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1.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 15(3): 293-301, 2020 May 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227088

RESUMEN

Social relationships are a crucial determinant of both mental and physical health. This effect is partly due to social buffering of stress. Animal studies suggest that social buffering is mediated via the oxytocin system, while studies in humans are sparse and limited by the low ecological validity of laboratory settings. In the present study, participants (N = 326) completed smartphone questionnaires four times a day over 4 to 5 days, measuring stressors, negative affect, and social context to assess social buffering. We found that under stress, participants reported a higher need for social company. Further, the impact of prior stressful events on momentary negative affect was attenuated by the perceived pleasantness of current social company. This social buffering effect was moderated by haplotypes of the oxytocin receptor gene, based on two well-described single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2268498, rs53576). Effects were robust when controlling for gender and age, applying different data quality criteria, and even apparent in genotype-based analyses. Our findings demonstrate that social buffering and its modulation by oxytocin system characteristics have implications for life as lived outside the laboratory.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3618, 2020 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108148

RESUMEN

To determine the relationship between psychological stress with cognitive outcomes in a multi-centre longitudinal study of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) we assessed three parameters of psychological stress (Recent Life Changes Questionnaire (RLCQ); the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and salivary cortisol) and their relationship with rates of cognitive decline over an 18 month follow up period and conversion to dementia over a 5.5 year period. In 133 aMCI and 68 cognitively intact participants the PSS score was higher in the aMCI compared with control group but neither the RLCQ scores nor salivary cortisol measures were different between groups. In the aMCI group the RLCQ and the PSS showed no significant association with cognitive function at baseline, cognitive decline or with conversion rates to dementia but high salivary cortisol levels were associated with RLCQ scores and poorer cognitive function at baseline and lower rates of cognitive decline. No relationship was found between salivary cortisol levels and conversion rate to dementia. We conclude that psychological stress as measured by the RLCQ or PSS was not associated with adverse cognitive outcomes in an aMCI population and hypothesise that this may reflect diminished cortisol production to psychological stress as the disease progresses.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026473

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Using data from the English & Romanian Adoptees (ERA) study, we recently reported that early time-limited exposure to severe institutional deprivation is associated with early-onset and persistent neurodevelopmental problems and later-onset emotional problems. Here, we examine possible reasons for the late emergence of emotional problems in this cohort. Our main focus is on testing a developmental cascade mediated via the functional impact of early-appearing neurodevelopmental problems on late adolescent functioning. We also explore a second putative pathway via sensitization to stress. METHODS: The ERA study includes 165 Romanian individuals who spent their early lives in grossly depriving institutions and were subsequently adopted into UK families, along with 52 UK adoptees with no history of deprivation. Age six years symptoms of neurodevelopmental problems and age 15 anxiety/depression symptoms were assessed via parental reports. Young adult symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed by both parent and self-reports; young adults also completed measures of stress reactivity, exposure to adverse life events, and functioning in work and interpersonal relationships. RESULTS: The path between early institutional deprivation and adult emotional problems was mediated via the impact of early neurodevelopmental problems on unemployment and poor friendship functioning during the transition to adulthood. The findings with regard to early deprivation, later life stress reactivity, and emotional problems were inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that the risk for adult depression and anxiety following extreme institutional deprivation is explained through the effects of early neurodevelopmental problems on later social and vocational functioning. Future research should more fully examine the role of stress susceptibility in this model.

4.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(10): e13978, 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670692

