Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(1): e005902, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931615

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite cardiac rehabilitation (CR) being shown to improve health outcomes among patients with heart disease, its use has been suboptimal. In response, the Million Hearts Cardiac Rehabilitation Collaborative developed a road map to improve CR use, including increasing participation rates to ≥70% by 2022. This observational study provides current estimates to measure progress and identifies the populations and regions most at risk for CR service underutilization. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries who were CR eligible in 2016, and assessed CR participation (≥1 CR session attended), timely initiation (participation within 21 days of event), and completion (≥36 sessions attended) through 2017. Measures were assessed overall, by beneficiary characteristics and geography, and by primary CR-qualifying event type (acute myocardial infarction hospitalization; coronary artery bypass surgery; heart valve repair/replacement; percutaneous coronary intervention; or heart/heart-lung transplant). Among 366 103 CR-eligible beneficiaries, 89 327 (24.4%) participated in CR, of whom 24.3% initiated within 21 days and 26.9% completed CR. Eligibility was highest in the East South Central Census Division (14.8 per 1000). Participation decreased with increasing age, was lower among women (18.9%) compared with men (28.6%; adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.91 [95% CI, 0.90-0.93]) was lower among Hispanics (13.2%) and non-Hispanic blacks (13.6%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (25.8%; adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.63 [0.61-0.66] and 0.70 [0.67-0.72], respectively), and varied by hospital referral region and Census Division (range: 18.6% [East South Central] to 39.1% [West North Central]) and by qualifying event type (range: 7.1% [acute myocardial infarction without procedure] to 55.3% [coronary artery bypass surgery only]). Timely initiation varied by geography and qualifying event type; completion varied by geography. CONCLUSIONS: Only 1 in 4 CR-eligible Medicare beneficiaries participated in CR and marked disparities were observed. Reinforcement of current effective strategies and development of new strategies will be critical to address the noted disparities and achieve the 70% participation goal.

2.
Stroke ; 50(12): 3355-3359, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694505

RESUMEN

Background and Purpose- Recent national and state-level trends show a stalling or reversal of previously declining stroke death rates. These national trends may mask local geographic variation and changes in stroke mortality. We assessed county-level trends in stroke mortality among adults aged 35 to 64 and ≥65 years. Methods- We used data from National Vital Statistics Systems and a Bayesian multivariate space-time conditional autoregressive model to estimate age-standardized annual stroke death rates for 2010 through 2016 among middle-aged adults (35-64 years) and older adults (≥65 years) in US counties. We used log-linear regression models to estimate average annual and total percent change in stroke mortality during the period. Results- Nationally, the annual percent change in stroke mortality from 2010 to 2016 was -0.7% (95% CI, -4.2% to 3.0%) among middle-aged adults and -3.5% (95% CI, -10.7% to 4.3%) among older adults, resulting in 2016 rates of 15.0 per 100 000 and 259.8 per 100 000, respectively. Increasing county-level stroke mortality was more prevalent among middle-aged adults (56.6% of counties) compared with among older adults (26.1% of counties). About half (48.3%) of middle-aged adults, representing 60.2 million individuals, lived in counties in which stroke mortality increased. Conclusions- County-level increases in stroke mortality clarify previously reported national and state-level trends, particularly among middle-aged adults. Roughly 3×as many counties experienced increases in stroke death rates for middle-aged adults compared with older adults. This highlights a need to address stroke prevention and treatment for middle-aged adults while continuing efforts to reduce stroke mortality among the more highly burdened older adults. Efforts to reverse these troubling local trends will likely require joint public health and clinical efforts to develop innovative and integrated approaches for stroke prevention and care, with a focus on community-level characteristics that support stroke-free living for all.

