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1.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494865

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Low-grade inflammation and a diet high in salt are both established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. High potassium (K+) intake was found to counter increase in blood pressure due to high salt intake and may potentially also have protective anti-inflammatory effects. To better understand these interactions under normal physiological conditions, we investigated the relationships between 22 inflammatory mediators with 24-h urinary K+ in young healthy adults stratified by low, medium and high salt intake (salt tertiles). We stratified by ethnicity due to potential salt sensitivity in black populations. METHODS: In 991 healthy black (N = 457) and white (N = 534) adults, aged 20-30 years, with complete data for 24-h urinary sodium and K+, we analysed blood samples for 22 inflammatory mediators. RESULTS: We found no differences in inflammatory mediators between low-, mid- and high-sodium tertiles in either the black or white groups. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses in white adults, we found only in the lowest salt tertile that K+ associated negatively with pro-inflammatory mediators, namely interferon gamma, interleukin (IL) -7, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-23 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (all p ≤ 0.046). In the black population, we found no independent associations between K+ and any inflammatory mediator. CONCLUSION: In healthy white adults, 24-h urinary K+ associated independently and negatively with specific pro-inflammatory mediators, but only in those with a daily salt intake less than 6.31 g, suggesting K+ to play a protective, anti-inflammatory role in a low-sodium environment. No similar associations were found in young healthy black adults.

2.
Hypertens Res ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555326

RESUMEN

Masked hypertension is known to induce microvascular complications. However, it is unclear whether early microvascular changes are already occurring in young, otherwise healthy adults. We therefore investigated whether retinal microvascular calibers and acute responses to a flicker stimulus are related to masked hypertension. We used the baseline data of 889 participants aged 20-30 years who were taking part in the African Prospective study on the Early Detection and Identification of Cardiovascular Disease and Hypertension. Clinic and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure were measured. The central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent were calculated from fundus images, and retinal vessel dilation was determined in response to flicker light-induced provocation. A smaller CRAE was observed in those with masked hypertension vs. those with normotension (157.1 vs. 161.2 measuring units, P < 0.001). In forward multivariable-adjusted regression analysis, only CRAE was negatively related to masked hypertension [adjusted R2 = 0.267, ß = -0.097 (95% CI = -0.165; -0.029), P = 0.005], but other retinal microvascular parameters were not associated with masked hypertension. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, masked hypertension [OR = 2.333, (95% CI = 1.316; 4.241), P = 0.004] was associated with a narrower CRAE. In young healthy adults, masked hypertension was associated with retinal arteriolar narrowing, thereby reflecting early microvascular alterations known to predict cardiovascular outcomes in later life.

3.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13330, 2020 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589287

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity contributes significantly to the development of obesity-related cardiovascular disease. Adiposity may lead to reduced heart rate variability (HRV), whereas increased physical activity (PA) has the potential to improve autonomic activity. These associations remain largely unexplored in healthy individuals. We therefore investigated whether adiposity and physical activity (PA) are associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 403 black and 461 white healthy adults (aged 20-30 years) for HRV, including standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN) and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD). We measured adiposity, PA levels and blood pressure (BP). Body mass index (BMI) of ≥30 kg/m2 indicated obesity. RESULTS: Participants with obesity had lower mean HRV than normal weight (SDNN[95% CI];138[131-145]s vs 161[158-165]ms), where those with the highest PA had higher SDNN (164[160-169]ms) and RMSSD (51[49-53]ms) than the least active individuals (150[146-155]s) and 46[44-48]ms)(all p<0.01). BMI, waist circumference and body fat associated with lower SDNN (p<0.001). With each unit increase of vigorous PA, a favorable higher RMSSD was found (p<0.05). One unit increase in diastolic BP was associated with decreased SDNN and RMSSD (p<0.001). These findings remained significant in multi-variable adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Adiposity and low PA associated independently with depressed autonomic activity in young healthy adults. Sympathovagal imbalance seems to already contribute to elevated diastolic BP at young ages. Our study supports population-based prevention programs in young adults, improving PA and healthy diet, to curb the development of cardiovascular disease.