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The mobile phone app, TrackYourStress (TYS), is a new crowdsensing mobile health platform for ecological momentary assessments of perceived stress levels. OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study, we aimed to investigate the time trend of stress levels while using TYS for the entire population being studied and whether the individuals' perceived stress reactivity moderates stress level changes while using TYS. METHODS: Using TYS, stress levels were measured repeatedly with the 4-item version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), and perceived stress reactivity was measured once with the Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale (PSRS). A total of 78 nonclinical participants, who provided 1 PSRS assessment and at least 4 repeated PSS-4 measurements, were included in this pilot study. Linear multilevel models were used to analyze the time trend of stress levels and interactions with perceived stress reactivity. RESULTS: Across the whole sample, stress levels did not change while using TYS (P=.83). Except for one subscale of the PSRS, interindividual differences in perceived stress reactivity did not influence the trajectories of stress levels. However, participants with higher scores on the PSRS subscale reactivity to failure showed a stronger increase of stress levels while using TYS than participants with lower scores (P=.04). CONCLUSIONS: TYS tracks the stress levels in daily life, and most of the results showed that stress levels do not change while using TYS. Controlled trials are necessary to evaluate whether it is specifically TYS or any other influence that worsens the stress levels of participants with higher reactivity to failure.

5.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-10, 2019 Jun 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190672

RESUMEN

Institutionally deprived young children often display distinctive patterns of attachment, classified as insecure/other (INS/OTH), with their adoptive parents. The associations between INS/OTH and developmental trajectories of mental health and neurodevelopmental symptoms were examined. Age 4 attachment status was determined for 97 Romanian adoptees exposed to up to 24 months of deprivation in Romanian orphanages and 49 nondeprived UK adoptees. Autism, inattention/overactivity and disinhibited-social-engagement symptoms, emotional problems, and IQ were measured at 4, 6, 11, and 15 years and in young adulthood. Romanian adoptees with over 6 months deprivation (Rom>6) were more often classified as INS/OTH than UK and Romanian adoptees with less than 6 months deprivation combined. INS/OTH was associated with cognitive impairment at age 4 years. The interaction between deprivation, attachment status, and age for autism spectrum disorder assessment was significant, with greater symptom persistence in Rom>6 INS/OTH(+) than other groups. This effect was reduced when IQ at age 4 was controlled for. Age 4 INS/OTH in Rom>6 was associated with worse autism spectrum disorder outcomes up to two decades later. Its association with cognitive impairment at age 4 is consistent with INS/OTH being an early marker of this negative developmental trajectory, rather than its cause.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218728, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226137

RESUMEN

Beauty is the single most frequently and most broadly used aesthetic virtue term. The present study aimed at providing higher conceptual resolution to the broader notion of beauty by comparing it with three closely related aesthetically evaluative concepts which are likewise lexicalized across many languages: elegance, grace(fulness), and sexiness. We administered a variety of questionnaires that targeted perceptual qualia, cognitive and affective evaluations, as well as specific object properties that are associated with beauty, elegance, grace, and sexiness in personal looks, movements, objects of design, and other domains. This allowed us to reveal distinct and highly nuanced profiles of how a beautiful, elegant, graceful, and sexy appearance is subjectively perceived. As aesthetics is all about nuances, the fine-grained conceptual analysis of the four target concepts of our study provides crucial distinctions for future research.

7.
Front Psychol ; 10: 390, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941066

RESUMEN

Music listening has become a highly individualized activity with smartphones and music streaming services providing listeners with absolute freedom to listen to any kind of music in any situation. Until now, little has been written about the processes underlying the selection of music in daily life. The present study aimed to disentangle some of the complex processes among the listener, situation, and functions of music listening involved in music selection. Utilizing the experience sampling method, data were collected from 119 participants using a smartphone application. For 10 consecutive days, participants received 14 prompts using stratified-random sampling throughout the day and reported on their music-listening behavior. Statistical learning procedures on multilevel regression models and multilevel structural equation modeling were used to determine the most important predictors and analyze mediation processes between person, situation, functions of listening, and music selection. Results revealed that the features of music selected in daily life were predominantly determined by situational characteristics, whereas consistent individual differences were of minor importance. Functions of music listening were found to act as a mediator between characteristics of the situation and music-selection behavior. We further observed several significant random effects, which indicated that individuals differed in how situational variables affected their music selection behavior. Our findings suggest a need to shift the focus of music-listening research from individual differences to situational influences, including potential person-situation interactions.