3.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 68(10): 1-11, 2019 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697657

RESUMEN

PROBLEM/CONDITION: A 2017 report quantified the higher percentage of potentially excess (or preventable) deaths in nonmetropolitan areas (often referred to as rural areas) compared with metropolitan areas. In that report, CDC compared national, regional, and state estimates of potentially excess deaths among the five leading causes of death in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties for 2010 and 2014. This report enhances the geographic detail by using the six levels of the 2013 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) urban-rural classification scheme for counties and extending estimates of potentially excess deaths by annual percent change (APC) and for additional years (2010-2017). Trends were tested both with linear and quadratic terms. PERIOD COVERED: 2010-2017. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Mortality data for U.S. residents from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes of death among persons aged <80 years. CDC's NCHS urban-rural classification scheme for counties was used to categorize the deaths according to the urban-rural county classification level of the decedent's county of residence (1: large central metropolitan [most urban], 2: large fringe metropolitan, 3: medium metropolitan, 4: small metropolitan, 5: micropolitan, and 6: noncore [most rural]). Potentially excess deaths were defined as deaths among persons aged <80 years that exceeded the number expected if the death rates for each cause in all states were equivalent to those in the benchmark states (i.e., the three states with the lowest rates). Potentially excess deaths were calculated separately for the six urban-rural county categories nationally, the 10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services public health regions, and the 50 states and District of Columbia. RESULTS: The number of potentially excess deaths among persons aged <80 years in the United States increased during 2010-2017 for unintentional injuries (APC: 11.2%), decreased for cancer (APC: -9.1%), and remained stable for heart disease (APC: 1.1%), chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) (APC: 1.7%), and stroke (APC: 0.3). Across the United States, percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes were higher in nonmetropolitan counties in all years during 2010-2017. When assessed by the six urban-rural county classifications, percentages of potentially excess deaths in the most rural counties (noncore) were consistently higher than in the most urban counties (large central metropolitan) for the study period. Potentially excess deaths from heart disease increased most in micropolitan counties (APC: 2.5%) and decreased most in large fringe metropolitan counties (APC: -1.1%). Potentially excess deaths from cancer decreased in all county categories, with the largest decreases in large central metropolitan (APC: -16.1%) and large fringe metropolitan (APC: -15.1%) counties. In all county categories, potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes increased, with the largest increases occurring in large central metropolitan (APC: 18.3%), large fringe metropolitan (APC: 17.1%), and medium metropolitan (APC: 11.1%) counties. Potentially excess deaths from CLRD decreased most in large central metropolitan counties (APC: -5.6%) and increased most in micropolitan (APC: 3.7%) and noncore (APC: 3.6%) counties. In all county categories, potentially excess deaths from stroke exhibited a quadratic trend (i.e., decreased then increased), except in micropolitan counties, where no change occurred. Percentages of potentially excess deaths also differed among and within public health regions and across states by urban-rural county classification during 2010-2017. INTERPRETATION: Nonmetropolitan counties had higher percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes than metropolitan counties during 2010-2017 nationwide, across public health regions, and in the majority of states. The gap between the most rural and most urban counties for potentially excess deaths increased during 2010-2017 for three causes of death (cancer, heart disease, and CLRD), decreased for unintentional injury, and remained relatively stable for stroke. Urban and suburban counties (large central metropolitan and large fringe metropolitan, medium metropolitan, and small metropolitan) experienced increases in potentially excess deaths from unintentional injury during 2010-2017, leading to a narrower gap between the already high (approximately 55%) percentage of excess deaths in noncore and micropolitan counties. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: Routine tracking of potentially excess deaths by urban-rural county classification might help public health departments and decision-makers identify and monitor public health problems and focus interventions to reduce potentially excess deaths in these areas.