4.
J Hypertens ; 38(6): 982-1004, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371787

RESUMEN

DOCUMENT REVIEWERS: Hind Beheiry (Sudan), Irina Chazova (Russia), Albertino Damasceno (Mozambique), Anna Dominiczak (UK), Anastase Dzudie (Cameroon), Stephen Harrap (Australia), Hiroshi Itoh (Japan), Tazeen Jafar (Singapore), Marc Jaffe (USA), Patricio Jaramillo-Lopez (Colombia), Kazuomi Kario (Japan), Giuseppe Mancia (Italy), Ana Mocumbi (Mozambique), Sanjeevi N.Narasingan (India), Elijah Ogola (Kenya), Srinath Reddy (India), Ernesto Schiffrin (Canada), Ann Soenarta (Indonesia), Rhian Touyz (UK), Yudah Turana (Indonesia), Michael Weber (USA), Paul Whelton (USA), Xin Hua Zhang, (Australia), Yuqing Zhang (China).

6.
Hypertension ; 2020 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419505

RESUMEN

Elevated blood pressure remains the single biggest risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease and mortality. May Measurement Month is an annual global screening campaign aiming to improve awareness of blood pressure at the individual and population level. Adults ({greater than or equal to}18 years) recruited through opportunistic sampling were screened at sites in 92 countries during May 2019. Ideally three blood pressure readings were measured for each participant, and data on lifestyle factors and co-morbidities were collected. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP {greater than or equal to} 140 mmHg, and/or a diastolic BP {greater than or equal to} 90 mmHg (mean of the second and third readings) or taking antihypertensive medication. When necessary, multiple imputation was used to estimate participants' mean blood pressure. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between blood pressure and participant characteristics. Of 1,508,130 screenees 482,273 (32.0%) had never had a blood pressure measurement before and 513,337 (34.0%) had hypertension, of whom 58.7% were aware and 54.7% were on antihypertensive medication. Of those on medication, 57.8% were controlled to <140/90 mmHg, and 28.9% to <130/80mmHg. Of all those with hypertension, 31.7% were controlled to <140/90mmHg and 350,825 (23.3%) participants had untreated, or inadequately treated hypertension. Of those taking antihypertensive medication, half were taking only a single drug and 25% reported using aspirin inappropriately. This survey is the largest ever synchronised and standardised contemporary compilation of global blood pressure data. This campaign is needed as a temporary substitute for systematic blood pressure screening in many countries worldwide.

7.
J Clin Med ; 9(3)2020 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244968

RESUMEN

Proteinic arginine dimethylation (PADiMe) is a major post-translational modification. Proteolysis of asymmetric and symmetric PADiMe products releases asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), respectively, two endogenous atherogenic substances. SDMA, ADMA, and its major metabolite dimethylamine (DMA) are eliminated by the kidney. The urinary concentrations of DMA+ADMA, SDMA, and DMA+ADMA+SDMA are useful measures of the whole-body asymmetric and symmetric PADiMe, respectively. Urinary (DMA+ADMA)/SDMA is an index of the asymmetric to symmetric PADiMe balance. In two bi-ethnic studies, the ASOS (39 black boys, 41 white boys) and the African-PREDICT (292 black young men, 281 white young men) studies, we investigated whether ethnicity is a major determinant of PADiMe, and whether PADiMe is associated with blood pressure and ethnicity-dependent growth and inflammatory factors, including HDL. DMA, ADMA, and SDMA were measured in spot urine samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and their excretion was corrected for creatinine excretion. In black boys, creatinine-corrected DMA, DMA+ADMA, and DMA+ADMA+SDMA concentrations were lower by 11.7%, 9.5%, and 7.6% (all p < 0.05), respectively, compared to the white boys, and 3.4%, 2.0%, and 1.8% lower (all p < 0.05), respectively, in black compared to white men. (DMA+ADMA)/SDMA did not differ between black boys and black men, but was higher in white boys compared to white men. ADMA did not differ between black and white boys, or between black and white men. Creatinine-corrected SDMA excretion was lower in black boys compared to white boys (by 8%) and to white men (by 3.1%). None of the PADiMe indices were associated with blood pressure in either study. IGF-binding protein 3 correlated inversely with all PADiMe indices in the black men only. Our study showed that asymmetric proteinic arginine dimethylation is higher in white boys than in black boys, and that this difference disappears in adulthood. ADMA metabolism and SDMA excretion were lower in the black subjects compared to the white subjects, suggesting ethnicity-dependent hepatic and renal elimination of ADMA and SDMA in the childhood. The results of our study may have clinical relevance beyond atherosclerosis, such as in growth and inflammation, which have not been sufficiently addressed thus far.