8.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 13: 36, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853904

RESUMEN

Music is an effective means of stress-reduction. However, to date there has been no systematic comparison between musical and language-based means of stress reduction in an ambulatory setting. Furthermore, although the aim for listening to music appears to play a role in its effect, this has not yet been investigated thoroughly. We compared musical means, language-based means like guided relaxation or self-enhancement exercises, and a combination of both with respect to their potential to reduce perceived stress. Furthermore, we investigated whether the aim one wants to achieve by listening to these means had an impact on their effect. We tested 64 participants (age: M = 40.09 years; 18 female) for 3-10 days during their everyday life using an app containing three means: musical means, language-based means, and a combination of both. For the music and the combination conditions participants were asked to select an aim: relaxation or activation. We measured perceived stress, relaxation, activation, and electrical skin resistance (ESR) as a marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity before and after using the app. Participants were instructed to use the app as often as desired. Overall, perceived stress was reduced after using the app, while perceived relaxation and activation were increased. There were no differences between the three means regarding their effect on perceived stress and relaxation, but music led to a greater increase in ESR and perceived activation compared to the other means. There was a decrease in ESR only for music. Moreover, perceived stress was reduced and perceived relaxation was increased to greater extent if the aim "relaxation" had been selected. Perceived activation, however, showed a larger increase if the aim had been "activation," which was even more marked in the case of music listening. Our results indicate that all three means reduced perceived stress and promoted feelings of relaxation and activation. For enhancing feelings of activation music seems to be more effective than the other means, which was reflected in increased SNS activity as well. Furthermore, the choice of an aim plays an important role for the reduction of stress, and promotion of relaxation and activation.

9.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 92(5): 673-681, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656403

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study analyzes the association of work-related stress with incident asthma and rhinitis in young adults with a special focus on gender-specific differences. METHODS: Incident asthma, wheezing and rhinitis were measured in a cohort of 2051 young German adults (aged 16-18 years at baseline) recruited by the prospective population-based SOLAR study (Study of Occupational Allergy Risks). Work-related stress was measured by the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). Two TICS scales, work overload and work discontent, were analysed. Logistic regression was conducted to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: In females, the odds for incident asthma were found to be 17% higher for each increase of the work discontent score by one point (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31). In males, no association was statistically significant. Incident rhinitis showed no association with any exposure variable. CONCLUSION: This study shows a link between work-related stress and incident asthma which seems to be confined to women. This study adds evidence about the association of work-related stress and asthma in young adults and can contribute to prevention for that particular age group.


Asunto(s)
Asma/epidemiología , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Rinitis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Masculino , Ruidos Respiratorios , Factores Sexuales , Carga de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos
10.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 105: 105-116, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503527

RESUMEN

Since cortisol measurement in saliva has been established, it has been used as an indicator of stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity. Concurrent development of methodological frameworks such as ambulatory assessment, ecological momentary assessment, and experience sampling have provided opportunities to combine both approaches in daily life research. The current review provides a summary of basic methodological principles and recommendations, as well as abstracts of findings of studies investigating momentary associations between stress and cortisol in daily life with an emphasis on within-subject associations (i.e. average covariance in repeated momentary assessments of stress and cortisol, and individual-specific deviations from the average covariance). Methodological challenges related to stress measurement, sampling principles, and appropriate statistical modeling are discussed, followed by a description of the historical development of studies on within-subject associations between momentary daily life stress and cortisol. The review concludes with a discussion of controversial methodological characteristics of these studies regarding operationalizations of stress, compliance, timing and frequency of stress and cortisol sampling, and reporting of effect sizes. Future research in this area would benefit from automated cortisol assessment, broadening of the scope of stress response measures, use of advanced statistical models that better account for dynamics in the stress process in daily life, and attempts to replicate findings. While previous studies of momentary stress and concurrent cortisol assessments have reliably confirmed some fundamental predictions from stress theory in daily life, future studies should aim at providing progress by testing innovative research questions and utilizing new technological developments.

