. DESIGN: Qualitative interviews conducted 1-month postregistration. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, double-coded and analysed to identify themes. SETTING: Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline. PARTICIPANTS: 40 callers aged ≥18 who were seeking help to quit smoking were using ENDS at registration and completed ≥1 programme calls. RESULTS: At 1-month postregistration interview, 80% of callers had smoked cigarettes in the last 7 days, almost two-thirds were using ENDS, and half were using cessation medications. Nearly all believed ENDS helped them quit or cut down on smoking; however, participants were split on whether they would recommend cessation medications, ENDS or both together for quitting. Confusion and misinformation about potential harms of ENDS and cessation medications were reported. Participants reported using ENDS in potentially adaptive ways (eg, using ENDS to cut down and nicotine replacement therapy to quit, and stepping down nicotine in ENDS to wean off ENDS after quitting) and maladaptive ways (eg, frequent automatic ENDS use, using ENDS in situations they did not previously smoke, cutting down on smoking using ENDS without a schedule or plan to quit), which could impact the likelihood of quitting smoking or continuing ENDS use. CONCLUSIONS: These qualitative findings suggest quitline callers who use ENDS experience confusion and misinformation about ENDS and FDA-approved cessation medications. Callers also use ENDS in ways that may not facilitate quitting smoking. Opportunities exist for quitlines to educate ENDS users and help them create a coordinated plan most likely to result in completely quitting combustible tobacco.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Líneas Directas , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Dispositivos para Dejar de Fumar Tabaco , Adulto , Femenino , Conducta de Búsqueda de Ayuda , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oklahoma , Investigación Cualitativa
16.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 25(3): 208-215, 2017 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28437124

RESUMEN

Although marijuana and tobacco are commonly coused, the nature of their relationship has not been fully elucidated. Behavioral economics has characterized the relationship between concurrently available commodities but has not been applied to marijuana and tobacco couse. U.S. adults ≥18 years who coused marijuana and tobacco cigarettes were recruited via Mechanical Turk, a crowdsourcing service by Amazon. Participants (N = 82) completed online purchasing tasks assessing hypothetical marijuana or tobacco cigarette puff consumption across a range of per-puff prices; 2 single-commodity tasks assessed these when only 1 commodity was available, and 2 cross-commodity tasks assessed these in the presence of a concurrently available fixed-price commodity. Purchasing tasks generated measures of demand elasticity, that is, sensitivity of consumption to prices. In single-commodity tasks, consumption of tobacco cigarette puffs (elasticity of demand: α = 0.0075; 95% confidence interval [0.0066, 0.0085], R² = 0.72) and of marijuana puffs (α = .0044; 95% confidence interval [0.0038, 0.0049], R² = 0.71) declined significantly with increases in price per puff. In cross-commodity tasks when both tobacco cigarette puffs and marijuana puffs were available, demand for 1 commodity was independent of price increases in the other commodity (ps > .05). Results revealed that, in this small sample, marijuana and tobacco cigarettes did not substitute for each other and did not complement each other; instead, they were independent of each other. These preliminary results can inform future studies assessing the economic relationship between tobacco and marijuana in the quickly changing policy climate in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Fumar Marihuana/economía , Fumar/economía , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Adulto , Economía del Comportamiento , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
17.
Addict Behav ; 64: 200-211, 2017 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27654966

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Blunts and spliffs/mulled cigarettes combine marijuana and tobacco for co-administration (use at the same time, in the same product). Co-administration of marijuana and tobacco presents significant potential for nicotine exposure, and may lead to exclusive tobacco use patterns, nicotine addiction, and compounded health effects. No review articles have summarized the number and nature of studies published on these co-administered products. METHODS: Keywords "(blunt* OR spliff OR mull* OR joint) AND (tobacco OR smok* OR cigarette) AND (cannabis OR marijuana OR hashish)" were searched in the published literature. A total of 220 articles were considered for inclusion, 49 were reviewed by two independent qualitative coders, and 45 were included in this review. RESULTS: Of the 45 articles, most (n=27) of studies were observational or descriptive; ten were qualitative, five employed causal designs, and three were mixed methods. A majority of the studies assessed blunts; only 11 studies assessed spliffs/mulled cigarettes. Many studies focused on sub-populations of youth, males, and African Americans. Use of co-administered marijuana and tobacco products was associated with several indicators of problematic use patterns, including perceptions of less risk, dependence on nicotine and marijuana, and greater subjective effects related to marijuana. CONCLUSIONS: Literature on marijuana and tobacco co-administration comes largely from qualitative and observational/descriptive studies. In addition to continued surveillance, experimental research that directly assesses the smoking patterns of co-administered marijuana and tobacco products as compared with to those of marijuana and tobacco only products is needed to determine the potential long-term health consequences of using blunts, spliffs, or other co-administered products.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos
18.
J Subst Use ; 21(6): 631-635, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27840591