4.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E38, 2019 03 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925140

RESUMEN

Accurate and precise estimates of local-level epidemiologic measures are critical to informing policy and program decisions, but they often require advanced statistical knowledge, programming/coding skills, and extensive computing power. In response, we developed the Rate Stabilizing Tool (RST), an ArcGIS-based tool that enables users to input their own record-level data to generate more reliable age-standardized measures of chronic disease (eg, prevalence rates, mortality rates) or other population health outcomes at the county or census tract levels. The RST uses 2 forms of empirical Bayesian modeling (nonspatial and spatial) to estimate age-standardized rates and 95% credible intervals for user-specified geographic units. The RST also provides indicators of the reliability of point estimates. In addition to reviewing the RST's statistical techniques, we present results from a simulation study that illustrates the key benefit of smoothing. We demonstrate the dramatic reduction in root mean-squared error (rMSE), indicating a better compromise between accuracy and stability for both smoothing approaches relative to the unsmoothed estimates. Finally, we provide an example of the RST's use. This example uses heart disease mortality data for North Carolina census tracts to map the RST output, including reliability of estimates, and demonstrates a subsequent statistical test.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Modelos Estadísticos , Análisis Espacial , Factores de Edad , Teorema de Bayes , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Cardiopatías/mortalidad , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
5.
SSM Popul Health ; 7: 100334, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581967

RESUMEN

A holistic view of racial and gender disparities that simultaneously compares multiple groups can suggest associated underlying contextual factors. Therefore, to more comprehensively understand temporal changes in combined racial and gender disparities, we examine variations in the orders of county-level race-gender specific heart disease death rates by age group from 1973-2015. We estimated county-level heart disease death rates by race, gender, and age group (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, ≥ 85, and ≥ 35) from the National Vital Statistics System of the National Center for Health Statistics from 1973-2015. We then ordered these rates from lowest to highest for each county and year. The predominant national rate order (i.e., white women (WW) < black women (BW) < white men (WM) < black men (BM)) was most common in younger age groups. Inverted rates for black women and white men (WW

6.
Soc Sci Med ; 217: 97-105, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300762

RESUMEN

One hypothesized explanation for the recent slowing of declines in heart disease death rates is the generational shift in the timing and accumulation of risk factors. However, directly testing this hypothesis requires historical age-group-specific risk factor data that do not exist. Using national death records, we compared spatiotemporal patterns of heart disease death rates by age group, time period, and birth cohort to provide insight into possible drivers of trends. To do this, we calculated county-level percent change for five time periods (1973-1980, 1980-1990, 1990-2000, 2000-2010, 2010-2015) for four age groups (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74), resulting in eight birth cohorts for each decade from the 1900s through the 1970s. From 1973 through 1990, few counties experienced increased heart disease death rates. In 1990-2000, 49.0% of counties for ages 35-44 were increasing, while all other age groups continued to decrease. In 2000-2010, heart disease death rates for ages 45-54 increased in 30.4% of counties. In 2010-2015, all four age groups showed widespread increasing county-level heart disease death rates. Likewise, birth cohorts from the 1900s through the 1930s experienced consistently decreasing heart disease death rates in almost all counties. Similarly, with the exception of 2010-2015, most counties experienced decreases for the 1940s birth cohort. For birth cohorts in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, increases were common and geographically widespread for all age groups and calendar years. This analysis revealed variation in trends across age groups and across counties. However, trends in heart disease death rates tended to be generally decreasing and increasing for early and late birth cohorts, respectively. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that recent increases in heart disease mortality stem from the beginnings of the obesity and diabetes epidemics. However, the common geographic patterns within the earliest and latest time periods support the importance of place-based macro-level factors.


Asunto(s)
Cardiopatías/epidemiología , Cardiopatías/mortalidad , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad/tendencias , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 67(5): 1-11, 2018 03 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596406