11.
BMJ Open ; 8(6): e021599, 2018 06 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866734

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively study the association between normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of greenness around homes and occupational stress. SETTING: A population-based cohort in Munich and Dresden cities was followed from age 16-18 years to age 20-23 years (n=1632). PARTICIPANTS: At baseline, all participants attended high-school while at follow-up some had started working and others studying at university. At baseline and in each follow-up, we assigned NDVI based on participants' residential geocoded addresses and categorised it by quartiles. OUTCOME MEASURES: School-related, university-related or job-related self-reported chronic stress was assessed at the two follow-ups by the Trier Scale for Assessment of Chronic Stress using work discontent and work overload as outcomes. We modelled the association employing ordinal generalised estimating equations model accounting for changes in sociodemographics, non-job-related stress, job history and environmental covariates. Stratified analysis by each city was performed. RESULTS: NVDI at baseline was higher for participants from Dresden (median=0.36; IQR 0.31-0.41) than Munich (0.31; 0.26-0.34). At follow-up, it decreased only for participants in Dresden (0.34; 0.30-0.40). Higher greenness (quartile 4 vs quartile 1) was associated with less work discontent (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.99) and less work overload (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.78 to 0.96). In stratified analyses, results were more consistent for Munich than for Dresden. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that residential green spaces, using the vegetation index as a proxy for exposure, are inversely associated with two types of job-related chronic stress in German young adults transitioning from school to university or working life.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Ambiente , Estudiantes/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto Joven/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Estrés Psicológico , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2542, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618963

RESUMEN

In transferring the concept of flow to the context of fiction reading a new approach to understanding the evolvement of reading pleasure is provided. This study presents the Reading Flow Short Scale (RFSS), the first reading-specific flow measurement tool. The RFSS was applied to 229 readers via online survey after 20 min of reading in self-selected novels. In a systematic analysis of psychometric properties, the RFSS' factorial structure, reliability, and associations with theoretically related constructs were examined. As expected, the RFSS showed a two-factor structure, positive correlations with variables related to reading pleasure and flow, and an inverted U-shaped association with perceived fit between reader skills and text challenge. Comparisons of confirmatory factor analysis model confirmed that RFSS items loaded on different latent variables than items assessing other narrative engagement concepts, namely presence, identification, suspense, and cognitive mastery, and hence distinctly capture flow states in fiction reading. In sum, our findings indicate that the RFSS is a useful instrument for assessing flow states in fiction reading, thereby enriching the portfolio of measurement instruments in reading research.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29088088

RESUMEN

We aimed to prospectively assess changes in chronic stress among young adults transitioning from high school to university or working life. A population-based cohort in Munich and Dresden (Germany) was followed from age 16-18 (2002-2003) to age 20-23 (2007-2009) (n = 1688). Using the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress, two dimensions of stress at university or work were assessed: work overload and work discontent. In the multiple ordinal generalized estimating equations, socio-demographics, stress outside the workplace, and job history were additionally considered. At follow-up, 52% of the population were university students. Work overload increased statistically significantly from first to second follow-up, while work discontent remained constant at the population level. Students, compared to employees, reported a larger increase in work overload (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.33; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.07, 1.67), while work discontent did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, work overload increases when young adults transition from school to university/job life, with university students experiencing the largest increase.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto Joven/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Estudios Prospectivos , Estrés Psicológico , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 86: 196-202, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982048

RESUMEN

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function is disrupted in institutionally-deprived children - reduced morning cortisol, flattened diurnal slope and blunted reactivity persist even after successful adoption into positive family environments. Here we test whether such effects persist into adulthood. Cortisol release across the day (sampled at awakening, 30 and 45min later, and at four points across the day) was investigated in young adult adoptees who had lived in severe deprivation for up to 43 months in early childhood in Ceaușescu's Romanian orphanages and a comparison group of non-deprived UK adoptees (Total N=57; mean age=24±0.9years). The mediating role of cortisol levels on adult mental health was examined using data from standardized clinical assessments. Cortisol profiles were disrupted in the Romanian adoptees who experienced more than 6 months deprivation marked by a striking absence of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and a significantly flatter cortisol curve until 1h 15min after awakening. Whereas institutional deprivation was associated with both cortisol secretion and emergence of emotional problems in young adulthood, path analysis revealed no evidence for a mediating role of CAR disruption in the sub-sample studied here. The results are in line with findings of HPA axis hypo-functionality following early adverse experience and provide strong evidence for long-term programming effects of HPA axis function through experience of institutional deprivation.