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco and marijuana use are related behaviors; therefore, it is important to identify how users consume marijuana, and how it varies with tobacco use status. We estimated the modes of ever marijuana use among current, former, and never adult tobacco users. METHODS: Weighted data were analyzed for 4181 adults from 2014 Styles, an online consumer panel survey of US adults, to estimate proportions for modes of ever marijuana use. Differences in modes of ever marijuana use between categories of tobacco use status were assessed (p-value <0.05). RESULTS: More than half of current (56.6%) and former tobacco users (50.9%) had ever used marijuana, whereas only 13.0% of never tobacco users had ever used marijuana. Among ever marijuana users, joint use was the most common mode of use among current (86.4%), former (92.5%), and never (79.8%) tobacco users. Similarly, other modes of marijuana use were significantly higher in current and former tobacco users compared to never tobacco users. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of all modes of ever marijuana use was higher in current and former tobacco users. These findings underscore the importance of considering the relationship between marijuana and tobacco use when developing programs and policies aimed at preventing and reducing marijuana use.

19.
BMC Obes ; 3: 43, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27785364

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Community Health Centers (CHCs) are important settings for obesity prevention and control. However, few studies have explored the barriers that CHC clinicians perceive their patients face in maintaining a healthy weight. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with thirty physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners recruited from four Community Health Centers (CHCs), located in a rural, southwestern region of the state of Georgia, US. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. RESULTS: Clinicians perceived that their patients face numerous individual, interpersonal, and community-level barriers to weight loss. Perceived individual-level barriers included interrelated aspects of poverty and limited motivation to lose weight. Perceived interpersonal barriers included social and cultural norms, such as positive associations with larger body sizes, negative associations with smaller body sizes, lack of awareness of obesity as a problem, and beliefs regarding hereditary or generational body types. Perceived community-level barriers included limited healthy food options and aspects of the local food culture in the Southern US. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians perceived that their patients face barriers to weight loss at multiple levels of the social ecology, including individual, social, and environmental factors. Results may partly explain limited provision of weight counseling in CHCs and suggest opportunities for intervention.

20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 168: 119-122, 2016 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27639129

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: An increasingly popular method of consuming marijuana is through the smoking of "blunts," cigar products in which some or all of the tobacco filler is removed and repacked with marijuana. Even if all tobacco filler is removed from the cigar product in the process of making blunts, nicotine may be present in the wrapper of the cigar product. This preliminary analysis quantified the nicotine content in wrappers of cigar products commonly used for blunt smoking. METHODS: Five cigar products (3 large cigars, 2 cigarillos) were tested, yielding physical characteristics of cigar length, diameter, weight, and wrapper weight. Nicotine concentration in the wrapper of each cigar product was analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total nicotine content in the wrapper of each cigar product was computed as the product of cigar wrapper weight and nicotine concentration in wrapper. RESULTS: Depending on the product, the cigar wrapper contributed between 8 and 18% of the weight of the entire cigar article. Total nicotine content in the cigar wrapper ranged from 1.2 to 6.0mg per cigar. DISCUSSION: All 5 tested cigar products had wrappers that contain quantifiable levels of nicotine, indicating that users of blunts may expose themselves to some degree of nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco. Future experimental studies that examine the efficiency of nicotine delivery from typical blunt smoking, as well as surveillance studies that quantify the number of blunts smoked by an individual per day, are needed to evaluate the contribution of blunt smoking to nicotine dependence.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Nicotina/análisis , Productos de Tabaco/análisis , Humanos
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