RESUMEN

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. In 2015, heart disease accounted for approximately 630,000 deaths, representing one in four deaths in the United States. Although heart disease death rates decreased 68% for the total population from 1968 to 2015, marked disparities in decreases exist by race and state. PERIOD COVERED: 1968-2015. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data on deaths in the United States were abstracted for heart disease using diagnosis codes from the eighth, ninth, and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10) for 1968-2015. Population estimates were obtained from NVSS files. National and state-specific heart disease death rates for the total population and by race for adults aged ≥35 years were calculated for 1968-2015. National and state-specific black-white heart disease mortality ratios also were calculated. Death rates were age standardized to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Joinpoint regression was used to perform time trend analyses. RESULTS: From 1968 to 2015, heart disease death rates decreased for the total U.S. population among adults aged ≥35 years, from 1,034.5 to 327.2 per 100,000 population, respectively, with variations in the magnitude of decreases by race and state. Rates decreased for the total population an average of 2.4% per year, with greater average decreases among whites (2.4% per year) than blacks (2.2% per year). At the national level, heart disease death rates for blacks and whites were similar at the start of the study period (1968) but began to diverge in the late 1970s, when rates for blacks plateaued while rates for whites continued to decrease. Heart disease death rates among blacks remained higher than among whites for the remainder of the study period. Nationwide, the black-white ratio of heart disease death rates increased from 1.04 in 1968 to 1.21 in 2015, with large increases occurring during the 1970s and 1980s followed by small but steady increases until approximately 2005. Since 2005, modest decreases have occurred in the black-white ratio of heart disease death rates at the national level. The majority of states had increases in black-white mortality ratios from 1968 to 2015. The number of states with black-white mortality ratios >1 increased from 16 (40%) to 27 (67.5%). INTERPRETATION: Although heart disease death rates decreased both for blacks and whites from 1968 to 2015, substantial differences in decreases were found by race and state. At the national level and in most states, blacks experienced smaller decreases in heart disease death rates than whites for the majority of the period. Overall, the black-white disparity in heart disease death rates increased from 1968 to 2005, with a modest decrease from 2005 to 2015. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: Since 1968, substantial increases have occurred in black-white disparities of heart disease death rates in the United States at the national level and in many states. These increases appear to be due to faster decreases in heart disease death rates for whites than blacks, particularly from the late 1970s until the mid-2000s. Despite modest decreases in black-white disparities at the national level since 2005, in 2015, heart disease death rates were 21% higher among blacks than among whites. This study demonstrates the use of NVSS data to conduct surveillance of heart disease death rates by race and of black-white disparities in heart disease death rates. Continued surveillance of temporal trends in heart disease death rates by race can provide valuable information to policy makers and public health practitioners working to reduce heart disease death rates both for blacks and whites and disparities between blacks and whites.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Cardiopatías/etnología , Cardiopatías/mortalidad , Adulto , Causas de Muerte , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(35): 933-939, 2017 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880858

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The prominent decline in U.S. stroke death rates observed for more than 4 decades has slowed in recent years. CDC examined trends and patterns in recent stroke death rates among U.S. adults aged ≥35 years by age, sex, race/ethnicity, state, and census region. METHODS: Trends in the rates of stroke as the underlying cause of death during 2000-2015 were analyzed using data from the National Vital Statistics System. Joinpoint software was used to identify trends in stroke death rates, and the excess number of stroke deaths resulting from unfavorable changes in trends was estimated. RESULTS: Among adults aged ≥35 years, age-standardized stroke death rates declined 38%, from 118.4 per 100,000 persons in 2000 to 73.3 per 100,000 persons in 2015. The annual percent change (APC) in stroke death rates changed from 2000 to 2015, from a 3.4% decrease per year during 2000-2003, to a 6.6% decrease per year during 2003-2006, a 3.1% decrease per year during 2006-2013, and a 2.5% (nonsignificant) increase per year during 2013-2015. The last trend segment indicated a reversal from a decrease to a statistically significant increase among Hispanics (APC = 5.8%) and among persons in the South Census Region (APC = 4.2%). Declines in stroke death rates failed to continue in 38 states, and during 2013-2015, an estimated 32,593 excess stroke deaths might not have occurred if the previous rate of decline could have been sustained. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Prior declines in stroke death rates have not continued in recent years, and substantial variations exist in timing and magnitude of change by demographic and geographic characteristics. These findings suggest the importance of strategically identifying opportunities for prevention and intervening in vulnerable populations, especially because effective and underused interventions to prevent stroke incidence and death are known to exist.