Asunto(s)
Adopción/psicología , Carencia Psicosocial , Estrés Psicológico/fisiopatología , Adulto , Niño Adoptado/psicología , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análisis , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/fisiopatología , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Orfanatos , Sistema Hipófiso-Suprarrenal/fisiopatología , Rumanía , Saliva , Adulto Joven
15.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1626, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28979228

RESUMEN

This study presents a new measure of value systems, the Motivational Value Systems Questionnaire (MVSQ), which is based on a theory of value systems by psychologist Clare W. Graves. The purpose of the instrument is to help people identify their personal hierarchies of value systems and thus become more aware of what motivates and demotivates them in work-related contexts. The MVSQ is a forced-choice (FC) measure, making it quicker to complete and more difficult to intentionally distort, but also more difficult to assess its psychometric properties due to ipsativity of FC data compared to rating scales. To overcome limitations of ipsative data, a Thurstonian IRT (TIRT) model was fitted to the questionnaire data, based on a broad sample of N = 1,217 professionals and students. Comparison of normative (IRT) scale scores and ipsative scores suggested that MVSQ IRT scores are largely freed from restrictions due to ipsativity and thus allow interindividual comparison of scale scores. Empirical reliability was estimated using a sample-based simulation approach which showed acceptable and good estimates and, on average, slightly higher test-retest reliabilities. Further, validation studies provided evidence on both construct validity and criterion-related validity. Scale score correlations and associations of scores with both age and gender were largely in line with theoretically- and empirically-based expectations, and results of a multitrait-multimethod analysis supports convergent and discriminant construct validity. Criterion validity was assessed by examining the relation of value system preferences to departmental affiliation which revealed significant relations in line with prior hypothesizing. These findings demonstrate the good psychometric properties of the MVSQ and support its application in the assessment of value systems in work-related contexts.

16.
Br J Psychiatry ; 211(5): 289-295, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935662

RESUMEN

BackgroundEarly-life institutional deprivation produces disinhibited social engagement (DSE). Portrayed as a childhood condition, little is known about the persistence of DSE-type behaviours into, presentation during, and their impact on, functioning in adulthood.AimsWe examine these issues in the young adult follow-up of the English and Romanian Adoptees study.MethodA total of 122 of the original 165 Romanian adoptees who had spent up to 43 months as children in Ceausescu's Romanian orphanages and 42 UK adoptees were assessed for DSE behaviours, neurodevelopmental and mental health problems, and impairment between ages 2 and 25 years.ResultsYoung adult DSE behaviour was strongly associated with early childhood deprivation, with a sixfold increase for those who spent more than 6 months in institutions. However, although DSE overlapped with autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms it was not, in itself, related to broader patterns of mental health problems or impairments in daily functioning in young adulthood.ConclusionsDSE behaviour remained a prominent, but largely clinically benign, young adult feature of some adoptees who experienced early deprivation.


Asunto(s)
Adopción/psicología , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Privación Materna , Privación Paterna , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Niño Institucionalizado/estadística & datos numéricos , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Orfanatos/estadística & datos numéricos , Rumanía , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
17.
J Behav Med ; 40(5): 772-783, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28281106

