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mBio ; 12(5): e0170821, 2021 Oct 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544276


The methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylacidimicrobium thermophilum AP8 thrives in acidic geothermal ecosystems that are characterized by high degassing of methane (CH4), H2, H2S, and by relatively high lanthanide concentrations. Lanthanides (atomic numbers 57 to 71) are essential in a variety of high-tech devices, including mobile phones. Remarkably, the same elements are actively taken up by methanotrophs/methylotrophs in a range of environments, since their XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenases require lanthanides as a metal cofactor. Lanthanide-dependent enzymes seem to prefer the lighter lanthanides (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium), as slower methanotrophic/methylotrophic growth is observed in medium supplemented with only heavier lanthanides. Here, we purified XoxF1 from the thermoacidophilic methanotroph Methylacidimicrobium thermophilum AP8, which was grown in medium supplemented with neodymium as the sole lanthanide. The neodymium occupancy of the enzyme is 94.5% ± 2.0%, and through X-ray crystallography, we reveal that the structure of the active site shows interesting differences from the active sites of other methanol dehydrogenases, such as an additional aspartate residue in close proximity to the lanthanide. Nd-XoxF1 oxidizes methanol at a maximum rate of metabolism (Vmax) of 0.15 ± 0.01 µmol · min-1 · mg protein-1 and an affinity constant (Km) of 1.4 ± 0.6 µM. The structural analysis of this neodymium-containing XoxF1-type methanol dehydrogenase will expand our knowledge in the exciting new field of lanthanide biochemistry. IMPORTANCE Lanthanides comprise a group of 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 to 71 that are essential in a variety of high-tech devices, such as mobile phones, but were considered biologically inert for a long time. The biological relevance of lanthanides became evident when the acidophilic methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV, isolated from a volcanic mud pot, could only grow when lanthanides were supplied to the growth medium. We expanded knowledge in the exciting and rapidly developing field of lanthanide biochemistry by the purification and characterization of a neodymium-containing methanol dehydrogenase from a thermoacidophilic methanotroph.

J Biol Chem ; 296: 100476, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652023


The hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) family consists of octaheme proteins that harbor seven bis-His ligated electron-transferring hemes and one 5-coordinate catalytic heme with His axial ligation. Oxidative HAOs have a homotrimeric configuration with the monomers covalently attached to each other via a unique double cross-link between a Tyr residue and the catalytic heme moiety of an adjacent subunit. This cross-linked active site heme, termed the P460 cofactor, has been hypothesized to modulate enzyme reactivity toward oxidative catalysis. Conversely, the absence of this cross-link is predicted to favor reductive catalysis. However, this prediction has not been directly tested. In this study, an HAO homolog that lacks the heme-Tyr cross-link (HAOr) was purified to homogeneity from the nitrite-dependent anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacterium Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, and its catalytic and spectroscopic properties were assessed. We show that HAOr reduced nitrite to nitric oxide and also reduced nitric oxide and hydroxylamine as nonphysiological substrates. In contrast, HAOr was not able to oxidize hydroxylamine or hydrazine supporting the notion that cross-link-deficient HAO enzymes are reductases. Compared with oxidative HAOs, we found that HAOr harbors an active site heme with a higher (at least 80 mV) midpoint potential and a much lower degree of porphyrin ruffling. Based on the physiology of anammox bacteria and our results, we propose that HAOr reduces nitrite to nitric oxide in vivo, providing anammox bacteria with NO, which they use to activate ammonium in the absence of oxygen.

Oxidorreductasas/química , Oxidorreductasas/metabolismo , Planctomycetales/metabolismo , Compuestos de Amonio/metabolismo , Bacterias/metabolismo , Catálisis , Dominio Catalítico , Transporte de Electrón/fisiología , Hemo/metabolismo , Hidrazinas/química , Hidroxilamina/química , Hidroxilaminas/química , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción , Tirosina/química , Tirosina/metabolismo
FEMS Microbiol Rev ; 45(5)2021 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524112


Methanotrophs are an important group of microorganisms that counteract methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane-oxidising bacteria of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria have been studied for over a century, while methanotrophs of the phylum Verrucomicrobia are a more recent discovery. Verrucomicrobial methanotrophs are extremophiles that live in very acidic geothermal ecosystems. Currently, more than a dozen strains have been isolated, belonging to the genera Methylacidiphilum and Methylacidimicrobium. Initially, these methanotrophs were thought to be metabolically confined. However, genomic analyses and physiological and biochemical experiments over the past years revealed that verrucomicrobial methanotrophs, as well as proteobacterial methanotrophs, are much more metabolically versatile than previously assumed. Several inorganic gases and other molecules present in acidic geothermal ecosystems can be utilised, such as methane, hydrogen gas, carbon dioxide, ammonium, nitrogen gas and perhaps also hydrogen sulfide. Verrucomicrobial methanotrophs could therefore represent key players in multiple volcanic nutrient cycles and in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from geothermal ecosystems. Here, we summarise the current knowledge on verrucomicrobial methanotrophs with respect to their metabolic versatility and discuss the factors that determine their diversity in their natural environment. In addition, key metabolic, morphological and ecological characteristics of verrucomicrobial and proteobacterial methanotrophs are reviewed.

Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun ; 76(Pt 5): 199-208, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356521


The enzyme 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate synthase (DapA) is involved in the production of lysine and precursor molecules for peptidoglycan synthesis. In a multistep reaction, DapA converts pyruvate and L-aspartate-4-semialdehyde to 4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinic acid. In many organisms, lysine binds allosterically to DapA, causing negative feedback, thus making the enzyme an important regulatory component of the pathway. Here, the 2.1 Šresolution crystal structure of DapA from the thermoacidophilic methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV is reported. The enzyme crystallized as a contaminant of a protein preparation from native biomass. Genome analysis reveals that M. fumariolicum SolV utilizes the recently discovered aminotransferase pathway for lysine biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses of the genes involved in this pathway shed new light on the distribution of this pathway across the three domains of life.

Proteínas Bacterianas/química , Hidroliasas/química , Transaminasas/genética , Verrucomicrobia/química , Sitio Alostérico , Dominio Catalítico/genética , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos , Genoma Bacteriano , Hidroliasas/aislamiento & purificación , Lisina/biosíntesis , Lisina/genética , Filogenia , Dominios Proteicos/genética , Multimerización de Proteína , Transaminasas/química , Verrucomicrobia/enzimología , Difracción de Rayos X
ISME J ; 14(5): 1223-1232, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042101


The trace amounts (0.53 ppmv) of atmospheric hydrogen gas (H2) can be utilized by microorganisms to persist during dormancy. This process is catalyzed by certain Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi, and is estimated to convert 75 × 1012 g H2 annually, which is half of the total atmospheric H2. This rapid atmospheric H2 turnover is hypothesized to be catalyzed by high-affinity [NiFe] hydrogenases. However, apparent high-affinity H2 oxidation has only been shown in whole cells, rather than for the purified enzyme. Here, we show that the membrane-associated hydrogenase from the thermoacidophilic methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV possesses a high apparent affinity (Km(app) = 140 nM) for H2 and that methanotrophs can oxidize subatmospheric H2. Our findings add to the evidence that the group 1h [NiFe] hydrogenase is accountable for atmospheric H2 oxidation and that it therefore could be a strong controlling factor in the global H2 cycle. We show that the isolated enzyme possesses a lower affinity (Km = 300 nM) for H2 than the membrane-associated enzyme. Hence, the membrane association seems essential for a high affinity for H2. The enzyme is extremely thermostable and remains folded up to 95 °C. Strain SolV is the only known organism in which the group 1h [NiFe] hydrogenase is responsible for rapid growth on H2 as sole energy source as well as oxidation of subatmospheric H2. The ability to conserve energy from H2 could increase fitness of verrucomicrobial methanotrophs in geothermal ecosystems with varying CH4 fluxes. We propose that H2 oxidation can enhance growth of methanotrophs in aerated methane-driven ecosystems. Group 1h [NiFe] hydrogenases could therefore contribute to mitigation of global warming, since CH4 is an important and extremely potent greenhouse gas.

Verrucomicrobia/fisiología , Ecosistema , Hidrógeno , Hidrogenasas/metabolismo , Metano , Oxidación-Reducción , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2352, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681216


Emissions of the strong greenhouse gas methane (CH4) to the atmosphere are mitigated by methanotrophic microorganisms. Methanotrophs found in extremely acidic geothermal systems belong to the phylum Verrucomicrobia. Thermophilic verrucomicrobial methanotrophs from the genus Methylacidiphilum can grow autotrophically on hydrogen gas (H2), but it is unknown whether this also holds for their mesophilic counterparts from the genus Methylacidimicrobium. To determine this, we examined H2 consumption and CO2 fixation by the mesophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidimicrobium tartarophylax 4AC. We found that strain 4AC grows autotrophically on H2 with a maximum growth rate of 0.0048 h-1 and a yield of 2.1 g dry weight⋅mol H2 -1, which is about 12 and 41% compared to the growth rate and yield on methane, respectively. The genome of strain 4AC only encodes for an oxygen-sensitive group 1b [NiFe] hydrogenase and H2 is respired only when oxygen concentrations are below 40 µM. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic comparison of methanotrophs revealed diverse [NiFe] hydrogenases, presumably with varying oxygen sensitivity and affinity for H2, which could drive niche differentiation. Our results show that both thermophilic and mesophilic verrucomicrobial methanotrophs can grow as autotrophs on H2 as a sole energy source. Our results suggest that verrucomicrobial methanotrophs are particularly well-equipped to thrive in hostile volcanic ecosystems, since they can consume H2 as additional energy source.