Asunto(s)
Accidente Cerebrovascular/mortalidad , Estadísticas Vitales , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad/tendencias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(36): 967-76, 2016 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27632693

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Nonadherence to taking prescribed antihypertensive medication (antihypertensive) regimens has been identified as a leading cause of poor blood pressure control among persons with hypertension and an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes. CDC and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services analyzed geographic, racial-ethnic, and other disparities in nonadherence to antihypertensives among Medicare Part D beneficiaries in 2014. METHODS: Antihypertensive nonadherence, defined as a proportion of days a beneficiary was covered with antihypertensives of <80%, was assessed using prescription drug claims data among Medicare Advantage or Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged ≥65 years with Medicare Part D coverage during 2014 (N = 18.5 million). Analyses were stratified by antihypertensive class, beneficiaries' state and county of residence, type of prescription drug plan, and treatment and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Overall, 26.3% (4.9 million) of Medicare Part D beneficiaries using antihypertensives were nonadherent to their regimen. Nonadherence differed by multiple factors, including medication class (range: 16.9% for angiotensin II receptor blockers to 28.9% for diuretics); race-ethnicity (24.3% for non-Hispanic whites, 26.3% for Asian/Pacific Islanders, 33.8% for Hispanics, 35.7% for blacks, and 38.8% for American Indians/Alaska Natives); and state of residence (range 18.7% for North Dakota to 33.7% for the District of Columbia). Considerable county-level variation in nonadherence was found; the highest nonadherence tended to occur in the southern United States (U.S. Census region nonadherence = 28.9% [South], 26.7% [West], 24.1% [Northeast], and 22.8% [Midwest]) CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: More than one in four Medicare Part D beneficiaries using antihypertensives were nonadherent to their regimen, and certain racial/ethnic groups, states, and geographic areas were at increased risk for nonadherence. These findings can help inform focused interventions among these groups, which might improve blood pressure control and cardiovascular disease outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Medicare Part D/estadística & datos numéricos , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Hipertensión/etnología , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/etnología , Estados Unidos
10.
Public Health Rep ; 131(3): 438-48, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27252564

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Many cardiovascular deaths can be avoided through primary prevention to address cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors or better access to quality medical care. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between four county-level health factors and rates of avoidable death from CVD during 2006-2010. METHODS: We defined avoidable deaths from CVD as deaths among U.S. residents younger than 75 years of age caused by the following underlying conditions, using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes: ischemic heart disease (I20-I25), chronic rheumatic heart disease (I05-I09), hypertensive disease (I10-I15), or cerebrovascular disease (I60-I69). We stratified county-level death rates by race (non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black) and age-standardized them to the 2000 U.S. standard population. We used County Health Rankings data to rank county-level z scores corresponding to four health factors: health behavior, clinical care, social and economic factors, and physical environment. We used Poisson rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to compare rates of avoidable death from CVD by health-factor quartile. RESULTS: In a comparison of worst-ranked and best-ranked counties, social and economic factors had the strongest association with rates of avoidable death per 100,000 population from CVD for the total population (RR=1.49; 95% CI 1.39, 1.60) and for each racial/ethnic group (non-Hispanic white: RR=1.37; 95% CI 1.29, 1.45; non-Hispanic black: RR=1.54; 95% CI 1.42, 1.67). Among the non-Hispanic white population, health behaviors had the next strongest association, followed by clinical care. Among the non-Hispanic black population, we observed a significant association with clinical care and physical environment in a comparison of worst-ranked and best-ranked counties. CONCLUSION: Social and economic factors have the strongest association with rates of avoidable death from CVD by county, which reinforces the importance of social and economic interventions to address geographic disparities in avoidable deaths from CVD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Gobierno Local , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución de Poisson , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
Circulation ; 133(12): 1171-80, 2016 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27002081