8.
Amino Acids ; 52(4): 639-648, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303905

RESUMEN

Nitric oxide plays an important role in maintaining endothelial function, while increased oxidative stress may lead to nitric oxide inactivation and cardiovascular disease. If nitric oxide biosynthesis/bioavailability is already suppressed early in life, it may potentially predispose an individual to the early development of cardiovascular disease. We therefore aimed to identify differences in nitric oxide-related markers (urinary nitrate, nitrite and the nitrate-to-nitrite ratio (UNOxR)) between young black and white individuals, and whether these markers are associated with blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness. We included black and white healthy boys (n = 80; aged 6-8 years) and men (n = 510; 20-30 years) and measured blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness, along with urinary biochemical markers including nitrate and nitrite. The black boys and men had lower nitrate and UNOxR (all p ≤ 0.003) than their white counterparts. In single and multiple regression analyses, we found an inverse association of diastolic blood pressure in the black boys (adj. R2 = 0.27; ß = -0.32; p = 0.030), and systolic blood pressure in black men (adj. R2 = 0.07; ß = -0.13; p = 0.036) with nitrate. Carotid intima media thickness associated inversely with UNOxR in the black men (adj. R2 = 0.02; ß = -0.14; p = 0.023), but not in the boys. Lower urinary nitrate in black boys and young men was associated negatively with blood pressure, suggesting that potentially lower nitric oxide bioavailability in young black individuals may contribute to hypertension development in later life.

9.
Hypertension ; 75(6): 1593-1599, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275193

RESUMEN

Self-home blood pressure (BP) monitoring is recommended to guide clinical decisions on hypertension and is used worldwide for cardiovascular risk management. People usually make their own decisions when purchasing BP devices, which can be made online. If patients purchase nonvalidated devices (those not proven accurate according to internationally accepted standards), hypertension management may be based on inaccurate readings resulting in under- or over-diagnosis or treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the number, type, percentage validated, and cost of home BP devices available online. A search of online businesses selling devices for home BP monitoring was conducted. Multinational companies make worldwide deliveries, so searches were restricted to BP devices available for one nation (Australia) as an example of device availability through the global online marketplace. Validation status of BP devices was determined according to established protocols. Fifty nine online businesses, selling 972 unique BP devices were identified. These included 278 upper-arm cuff devices (18.3% validated), 162 wrist-cuff devices (8.0% validated), and 532 wrist-band wearables (0% validated). Most BP devices (92.4%) were stocked by international e-commerce businesses (eg, eBay, Amazon), but only 5.5% were validated. Validated cuff BP devices were more expensive than nonvalidated devices: median (interquartile range) of 101.1 (75.0-151.5) versus 67.4 (30.4-112.8) Australian Dollars. Nonvalidated BP devices dominate the online marketplace and are sold at lower cost than validated ones, which is a major barrier to accurate home BP monitoring and cardiovascular risk management. Before purchasing a BP device, people should check it has been validated at https://www.stridebp.org.

10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(6): 925-931, 2020 Jun 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278609