RESUMEN

Studies investigating the prevalence, cause, and consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS) fatigue typically use single measures that implicitly assume symptom-stability over time, neglecting information about if, when, and why severity fluctuates. We aimed to examine the extent of moment-to-moment and day-to-day variability in fatigue in relapsing-remitting MS and healthy individuals, and identify daily life determinants of fluctuations. Over 4 weekdays, 76 participants (38 relapsing-remitting MS; 38 controls) recruited from multiple sites provided real-time self-reports six times daily (n = 1661 observations analyzed) measuring fatigue severity, stressors, mood, and physical exertion, and daily self-reports of sleep quality. Fatigue fluctuations were evident in both groups. Fatigue was highest in relapsing-remitting MS, typically peaking in late-afternoon. In controls, fatigue started lower and increased steadily until bedtime. Real-time stressors and negative mood were associated with increased fatigue, and positive mood with decreased fatigue in both groups. Increased fatigue was related to physical exertion in relapsing-remitting MS, and poorer sleep quality in controls. In relapsing-remitting MS, fatigue fluctuates substantially over time. Many daily life determinants of fluctuations are similar in relapsing-remitting MS and healthy individuals (stressors, mood) but physical exertion seems more relevant in relapsing-remitting MS and sleep quality most relevant in healthy individuals.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Ecológica Momentánea , Fatiga/complicaciones , Fatiga/diagnóstico , Esclerosis Múltiple Recurrente-Remitente/complicaciones , Adolescente , Adulto , Afecto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esfuerzo Físico , Autoinforme , Sueño , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
18.
Lancet ; 389(10078): 1539-1548, 2017 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28237264

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Time-limited, early-life exposures to institutional deprivation are associated with disorders in childhood, but it is unknown whether effects persist into adulthood. We used data from the English and Romanian Adoptees study to assess whether deprivation-associated adverse neurodevelopmental and mental health outcomes persist into young adulthood. METHODS: The English and Romanian Adoptees study is a longitudinal, natural experiment investigation into the long-term outcomes of individuals who spent from soon after birth to up to 43 months in severe deprivation in Romanian institutions before being adopted into the UK. We used developmentally appropriate standard questionnaires, interviews completed by parents and adoptees, and direct measures of IQ to measure symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, inattention and overactivity, disinhibited social engagement, conduct or emotional problems, and cognitive impairment (IQ score <80) during childhood (ages 6, 11, and 15 years) and in young adulthood (22-25 years). For analysis, Romanian adoptees were split into those who spent less than 6 months in an institution and those who spent more than 6 months in an institution. We used a comparison group of UK adoptees who did not experience deprivation. We used mixed-effects regression models for ordered-categorical outcome variables to compare symptom levels and trends between groups. FINDINGS: Romanian adoptees who experienced less than 6 months in an institution (n=67 at ages 6 years; n=50 at young adulthood) and UK controls (n=52 at age 6 years; n=39 at young adulthood) had similarly low levels of symptoms across most ages and outcomes. By contrast, Romanian adoptees exposed to more than 6 months in an institution (n=98 at ages 6 years; n=72 at young adulthood) had persistently higher rates than UK controls of symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, disinhibited social engagement, and inattention and overactivity through to young adulthood (pooled p<0·0001 for all). Cognitive impairment in the group who spent more than 6 months in an institution remitted from markedly higher rates at ages 6 years (p=0·0001) and 11 years (p=0·0016) compared with UK controls, to normal rates at young adulthood (p=0·76). By contrast, self-rated emotional symptoms showed a late-onset pattern with minimal differences versus UK controls at ages 11 years (p=0·0449) and 15 years (p=0·17), and then marked increases by young adulthood (p=0·0005), with similar effects seen for parent ratings. The high deprivation group also had a higher proportion of people with low educational achievement (p=0·0195), unemployment (p=0·0124), and mental health service use (p=0·0120, p=0·0032, and p=0·0003 for use when aged <11 years, 11-14 years, and 15-23 years, respectively) than the UK control group. A fifth (n=15) of individuals who spent more than 6 months in an institution were problem-free at all assessments. INTERPRETATION: Notwithstanding the resilience shown by some adoptees and the adult remission of cognitive impairment, extended early deprivation was associated with long-term deleterious effects on wellbeing that seem insusceptible to years of nurturance and support in adoptive families. FUNDING: Economic and Social Research Council, Medical Research Council, Department of Health, Jacobs Foundation, Nuffield Foundation.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Niño Adoptado , Escolaridad , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Institucionalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Rumanía , Reino Unido
19.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 49(4): 763-773, 2017 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27824691

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The association between physical activity and mood is of major importance to increase physical activity as a prevention strategy for noncommunicable diseases and to improve mental health. Unfortunately, existing studies examining how physical activity and mood wax and wane within persons over time in everyday life do show ambiguous findings. Taking a closer look at these studies reveals that the aggregation levels differ tremendously. Whereas mood is conceptualized as a three-dimensional construct, physical activity is treated as a global construct not taking into account its distinct components like exercise (such as jogging) and nonexercise activity (NEA; such as climbing stairs). METHODS: To overcome these limitations, we conducted an ambulatory assessment study on the everyday life of 106 adults over 7 d continuously measuring NEA via accelerometers and repeatedly querying for mood in real time via GPS-triggered e-diaries. We used multilevel modeling to derive differential within-subject effects of exercise versus NEA on mood and to conduct analyses on the temporal course of effects. RESULTS: Analyses revealed that exercise increased valence (beta = 0.023; P < 0.05) and calmness (beta = 0.022; P < 0.05). A tendency of decreasing energetic arousal (beta = -0.029) lacked significance. NEA, parameterized as 15-min episodes of physical activity intensity in everyday life, increased energetic arousal (beta = 0.135; P < 0.001) and decreased calmness (stand. beta = -0.080; P < 0.001). A tendency of increasing valence (beta = 0.014) lacked significance. Using longer time intervals for NEA revealed similar findings, thus confirming our findings. CONCLUSION: Exercise and NEA differed regarding their within-subject effects on mood, whereas exercise increased valence and calmness, NEA increased energetic arousal and decreased calmness. Therefore, it appears necessary to clearly differentiate between exercise and NEA regarding their within-subject effects on mood dimensions in both research and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Afecto , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Acelerometría , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoinforme , Adulto Joven
20.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 57(10): 1113-25, 2016 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27264475

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early-life institutional deprivation is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) later in childhood and adolescence. In this article, we examine, for the first time, the persistence of deprivation-related ADHD into young adulthood in a sample of individuals adopted as young children by UK families after periods in extremely depriving Romanian orphanages. METHODS: We estimated rates of ADHD at age 15 years and in young adulthood (ages 22-25 years) in individuals at low (LoDep; nondeprived UK adoptees and Romanian adoptees with less than 6-month institutional exposure) and high deprivation-related risk (HiDep; Romanian adoptees with more than 6-month exposure). Estimates were based on parent report using DSM-5 childhood symptom and impairment criteria. At age 15, data were available for 108 LoDep and 86 HiDep cases, while in young adulthood, the numbers were 83 and 60, respectively. Data on education and employment status, IQ, co-occurring symptoms of young adult disinhibited social engagement (DSE), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), cognitive impairment, conduct disorder (CD), callous-unemotional (CU) traits, anxiety, depression and quality of life (QoL) were also collected. RESULTS: ADHD rates in the LoDep group were similar to the general population in adolescence (5.6%) and adulthood (3.8%). HiDep individuals were, respectively, nearly four (19%) and over seven (29.3%) times more likely to meet criteria, than LoDep. Nine 'onset' young adult cases emerged, but these had a prior childhood history of elevated ADHD behaviours at ages 6, 11 and 15 years. Young adult ADHD was equally common in males and females, was predominantly inattentive in presentation and co-occurred with high levels of ASD, DSE and CU features. ADHD was associated with high unemployment and low educational attainment. CONCLUSION: We provide the first evidence of a strong persistence into adulthood of a distinctively complex and impairing deprivation-related variant of ADHD. Our results confirm the powerful association of early experience with later development in a way that suggests a role for deep-seated alterations to brain structure and function.


Asunto(s)
Adopción/psicología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/fisiopatología , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Orfanatos , Carencia Psicosocial , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Inglaterra , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Rumanía , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
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