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although many studies have documented the dramatic declines in heart disease mortality in the United States at the national level, little attention has been given to the temporal changes in the geographic patterns of heart disease mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Age-adjusted and spatially smoothed county-level heart disease death rates were calculated for 2-year intervals from 1973 to 1974 to 2009 to 2010 for those aged ≥35 years. Heart disease deaths were defined according to the International Classification of Diseases codes for diseases of the heart in the eighth, ninth, and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases. A fully Bayesian spatiotemporal model was used to produce precise rate estimates, even in counties with small populations. A substantial shift in the concentration of high-rate counties from the Northeast to the Deep South was observed, along with a concentration of slow-decline counties in the South and a nearly 2-fold increase in the geographic inequality among counties. CONCLUSIONS: The dramatic change in the geographic patterns of heart disease mortality during 40 years highlights the importance of small-area surveillance to reveal patterns that are hidden at the national level, gives communities the historical context for understanding their current burden of heart disease, and provides important clues for understanding the determinants of the geographic disparities in heart disease mortality.


Asunto(s)
Cardiopatías/mortalidad , Adulto , Anciano , Teorema de Bayes , Femenino , Geografía Médica , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Teóricos , Mortalidad/tendencias , Vigilancia de la Población , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 12: E43, 2015 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25837256

RESUMEN

Excess sodium intake correlates positively with high blood pressure. Blood pressure varies by region, but whether sodium content of foods sold varies across regions is unknown. We combined nutrition and sales data from 2009 to assess the regional variation of sodium in packaged food products sold in 3 of the 9 US census divisions. Although sodium density and concentration differed little by region, fewer than half of selected food products met Food and Drug Administration sodium-per-serving conditions for labeling as "healthy." Regional differences in hypertension were not reflected in differences in the sodium content of packaged foods from grocery stores.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiquetado de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Embalaje de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Sodio en la Dieta/análisis , Censos , Comercio , Bases de Datos Factuales , Dieta/normas , Alimentos/clasificación , Etiquetado de Alimentos/normas , Embalaje de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Política Nutricional , Factores de Riesgo , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Estados Unidos
14.
Ann Epidemiol ; 25(5): 329-335.e3, 2015 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25776848

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To demonstrate the implications of choosing analytical methods for quantifying spatiotemporal trends, we compare the assumptions, implementation, and outcomes of popular methods using county-level heart disease mortality in the United States between 1973 and 2010. METHODS: We applied four regression-based approaches (joinpoint regression, both aspatial and spatial generalized linear mixed models, and Bayesian space-time model) and compared resulting inferences for geographic patterns of local estimates of annual percent change and associated uncertainty. RESULTS: The average local percent change in heart disease mortality from each method was -4.5%, with the Bayesian model having the smallest range of values. The associated uncertainty in percent change differed markedly across the methods, with the Bayesian space-time model producing the narrowest range of variance (0.0-0.8). The geographic pattern of percent change was consistent across methods with smaller declines in the South Central United States and larger declines in the Northeast and Midwest. However, the geographic patterns of uncertainty differed markedly between methods. CONCLUSIONS: The similarity of results, including geographic patterns, for magnitude of percent change across these methods validates the underlying spatial pattern of declines in heart disease mortality. However, marked differences in degree of uncertainty indicate that Bayesian modeling offers substantially more precise estimates.