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Growth differentiating factor-15 (GDF-15) is a stress-induced and cardio-protective cytokine, reported to be influenced by a number of cardiovascular risk factors. In older adults, GDF-15 associated with age, black ethnicity and smoking. It is important to determine if GDF-15 could potentially be used as an early marker of cardiovascular disease, especially in young populations. We investigated whether GDF-15 associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, ethnicity, blood pressure (BP), socio-economic status, waist-to-hip ratio, cholesterol, physical inactivity, smoking and alcohol use) in young apparently healthy adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 1189 black and white participants (aged between 20 and 30 years). Questionnaires were used to collect demographic and physical activity data. We measured serum GDF-15, and performed 24-h ambulatory BP and pulse wave analysis. The following risk factors increased with increasing GDF-15 quartiles: age, black ethnicity, central systolic BP, 24-h diastolic BP, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, lipids, cotinine, smoking and alcohol use (all p trend ≤ 0.013). Socio-economic status and physical activity (p trend ≤ 0.014) were the lowest in the highest quartile. In multi-variable adjusted regression analyses GDF-15 associated with central systolic BP (ß = 0.076; p = 0.027), age (ß = 0.096; p = 0.006), low socio-economic status (ß = -0.12; p = 0.003), physical inactivity (ß = -0.18; p < 0.0001), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (ß = 0.28; p < 0.0001) and cotinine (ß = 0.12; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In young adults, GDF-15 associated independently with multiple traditional cardiovascular risk factors including higher central systolic blood pressure, older age, lower socio-economic status, physical inactivity, inflammation and smoking. These results suggest that GDF-15 is a promising biomarker for early identification of cardiovascular risk.

11.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(5): 1044-1054, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237903

RESUMEN

Early vascular aging reflects increased arterial stiffness of central blood vessels at young chronological ages and powerfully predicts cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of routine brachial blood pressure and other risk factors. Since ethnic disparities exist in routine blood pressure, in hypertension and cardiovascular outcomes, this review evaluates major studies comparing arterial stiffness through the life course between different ethnic groups or races (which have no biological definition)-in children, adolescents, young, and middle-aged adults and the very elderly. Most report that compared with white European-origin samples, populations of black African descent have increased central arterial stiffness throughout different life stages, as well as a more rapid increase in arterial stiffness at young ages. Exceptions may include African Caribbean origin people in Europe. Differences in vascular structure and function are clearest, where obesity, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors are most marked. Few studies evaluate a wider spectrum of ethnic groups or factors contributing to these ethnic disparities. Genetic effects are not obvious; maternal risk and intergenerational studies are scarce. Nevertheless, across all ethnic groups, for given levels of blood pressure and age, some people have stiffer central arteries than others. These individuals are most at risk of vascular events and mortality and, therefore, may benefit from early, as yet untested, preventive action and treatment.

12.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111522

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Uncertainty still exists on the impact of low to moderate consumption of different drink types on population health. We therefore investigated the associations of different drink types in the form of beer/cider, champagne/white wine, red wine and spirits with various health outcomes. METHODS: Over 500,000 participants were recruited to the UK Biobank cohort. Alcohol consumption was self-reported as pints beer/cider, glasses champagne/white wine, glasses of red wine, and measures of spirits per week. We followed health outcomes for a median of 7.02 years and reported all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular events, and cancer. RESULTS: In continuous analysis after excluding non-drinkers, beer/cider and spirits intake associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality (beer/cider: hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.68; spirits: 1.47; 1.35-1.60), cardiovascular events (beer/cider: 1.25; 1.17-1.33; spirits: 1.25; 1.16-1.36), ischemic heart disease (beer/cider:1.12; 0.99-1.26 [P = 0.056]; spirits: 1.17; 1.02-1.35), cerebrovascular disease (beer/cider: 1.63; 1.32-2.02; spirits: 1.59; 1.25-2.02) and cancer (beer/cider: 1.14; 1.05-1.24; spirits: 1.14; 1.03-1.26), while both champagne/white wine and red wine associated with a decreased risk for ischemic heart disease only (champagne/white wine: 0.84; 0.72-0.98; red wine: 0.88; 0.77-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support the notion that alcohol from any drink type is beneficial to health. Consuming low levels of beer/cider and spirits already associated with an increased risk for all health outcomes, while wine showed opposite protective relationships only with ischemic heart disease.

