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1.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(10): 103301, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717413

RESUMEN

We report on the development of multi-beam radio frequency (RF) linear ion accelerators that are formed from stacks of low cost wafers and describe the status of beam power scale-up using an array of 112 beams. The total argon ion current extracted from the 112-beamlet extraction column was 0.5 mA. The measured energy gain in each RF gap reached as high as 7.25 keV. We present a path toward using this technology to achieve ion currents >1 mA and ion energies >100 keV for applications in material processing.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(21): 210505, 2020 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274991

RESUMEN

We report long coherence times (up to 300 ms) for near-surface bismuth donor electron spins in silicon coupled to a superconducting microresonator, biased at a clock transition. This enables us to demonstrate the partial absorption of a train of weak microwave fields in the spin ensemble, their storage for 100 ms, and their retrieval, using a Hahn-echo-like protocol. Phase coherence and quantum statistics are preserved in the storage.

3.
Phys Rev E ; 102(1-1): 013309, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794994

RESUMEN

We develop, after Dellar [Phys. Rev. E. 65, 036309 (2002)10.1103/PhysRevE.65.036309; J. Comput. Phys. 190, 351 (2003)10.1016/S0021-9991(03)00279-1], a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT), chromodynamic, multicomponent lattice Boltzmann equation (MCLBE) scheme for simulation of isothermal, immiscible fluid flow with a density contrast. It is based on Lishchuk's method [Brackbill, Kothe, and Zemach, J. Comp. Phys. 100, 335 (1992)10.1016/0021-9991(92)90240-Y; Lishchuk, Care, and Halliday, Phys. Rev. E. 67, 036701, (2003)10.1103/PhysRevE.76.036701] and the segregation of d'Ortona et al. [Phys. Rev. E. 51, 3718, (1995)10.1103/PhysRevE.51.3718]. We focus on fundamental model verifiability but do relate some of our data to that from previous approaches, due to Ba et al. [Phys. Rev. E 94, 023310 (2016)10.1103/PhysRevE.94.023310] and earlier Liu et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 046309 (2012)10.1103/PhysRevE.85.046309], who pioneered large density difference chromodynamic MCLBE and showed the practical benefits of an MRT collision model. Specifically, we test the extent to which chromodynamic MCLBE MRT schemes comply with the kinematic condition of mutual impenetrability and the continuous traction condition by developing analytical benchmarking flows. We conclude that our data, taken with those of Ba et al., verify the utility of MRT chromodynamic MCLBE.

4.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(5): 053301, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153260

RESUMEN

We report on the calibration of GafChromic HD-v2 radiochromic film in the extremely high dose regime up to 100 kGy together with very high dose rates up to 7 × 1011 Gy/s. The absolute calibration was done with nanosecond ion bunches at the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II particle accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and covers a broad dose dynamic range over three orders of magnitude. We then applied the resulting calibration curve to calibrate a laser driven ion experiment performed on the BELLA petawatt laser facility at LBNL. Here, we reconstructed the spatial and energy resolved distributions of the laser-accelerated proton beams. The resulting proton distribution is in fair agreement with the spectrum that was measured with a Thomson spectrometer in combination with a microchannel plate detector.

5.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 89(10): 103302, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399880

RESUMEN

The interaction of ion beams with matter includes the investigation of the basic principles of ion stopping in heated materials. An unsolved question is the effect of different, especially higher, ion beam fluences on ion stopping in solid targets. This is relevant in applications such as in fusion sciences. To address this question, a Thomson parabola was built for the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX-II) for ion energy-loss measurements at different ion beam fluences. The linear induction accelerator NDCX-II delivers 2 ns short, intense ion pulses, up to several tens of nC/pulse, or 1010-1011 ions, with a peak kinetic energy of ∼1.1 MeV and a minimal spot size of 2 mm FWHM. For this particular accelerator, the energy determination with conventional beam diagnostics, for example, time of flight measurements, is imprecise due to the non-trivial longitudinal phase space of the beam. In contrast, a Thomson parabola is well suited to reliably determine the beam energy distribution. The Thomson parabola differentiates charged particles by energy and charge-to-mass ratio, through deflection of charged particles by electric and magnetic fields. During first proof-of-principle experiments, we achieved to reproduce the average initial helium beam energy as predicted by computer simulations with a deviation of only 1.4%. Successful energy-loss measurements with 1 µm thick silicon nitride foils show the suitability of the accelerator for such experiments. The initial ion energy was determined during a primary measurement without a target, while a second measurement, incorporating the target, was used to determine the transmitted energy. The energy-loss was then determined as the difference between the two energies.

6.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 89(5): 053302, 2018 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864834

RESUMEN

Recently, we presented a new approach for a compact radio-frequency (RF) accelerator structure and demonstrated the functionality of the individual components: acceleration units and focusing elements. In this paper, we combine these units to form a working accelerator structure: a matching section between the ion source extraction grids and the RF-acceleration unit and electrostatic focusing quadrupoles between successive acceleration units. The matching section consists of six electrostatic quadrupoles (ESQs) fabricated using 3D-printing techniques. The matching section enables us to capture more beam current and to match the beam envelope to conditions for stable transport in an acceleration lattice. We present data from an integrated accelerator consisting of the source, matching section, and an ESQ doublet sandwiched between two RF-acceleration units.

7.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 88(6): 063304, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28667999

RESUMEN

A new approach for a compact radio-frequency (RF) accelerator structure is presented. The new accelerator architecture is based on the Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) structure that was first developed in the 1980s. The MEQALAC utilized RF resonators producing the accelerating fields and providing for higher beam currents through parallel beamlets focused using arrays of electrostatic quadrupoles (ESQs). While the early work obtained ESQs with lateral dimensions on the order of a few centimeters, using a printed circuit board (PCB), we reduce the characteristic dimension to the millimeter regime, while massively scaling up the potential number of parallel beamlets. Using Microelectromechanical systems scalable fabrication approaches, we are working on further reducing the characteristic dimension to the sub-millimeter regime. The technology is based on RF-acceleration components and ESQs implemented in the PCB or silicon wafers where each beamlet passes through beam apertures in the wafer. The complete accelerator is then assembled by stacking these wafers. This approach has the potential for fast and inexpensive batch fabrication of the components and flexibility in system design for application specific beam energies and currents. For prototyping the accelerator architecture, the components have been fabricated using the PCB. In this paper, we present proof of concept results of the principal components using the PCB: RF acceleration and ESQ focusing. Ongoing developments on implementing components in silicon and scaling of the accelerator technology to high currents and beam energies are discussed.

8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 88(5): 056105, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28571430

RESUMEN

Tagging of neutrons (2.45 MeV) with their associated 3He particles from deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reactions has been demonstrated in a compact neutron generator setup enabled by a high brightness, microwave-driven ion source with a high fraction of deuterons. Energy spectra with well separated peaks of the D-D fusion reaction products, 3He, tritons, and protons, were measured with a silicon PIN diode. The neutrons were detected using a liquid scintillator detector with pulse shape discrimination. By correlating the 3He detection events with the neutron detection in time, we demonstrated the tagging of emitted neutrons with 3He particles detected with a Si PIN diode detector mounted inside the neutron generator vacuum vessel.

9.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(2): 02B707, 2016 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26932070

RESUMEN

The neutralized drift compression experiment was designed and commissioned as a pulsed, linear induction accelerator to drive thin targets to warm dense matter (WDM) states with peak temperatures of ∼1 eV using intense, short pulses (∼1 ns) of 1.2 MeV lithium ions. At that kinetic energy, heating a thin target foil near the Bragg peak energy using He(+) ions leads to more uniform energy deposition of the target material than Li(+) ions. Experiments show that a higher current density of helium ions can be delivered from a plasma source compared to Li(+) ions from a hot plate type ion source. He(+) beam pulses as high as 200 mA at the peak and 4 µs long were measured from a multi-aperture 7-cm-diameter emission area. Within ±5% variation, the uniform beam area is approximately 6 cm across. The accelerated and compressed pulsed ion beams can be used for materials studies and isochoric heating of target materials for high energy density physics experiments and WDM studies.

10.
Nature ; 531(7592): 74-7, 2016 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26878235

RESUMEN

Spontaneous emission of radiation is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which an excited quantum system returns to equilibrium. For spins, however, spontaneous emission is generally negligible compared to other non-radiative relaxation processes because of the weak coupling between the magnetic dipole and the electromagnetic field. In 1946, Purcell realized that the rate of spontaneous emission can be greatly enhanced by placing the quantum system in a resonant cavity. This effect has since been used extensively to control the lifetime of atoms and semiconducting heterostructures coupled to microwave or optical cavities, and is essential for the realization of high-efficiency single-photon sources. Here we report the application of this idea to spins in solids. By coupling donor spins in silicon to a superconducting microwave cavity with a high quality factor and a small mode volume, we reach the regime in which spontaneous emission constitutes the dominant mechanism of spin relaxation. The relaxation rate is increased by three orders of magnitude as the spins are tuned to the cavity resonance, demonstrating that energy relaxation can be controlled on demand. Our results provide a general way to initialize spin systems into their ground state and therefore have applications in magnetic resonance and quantum information processing. They also demonstrate that the coupling between the magnetic dipole of a spin and the electromagnetic field can be enhanced up to the point at which quantum fluctuations have a marked effect on the spin dynamics; as such, they represent an important step towards the coherent magnetic coupling of individual spins to microwave photons.

11.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 11(3): 253-7, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657787

RESUMEN

The detection and characterization of paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is widely used throughout chemistry, biology and materials science, from in vivo imaging to distance measurements in spin-labelled proteins. ESR relies on the inductive detection of microwave signals emitted by the spins into a coupled microwave resonator during their Larmor precession. However, such signals can be very small, prohibiting the application of ESR at the nanoscale (for example, at the single-cell level or on individual nanoparticles). Here, using a Josephson parametric microwave amplifier combined with high-quality-factor superconducting microresonators cooled at millikelvin temperatures, we improve the state-of-the-art sensitivity of inductive ESR detection by nearly four orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the detection of 1,700 bismuth donor spins in silicon within a single Hahn echo with unit signal-to-noise ratio, reduced to 150 spins by averaging a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. This unprecedented sensitivity reaches the limit set by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field instead of thermal or technical noise, which constitutes a novel regime for magnetic resonance. The detection volume of our resonator is ∼ 0.02 nl, and our approach can be readily scaled down further to improve sensitivity, providing a new versatile toolbox for ESR at the nanoscale.


Asunto(s)
Amplificadores Electrónicos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia por Spin del Electrón/instrumentación , Espectroscopía de Resonancia por Spin del Electrón/métodos , Microquímica/instrumentación , Nanopartículas/análisis , Nanopartículas/química , Aire Acondicionado/instrumentación , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob , Diseño de Equipo , Análisis de Falla de Equipo , Microondas , Miniaturización , Teoría Cuántica , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Relación Señal-Ruido
12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(5): 057601, 2013 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23414045

RESUMEN

We demonstrate an all-electrical donor nuclear spin polarization method in silicon by exploiting the tunable interaction of donor bound electrons with a two-dimensional electron gas, and achieve over two orders of magnitude nuclear hyperpolarization at T=5 K and B=12 T with an in-plane magnetic field. We also show an intricate dependence of nuclear polarization effects on the orientation of the magnetic field, and both hyperpolarization and antipolarization can be controllably achieved in the quantum Hall regime. Our results demonstrate that donor nuclear spin qubits can be initialized through local gate control of electrical currents without the need for optical excitation, enabling the implementation of nuclear spin qubit initialization in dense multiqubit arrays.

13.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 83(2): 02A718, 2012 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22380227

RESUMEN

A baseline H(-) ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) system have been identified for Project X. The filament-discharge H(-) ion source has been fabricated by D-Pace, Inc. and is now in operation at LBNL. The source is capable of delivering over 10 mA of H(-) beam in cw operation with normalized 4 rms emittances less than 0.7 π mm mrad. A two-solenoid magnetic lens LEBT system has been design. The design has been validated with simulations of beam transport for 5 mA 30 keV H(-) beams using various simulation codes.

14.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 83(2): 02B309, 2012 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22380288

RESUMEN

Penning ion source performance for neutron generator applications is characterized by the atomic ion fraction and beam current density, providing two paths by which source performance can be improved for increased neutron yields. We have fabricated a Penning ion source to investigate novel methods for improving source performance, including optimization of wall materials and electrode geometry, advanced magnetic confinement, and integration of field emitter arrays for electron injection. Effects of several electrode geometries on discharge characteristics and extracted ion current were studied. Additional magnetic confinement resulted in a factor of two increase in beam current density. First results indicate unchanged proton fraction and increased beam current density due to electron injection from carbon nanofiber arrays.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 106(20): 207601, 2011 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21668263

RESUMEN

We have measured the electrically detected magnetic resonance of donor-doped silicon field-effect transistors in resonant X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) microwave cavities. The two-dimensional electron gas resonance signal increases by 2 orders of magnitude from X to W band, while the donor resonance signals are enhanced by over 1 order of magnitude. Bolometric effects and spin-dependent scattering are inconsistent with the observations. We propose that polarization transfer from the donor to the two-dimensional electron gas is the main mechanism giving rise to the spin resonance signals.

16.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 82(3): 034704, 2011 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21456773

RESUMEN

We describe a low-temperature sample probe for the electrical detection of magnetic resonance in a resonant W-band (94 GHz) microwave cavity. The advantages of this approach are demonstrated by experiments on silicon field-effect transistors. A comparison with conventional low-frequency measurements at X-band (9.7 GHz) on the same devices reveals an up to 100-fold enhancement of the signal intensity. In addition, resonance lines that are unresolved at X-band are clearly separated in the W-band measurements. Electrically detected magnetic resonance at high magnetic fields and high microwave frequencies is therefore a very sensitive technique for studying electron spins with an enhanced spectral resolution and sensitivity.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 101(11): 117601, 2008 Sep 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18851332

RESUMEN

We use single-spin resonant spectroscopy to study the spin structure in the orbital excited state of a diamond nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) center at room temperature. The data show that the excited-state spin levels have a zero-field splitting that is approximately half of the value of the ground state levels, a g factor similar to the ground state value, and a hyperfine splitting approximately 20x larger than in the ground state. In addition, the width of the resonances reflects the electronic lifetime in the excited state. We also show that the spin level splitting can significantly differ between N-V centers, likely due to the effects of local strain, which provides a pathway to control over the spin Hamiltonian and may be useful for quantum-information processing.

18.
Nano Lett ; 5(6): 1087-91, 2005 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15943448

RESUMEN

We report the integration of a scanning force microscope with ion beams. The scanning probe images surface structures non-invasively and aligns the ion beam to regions of interest. The ion beam is transported through a hole in the scanning probe tip. Piezoresistive force sensors allow placement of micromachined cantilevers close to the ion beam lens. Scanning probe imaging and alignment is demonstrated in a vacuum chamber coupled to the ion beam line. Dot arrays are formed by ion implantation in resist layers on silicon samples with dot diameters limited by the hole size in the probe tips of a few hundred nm.


Asunto(s)
Microscopía de Fuerza Atómica/métodos , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo/métodos , Bismuto/química , Electrones , Iones , Nanotecnología/métodos , Aceleradores de Partículas , Silicio/química
19.
Ultramicroscopy ; 101(2-4): 225-9, 2004 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15450667

RESUMEN

A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the time-of-flight (T-O-F) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun-enhanced HCI microscope are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Iones/química , Microscopía Electrónica , Propiedades de Superficie , Microscopía Electrónica/métodos , Semiconductores , Análisis Espectral/métodos
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