Asunto(s)
Causas de Muerte , Geografía , Cardiopatías/mortalidad , Análisis Espacial , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Teorema de Bayes , Ambiente , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Cardiopatías/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Sexuales , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Análisis de Supervivencia , Estados Unidos
15.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 11: E70, 2014 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24784906

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: High sodium intake and low potassium intake, which can contribute to hypertension and risk of cardiovascular disease, may be related to the availability of healthful food in neighborhood stores. Despite evidence linking food environment with diet quality, this relationship has not been evaluated in the United States. The modified retail food environment index (mRFEI) provides a composite measure of the retail food environment and represents the percentage of healthful-food vendors within a 0.5 mile buffer of a census tract. METHODS: We analyzed data from 8,779 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008. By using linear regression, we assessed the relationship between mRFEI and sodium intake, potassium intake, and the sodium-potassium ratio. Models were stratified by region (South and non-South) and included participant and neighborhood characteristics. RESULTS: In the non-South region, higher mRFEI scores (indicating a more healthful food environment) were not associated with sodium intake, were positively associated with potassium intake (P [trend] = .005), and were negatively associated with the sodium-potassium ratio (P [trend] = .02); these associations diminished when neighborhood characteristics were included, but remained close to statistical significance for potassium intake (P [trend] = .05) and sodium-potassium ratio (P [trend] = .07). In the South, mRFEI scores were not associated with sodium intake, were negatively associated with potassium intake (P [trend] = < .001), and were positively associated with sodium-potassium ratio (P [trend] = .01). These associations also diminished after controlling for neighborhood characteristics for both potassium intake (P [trend] = .03) and sodium-potassium ratio (P [trend] = .40). CONCLUSION: We found no association between mRFEI and sodium intake. The association between mRFEI and potassium intake and the sodium-potassium ratio varied by region. National strategies to reduce sodium in the food supply may be most effective to reduce sodium intake. Strategies aimed at the local level should consider regional context and neighborhood characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Conducta Alimentaria , Potasio , Sodio , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Características de la Residencia , Adulto Joven
16.
Am J Public Health ; 104 Suppl 3: S368-76, 2014 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24754653

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated trends and disparities in stroke death rates for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and White people by Indian Health Service region. METHODS: We identified stroke deaths among AI/AN persons and Whites (adults aged 35 years or older) using National Vital Statistics System data for 1990 to 2009. We used linkages with Indian Health Service patient registration data to adjust for misclassification of race for AI/AN persons. Analyses excluded Hispanics and focused on Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. RESULTS: Stroke death rates among AI/AN individuals were higher than among Whites for both men and women in CHSDA counties and were highest in the youngest age groups. Rates and AI/AN:White rate ratios varied by region, with the highest in Alaska and the lowest in the Southwest. Stroke death rates among AI/AN persons decreased in all regions beginning in 2001. CONCLUSIONS: Although stroke death rates among AI/AN populations have decreased over time, rates are still higher for AI/AN persons than for Whites. Interventions that address reducing stroke risk factors, increasing awareness of stroke symptoms, and increasing access to specialty care for stroke may be more successful at reducing disparities in stroke death rates.


Asunto(s)
Indios Norteamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Inuits/estadística & datos numéricos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etnología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/mortalidad , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alaska/epidemiología , Alaska/etnología , Certificado de Defunción , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
17.
Chest ; 146(2): 476-495, 2014 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24700091

RESUMEN

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an uncommon but progressive condition, and much of what we know about it comes from specialized disease registries. With expanding research into the diagnosis and treatment of PH, it is important to provide updated surveillance on the impact of this disease on hospitalizations and mortality. This study, which builds on previous PH surveillance of mortality and hospitalization, analyzed mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System and data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey between 2001 and 2010. PH deaths were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes I27.0, I27.2, I27.8, or I27.9 as any contributing cause of death on the death certificate. Hospital discharges associated with PH were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 416.0, 416.8, or 416.9 as one of up to seven listed medical diagnoses. The decline in death rates associated with PH among men from 1980 to 2005 has reversed and now shows a significant increasing trend. Similarly, the death rates for women with PH have continued to increase significantly during the past decade. PH-associated mortality rates for those aged 85 years and older have accelerated compared with rates for younger age groups. There have been significant declines in PH-associated mortality rates for those with pulmonary embolism and emphysema. Rates of hospitalization for PH have increased significantly for both men and women during the past decade; for those aged 85 years and older, hospitalization rates have nearly doubled. Continued surveillance helps us understand and address the evolving trends in hospitalization and mortality associated with PH and PH-associated conditions, especially regarding sex, age, and race/ethnicity disparities.