13.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51862

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. La Comisión Lancet de Hipertensión determinó que una medida clave para responder a la carga mundial que representa la hipertensión arterial era mejorar la calidad de las mediciones de la presión arterial, mediante la utilización de dispositivos cuya exactitud haya sido validada. En la actualidad existen 3000 dispositivos comercializados, pero muchos no tienen datos publicados sobre pruebas de exactitud conformes a las normas científicas establecidas. La falta de regulación o su ineficiencia, que permiten la autorización de dispositivos para uso comercial sin una validación oficial, posibilitan este problema. Además, han surgido tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial (por ejemplo, los sensores sin brazalete) sobre las cuales no existe unanimidad en la comunidad científica con respecto a las normas de exactitud de la medición. En conjunto, estos aspectos contribuyen a la disponibilidad generalizada de tensiómetros de consultorio o domiciliarios que ofrecen una exactitud limitada o incierta, que llevan a diagnósticos, manejo y farmacoterapia inapropiados de la hipertensión a escala mundial. Los problemas más importantes relacionados con la exactitud de los dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial se pueden resolver mediante el requisito regulatorio de una validación independiente obligatoria de los dispositivos, en consonancia con la norma ISO universalmente aceptada. Esta es una recomendación básica y constituye una necesidad internacional acuciante. Otras recomendaciones clave son la elaboración de normas de validación específicas para las tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial y la publicación en línea de listas de los dispositivos nuevos exactos que están a la disposición de los usuarios y los profesionales de salud. Las recomendaciones están en consonancia con las políticas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre los dispositivos médicos y la atención universal de la salud. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones aumentará la disponibilidad mundial de dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial que sean exactos y tendrá como efecto un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento, reduciendo así la carga mundial de la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


[RESUMO]. A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico
15.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(2): 273-279, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967732

RESUMEN

High salt (sodium chloride) intake raises blood pressure and increases the risk of developing hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Little is known about salt intake in Nepal, and no study has estimated salt consumption from 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Participants (n = 451) were recruited from the Community-Based Management of Non-Communicable Diseases in Nepal (COBIN) cohort in 2018. Salt intake was estimated by analyzing 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate differences in salt intake. The mean (±SD) age and salt intake were 49.6 (±9.8) years and 13.3 (±4.7) g/person/d, respectively. Higher salt intake was significantly associated with male gender (ß for female = -2.4; 95% CI: -3.3, -1.4) and younger age (ß10 years  = -1.4; 95% CI: -1.4, -0.5) and higher BMI (ß = 0.1; 95% CI: 0.0, 0.2). A significant association was also found between increase in systolic blood pressure and higher salt intake (ß = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.0, 0.7). While 55% reported that they consumed just the right amount of salt, 98% were consuming more than the WHO recommended salt amount (<5 g/person/d). Daily salt intake in this population was over twice the limit recommended by the WHO, suggesting a substantial need to reduce salt intake in this population. It also supports the need of global initiatives such as WHO's Global Hearts Initiative SHAKE technical package and Resolves to Save Lives for sodium reduction in low- and middle-income countries like Nepal.

16.
J Hum Hypertens ; 34(1): 24-33, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076654

RESUMEN

Repeated 24-hour urine collection is considered to be the gold standard for assessing salt intake. This is often impractical in large-population studies, especially in low-middle-income countries. Equations to estimate 24-hour urinary salt excretion from a spot urine sample have been developed, but have not been widely validated in African populations. This study aimed to systematically assess the validity of four existing equations to predict 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24UNa) from spot urine samples in a nationally representative sample of South Africans. Spot and 24-hour urine samples were collected in a subsample (n = 438) of participants from the World Health Organisation Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 2 in South Africa in 2015. Measured 24UNa values were compared with predicted 24UNa values from the Kawasaki, Tanaka, INTERSALT and Mage equations using Bland-Altman plots. In this subsample (mean age 52.8 ± 16.4 years; body mass index 30.2 ± 8.2 kg/m2; 76% female; 73% black African; 42% hypertensive), all four equations produced a significantly different population estimate compared with the measured median value of 6.7 g salt/day (IQR 4.4-10.5). Although INTERSALT underestimated salt intake (-3.77 g/d; -1.64 to -7.09), the other equations overestimated by 1.28 g/d (-3.52; 1.97), 6.24 g/d (2.22; 9.45), and 17.18 g/d (8.42; 31.96) for Tanaka, Kawasaki, and Mage, respectively. Bland-Altman curves indicated unacceptably wide levels of agreement. Use of these equations to estimate population level salt intake from spot urine samples in South Africans is not recommended.

17.
Microvasc Res ; 128: 103937, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644892

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Globally, a detrimental shift in cardiovascular disease risk factors and a higher mortality level are reported in some black populations. The retinal microvasculature provides early insight into the pathogenesis of systemic vascular diseases, but it is unclear whether retinal vessel calibers and acute retinal vessel functional responses differ between young healthy black and white adults. METHODS: We included 112 black and 143 white healthy normotensive adults (20-30 years). Retinal vessel calibers (central retinal artery and vein equivalent (CRAE and CRVE)) were calculated from retinal images and vessel caliber responses to flicker light induced provocation (FLIP) were determined. Additionally, ambulatory blood pressure (BP), anthropometry and blood samples were collected. RESULTS: The groups displayed similar 24 h BP profiles and anthropometry (all p > .24). Black participants demonstrated a smaller CRAE (158 ±â€¯11 vs. 164 ±â€¯11 MU, p < .001) compared to the white group, whereas CRVE was similar (p = .57). In response to FLIP, artery maximal dilation was greater in the black vs. white group (5.6 ±â€¯2.1 vs. 3.3 ±â€¯1.8%; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Already at a young age, healthy black adults showed narrower retinal arteries relative to the white population. Follow-up studies are underway to show if this will be related to increased risk for hypertension development. The reason for the larger vessel dilation responses to FLIP in the black population is unclear and warrants further investigation.

18.
19.
Cytokine ; 126: 154894, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670005

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory mediators have been implicated in the early stages of cardiovascular disease development, including hypertension. Since global reports reflect a higher hypertension prevalence in black than white populations, we hypothesise the involvement of specific inflammatory mediators. We therefore compared a detailed range of 22 inflammatory mediators between young black and white adults, and determined the relationship with blood pressure. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We included 1197 adults (20-30 years; 50% black; 52% female) with detailed ambulatory blood pressures. Blood samples were analysed for 22 inflammatory mediators. For pro-inflammatory mediators, the black adults had higher C-reactive protein, interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant, macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (all p ≤ 0.008), but lower interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-8, IL-12, IL-17A, and tumour necrosis factor alpha (all p ≤ 0.048). For anti-inflammatory mediators the black group consistently had lower levels (IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 (all p ≤ 0.012)), resulting in generally higher pro-to-anti-inflammatory ratios in black than white adults (p ≤ 0.001). In mediators with pro- and anti-inflammatory functions, the black group had lower granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-6 (both p ≤ 0.010). These patterns were confirmed after adjustment for age, sex and waist circumference, or when stratifying by hypertensive status, sex and socio-economic status. Multi-variable adjusted regression analyses and factor analysis yielded no relationship between inflammatory mediators and blood pressure in this young healthy population. CONCLUSIONS: Black and white ethnic groups each consistently presented with unique inflammatory mediator patterns regardless of blood pressure, sex or social class. No association with blood pressure was seen in either of the groups.

20.
J Hypertens ; 38(2): 362-367, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584515

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to evaluate hypertensive case management in South Africa's public health sector using simulated patients. METHOD: Our study describes interactions between hypertensive simulated patients and primary healthcare workers at 39 public sector healthcare facilities in two metropolitan centres in the Eastern and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa. Our analysis focus on 97 interactions where our eight simulated patients tested within range for stage 1 hypertension, that is with SBP 140-159 mmHg and/or DBP 90-99 mmHg. For this subset, we describe how healthcare workers communicated the outcome of the blood pressure test, and whether they follow government guidelines on risk assessment and lifestyle advice. RESULTS: Healthcare workers highlighted the risks associated with hypertension in one out of three cases and stressed the importance of regular monitoring of blood pressure in less than half of cases. Hypertensive patients received advice on all six lifestyle risk factors in 8% of cases. 39% of patients received no lifestyle advice at all. In one out of four cases, hypertensive patients left the facility without a hypertension diagnosis and with no prospect of a follow-up visit. CONCLUSION: Simulated patients can assess the quality of hypertension case management, yielding granular and comprehensive information that can help mobilize resources to improve care. The management of hypertension patients in South African public healthcare facilities is critically insufficient. Given that hypertension is responsible for a rising share of deaths in South Africa and many of these deaths are preventable, urgent intervention is needed.

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