Asunto(s)
Predicción , Hipertensión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Morbilidad/tendencias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia/tendencias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
Am J Public Health ; 104 Suppl 3: S359-67, 2014 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24754556

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated heart disease death rates among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and Whites after improving identification of AI/AN populations. METHODS: Indian Health Service (IHS) registration data were linked to the National Death Index for 1990 to 2009 to identify deaths among AI/AN persons aged 35 years and older with heart disease listed as the underlying cause of death (UCOD) or 1 of multiple causes of death (MCOD). We restricted analyses to IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Areas and to non-Hispanic populations. RESULTS: Heart disease death rates were higher among AI/AN persons than Whites from 1999 to 2009 (1.21 times for UCOD, 1.30 times for MCOD). Disparities were highest in younger age groups and in the Northern Plains, but lowest in the East and Southwest. In AI/AN persons, MCOD rates were 84% higher than UCOD rates. From 1990 to 2009, UCOD rates declined among Whites, but only declined significantly among AI/AN persons after 2003. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis with improved race identification indicated that AI/AN populations experienced higher heart disease death rates than Whites. Better prevention and more effective care of heart disease is needed for AI/AN populations.


Asunto(s)
Cardiopatías/etnología , Cardiopatías/mortalidad , Indios Norteamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Inuits/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alaska/epidemiología , Causas de Muerte , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
19.
Public Health Rep ; 129(1): 8-18, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24381355

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Hypertension as the primary reason for hospitalization is often used to indicate failure of the outpatient health-care system to prevent and control high blood pressure. Investigators have reported increased rates of these preventable hospitalizations for black people compared with white people; however, none have mapped them nationally by race. METHODS: We used Medicare Part A data to estimate preventable hypertension hospitalizations from 2004-2009 using technical specifications published by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Rates per 100,000 beneficiaries were age- and sex-standardized to 2000 U.S. Census data. We mapped county-level rates by race and identified clusters of counties with extreme rates. RESULTS: Black people had higher crude rates of these hospitalizations than white people for every year studied, and the test for an increasing linear time trend for the standardized rates was significant for both black and white people; that is, the gap between the races increased over time. For both races, clusters of high-rate counties occurred primarily in parts of Oklahoma, Texas, Southern Alabama, and Louisiana. High rates for white people were also found in parts of Appalachia. Large differences in rates among black and white people were found in a number of large urban areas and in parts of Florida and Alabama. CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in preventable hospitalizations for hypertension persisted through 2009. The gap between black and white people is increasing, and these inequities exist unevenly across the country. Although this study was intended to be purely descriptive, future studies should use multivariate analyses to examine reasons for these unequal distributions.


Asunto(s)
Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Geografía Médica , Humanos , Hipertensión/etnología , Masculino , Medicare , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 10: E100, 2013 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23786907

RESUMEN

Techniques based on geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely adopted and applied in the fields of infectious disease and environmental epidemiology; their use in chronic disease programs is relatively new. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention is collaborating with the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors and the University of Michigan to provide health departments with capacity to integrate GIS into daily operations, which support priorities for surveillance and prevention of chronic diseases. So far, 19 state and 7 local health departments participated in this project. On the basis of these participants' experiences, we describe our training strategy and identify high-impact GIS skills that can be mastered and applied over a short time in support of chronic disease surveillance. We also describe the web-based resources in the Chronic Disease GIS Exchange that were produced on the basis of this training and are available to anyone interested in GIS and chronic disease (www.cdc.gov/DHDSP/maps/GISX). GIS offers diverse sets of tools that promise increased productivity for chronic disease staff of state and local health departments.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Creación de Capacidad , Humanos , Gobierno Local , Gobierno Estatal
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA