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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 340: 109042, 2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461002

RESUMEN

The development of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens is a growing public health concern. This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica isolated from the Australian commercial egg layer industry. S. enterica subspecies enterica (n=307) isolated from Australian commercial layer flock environments (2015-2018) were obtained from reference, research and State Government laboratories from six Australian states. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for 16 antimicrobial agents was performed by broth microdilution. Antimicrobial resistance genes and sequence types (STs) were identified in significant isolates by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Three main serotypes were detected, S. Typhimurium (n=61, 19.9%), S. Senftenburg (n=45, 14.7%) and S. Agona (n=37, 12.1%). AST showed 293/307 (95.4%) isolates were susceptible to all tested antimicrobial agents and all isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to streptomycin (2.3%, n=7), sulfisoxazole (2.0%, n=6), chloramphenicol (1.3%, n=4) and tetracycline (1.0%, n=3). Very low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to ampicillin (2/307; 0.7%) and cefoxitin (2/307; 0.7%). Two isolates (S. Havana and S. Montevideo), exhibited multidrug-resistant phenotypes to streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline and possessed corresponding antimicrobial resistance genes (aadA4, aac(6')-Iaa, sul1, tetB). One S. Typhimurium isolate was resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, and possessed both tetA and blaTEM-1B. WGS also identified these isolates as belonging to ST4 (S. Montevideo), ST578 (S. Havana) and ST19 (S. Typhimurium). The absence of resistance to highest priority critically important antimicrobials as well as the extremely low level of AMR generally among Australian commercial egg layer Salmonella isolates likely reflect Australia's conservative antimicrobial registration policy in food-producing animals and low rates of antimicrobial use within the industry.

2.
EJNMMI Radiopharm Chem ; 6(1): 5, 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507426

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Editorial Board of EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry releases a biyearly highlight commentary to describe trends in the field. RESULTS: This commentary of highlights has resulted in 19 different topics selected by each member of the Editorial Board addressing a variety of aspects ranging from novel radiochemistry to first in man application of novel radiopharmaceuticals. CONCLUSION: Trends in radiochemistry and radiopharmacy are highlighted demonstrating the progress in the research field being the scope of EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry.

3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 162: 111918, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341078

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic lead (Pb) contamination resulting from the rapid growth of industrialization in coastal environments poses significant challenges. In this study, we report a novel approach utilising the large benthic foraminifera Amphisorus hemprichii as a biogeochemical archive for monitoring Pb pollution in tropical to warm-temperate coastal waters. Live juvenile specimens of A. hemprichii were cultured in the laboratory for 16 weeks with a range of seawater Pb concentrations. Lead uptake in both newly grown and pre-existing chambers of individual specimens was characterised using the microanalytical technique, Laser ablation-ICP mass spectrometry. We found that Pb concentration in the tests of cultured foraminifera in the laboratory is proportional to seawater [Pb] with the lead partition coefficient (KDPb) of 8.37 ± 0.3. This calibration together with a new biomineralisation model now enables A. hemprichii to be utilised as a naturally occurring bio-archive to quantitatively monitor anthropogenic Pb pollution in coastal waters.


Asunto(s)
Foraminíferos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Plomo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274468

RESUMEN

A new method for the synthesis of the highly selective delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist radiotracer N1 '-([11 C]methyl)naltrindole ([11 C]MeNTI) is described. The original synthesis required hydrogentation of a benzyl protecting group after 11 C-labeling, which is challenging in modern radiochemistry laboratories that tend to be heavily automated and operate according to current Good Manufacturing Practice. To address this challenge we describe development of a novel MeNTI precursor bearing a methoxymethyl acetal (MOM) protecting group which is easily removed with HCl, and employ it in an updated synthesis of [11 C]MeNTI. The new synthesis is fully automated and validated for clinical use. The total synthesis time is 45 min and provides [11 C]MeNTI in good activity yield (49 ± 8 mCi), molar activity (3926 ± 326 Ci/mmol) and radiochemical purity (97 ± 2%).

5.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 11(11): 2300-2304, 2020 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214844

RESUMEN

The radiotracers [11C]COU and [11C]PHXY are potential PET imaging agents for in vivo studies of monoamine oxidases (MAOs), as previously shown in rodent and primate brain. One-pot, automated methods for the radiosynthesis of [11C]PHXY and [11C]COU were developed to provide reliable and improved radiochemical yields. Although derived from the structure of the neurotoxin MPTP, COU did not exhibit in vivo neurotoxicity to dopaminergic nerve terminals in the mouse brain as assayed by losses of VMAT2 radioligand binding. PET imaging studies in rats demonstrated that both [11C]COU and [11C]PHXY exhibit retention in cardiac tissues that can be blocked by pretreatment with the MAO inhibitors deprenyl (MAO-B) and pargyline (MAO-A and -B). In addition to prior neuroimaging applications, [11C]COU and [11C]PHXY are thus also of interest for studies of MAO enzymatic activity and imaging of sympathetic nerve density in heart.

6.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 11(11): 2325-2330, 2020 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214848

RESUMEN

Radiolabeled guanidines such as meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) find utility in nuclear medicine as both diagnostic imaging agents and radiotherapeutics and, over the years, numerous methods for incorporating radionuclides into guanidines have been developed. In connection with a project developing new positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers for cardiac sympathetic nerve density, we had cause to prepare [11C]3F-PHPOG. However, it quickly became apparent that radiolabeling of guanidine scaffolds with carbon-11 has remained challenging, and historical methods lack compatibility with modern automated radiochemistry synthesis platforms and current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) requirements. To address this challenge, we report a new automated method for radiolabeling guanidines with carbon-11. The method was used to prepare a series of [11C]guanidines in good radiochemical yield (8-76% by radio-HPLC) and was found to have broad substrate scope and tolerance of unprotected OH and NH functional groups. The method was used to synthesize [11C]3F-PHPOG for preclinical imaging, and suitability of the radiotracer for preclinical use was demonstrated through preliminary cardiac PET in New Zealand white rabbits which revealed good cardiac uptake and expected retention in the heart.

7.
EJNMMI Radiopharm Chem ; 5(1): 24, 2020 Nov 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175263

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the US, EU and elsewhere, basic clinical research studies with positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers that are generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE) can often be conducted under institutional approval. For example, in the United States, such research is conducted under the oversight of a Radioactive Drug Research Committee (RDRC) as long as certain requirements are met. Firstly, the research must be for basic science and cannot be intended for immediate therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, or to determine the safety and effectiveness of the PET radiotracer. Secondly, the PET radiotracer must be generally recognized as safe and effective. Specifically, the mass dose to be administered must not cause any clinically detectable pharmacological effect in humans, and the radiation dose to be administered must be the smallest dose practical to perform the study and not exceed regulatory dose limits within a 1-year period. In our experience, the main barrier to using a PET radiotracer under RDRC approval is accessing the required information about mass and radioactive dosing. RESULTS: The University of Michigan (UM) has a long history of using PET radiotracers in clinical research studies. Herein we provide dosing information for 55 radiotracers that will enable other PET Centers to use them under the approval of their own RDRC committees. CONCLUSIONS: The data provided herein will streamline future RDRC approval, and facilitate further basic science investigation of 55 PET radiotracers that target functionally relevant biomarkers in high impact disease states.

8.
EJNMMI Radiopharm Chem ; 5(1): 25, 2020 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180205

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To optimize the direct production of 68Ga on a cyclotron, via the 68Zn(p,n)68Ga reaction using a liquid cyclotron target. We Investigated the yield of cyclotron-produced 68Ga, extraction of [68Ga]GaCl3 and subsequent [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 labeling using an automated synthesis module. METHODS: Irradiations of a 1.0 M solution of [68Zn]Zn(NO3)2 in dilute (0.2-0.3 M) HNO3 were conducted using GE PETtrace cyclotrons and GE 68Ga liquid targets. The proton beam energy was degraded to a nominal 14.3 MeV to minimize the co-production of 67Ga through the 68Zn(p,2n)67Ga reaction without unduly compromising 68Ga yields. We also evaluated the effects of varying beam times (50-75 min) and beam currents (27-40 µA). Crude 68Ga production was measured. The extraction of [68Ga]GaCl3 was performed using a 2 column solid phase method on the GE FASTlab Developer platform. Extracted [68Ga]GaCl3 was used to label [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 that was intended for clinical use. RESULTS: The decay corrected yield of 68Ga at EOB was typically > 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) for a 60 min beam, with irradiations of [68Zn]Zn(NO3)2 at 0.3 M HNO3. Target/chemistry performance was more consistent when compared with 0.2 M HNO3. Radionuclidic purity of 68Ga was typically > 99.8% at EOB and met the requirements specified in the European Pharmacopoeia (< 2% combined 66/67Ga) for a practical clinical product shelf-life. The activity yield of [68Ga]GaCl3 was typically > 50% (~ 1.85 GBq, 50 mCi); yields improved as processes were optimized. Labeling yields for [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 were near quantitative (~ 1.67 GBq, 45 mCi) at EOS. Cyclotron produced [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 underwent full quality control, stability and sterility testing, and was implemented for human use at the University of Michigan as an Investigational New Drug through the US FDA and also at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPA). CONCLUSION: Direct cyclotron irradiation of a liquid target provides clinically relevant quantities of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 and is a viable alternative to traditional 68Ge/68Ga generators.

9.
J Pharm Anal ; 10(5): 452-465, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133729

RESUMEN

The implication of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) in numerous diseases and neurodegenerative disorders makes it interesting both as a therapeutic target and as an inflammatory biomarker. In the context of investigating RAGE as a biomarker, there is interest in developing radiotracers that will enable quantification of RAGE using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. We have synthesized potential small molecule radiotracers for both the intracellular ([18F]InRAGER) and extracellular ([18F]RAGER) domains of RAGE. Herein we report preclinical evaluation of both using in vitro (lead panel screens) and in vivo (rodent and nonhuman primate PET imaging) methods. Both radiotracers have high affinity for RAGE and show good brain uptake, but suffer from off-target binding. The source of the off-target PET signal is not attributable to binding to melatonin receptors, but remains unexplained. We have also investigated use of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice as a possible animal model with upregulated RAGE for evaluation of new imaging agents. Immunoreactivity of the mouse brain sections revealed increases in RAGE in the male cohorts, but no difference in the female groups. However, it proves challenging to quantify the changes in RAGE due to off-target binding of the radiotracers. Nevertheless, they are appropriate lead scaffolds for future development of 2nd generation RAGE PET radiotracers because of their high affinity for the receptor and good CNS penetration.

10.
Nucl Med Biol ; 93: 19-21, 2020 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232876

RESUMEN

Radiochemical conversion is an important term to be included in the "Consensus nomenclature rules for radiopharmaceutical chemistry". Radiochemical conversion should be used to define reaction efficiency by measuring the transformation of components in a crude reaction mixture at a given time, whereas radiochemical yield is better suited to define the efficiency of an entire reaction process including, for example, separation, isolation, filtration, and formulation.

11.
Science ; 370(6520): 1086-1089, 2020 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243888

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic environmental modification is placing as many as 1 million species at risk of extinction. One management action for reducing extinction risk is translocation of individuals to locations from which they have disappeared or to new locations where biologists hypothesize they have a good chance of surviving. To maximize this survival probability, the standard practice is to move animals from the closest possible populations that contain presumably related individuals. In an empirical test of this conventional wisdom, we analyzed a genomic dataset for 166 translocated desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) that either survived or died over a period of two decades. We used genomic data to infer the geographic origin of translocated tortoises and found that individual heterozygosity predicted tortoise survival, whereas translocation distance or geographic unit of origin did not. Our results suggest a relatively simple indicator of the likelihood of a translocated individual's survival: heterozygosity.

13.
Chemistry ; 26(69): 16554-16562, 2020 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026666

RESUMEN

Bulges are essential structural elements in nucleic acids. The detection and targeting of bulged DNA sequences are highly important. Small molecules capable of targeting DNA bulges have attracted considerable attention because they cannot only be used as reagents for bulge recognition, but also as potential therapeutic drugs. Herein, the interactions of DNA duplexes, containing bulges of various sizes and base compositions, with a series of FeII triplex-forming metallohelices are reported. The results obtained, with the aid of molecular biophysics methods, show that the investigated metallohelices prefer to bind to bulged DNA, rather than double-stranded DNA, and that their binding affinities towards bulges differ among individual metallohelices. Moreover, their binding affinities towards bulges strongly depend on the bulge size and the base composition of the bulge loop. The investigated metallohelices can enter eukaryotic cells and accumulate in the cell nucleus, allowing them to interact with nucleic acids. Hence, it is reasonable to suggest that the interaction of metallohelices with nucleic acid bulges might contribute to the mechanism of their biological activity.

14.
Anal Methods ; 12(41): 5004-5009, 2020 Nov 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000785

RESUMEN

When utilizing [18F]tetrabutylammonium fluoride ([18F]TBAF) in the synthesis of 18F-labeled radiotracers for clinical positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, it is necessary to confirm that residual TBA levels in formulated doses do not exceed established specifications (≤2.6 mg per patient dose). Historically this has been accomplished using HPLC, but this is time consuming for short-lived PET radiotracers and limited by the need for expensive equipment. This motivated us to introduce a TLC spot test for determining residual TBA, and we have developed a new method which employs the Dragendorff reagent. Herein we report details of the TLC method and use it to quantify residual TBA in different formulations of 6-[18F]fluoro-DOPA.

15.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(19): 2906-2914, 2020 10 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970401

RESUMEN

Imaging of the opioid system was one of the earliest applications of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging in neuroscience that remains in widespread use today and in the age of the opioid crisis the technique is as important as ever. In this viewpoint the rich history of opioid imaging using PET is highlighted, including discussion of the preferred radiotracers for imaging of µ, δ, κ and ORL-1 receptors in clinical applications. We also draw attention to key innovations that were essential to development of radiotracers for imaging opioid receptors including production of high molar activity PET radionuclides and new approaches to radiochemistry.

16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928877

RESUMEN

Immune-related etiologic pathways to influence invasive breast cancer risk may interact with lifestyle factors, but the interrelated molecular genetic pathways are incompletely characterized. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative Database for Genotypes and Phenotypes Study including 16,088 postmenopausal women, a population highly susceptible to inflammation, obesity, and increased risk for breast cancer. With 21,784,812 common autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), we conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) gene-environment interaction (G × E) analysis in six independent GWA Studies for proinflammatory cytokines [IL6 and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and their gene-lifestyle interactions. Subsequently, we tested for the association of the GWA SNPs with breast cancer risk. In women overall and stratified by obesity status (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio) and obesity-related lifestyle factors (exercise and high-fat diet), 88 GWA SNPs in 10 loci were associated with proinflammatory cytokines: 3 associated with IL6 (1 index SNP in MAPK1 and 1 independent SNP in DEC1); 85 with CRP (3 index SNPs in CRPP1, CRP, RP11-419N10.5, HNF1A-AS1, HNF1A, and C1q2orf43; and two independent SNPs in APOE and APOC1). Of those, 27 in HNF1A-AS1, HNF1A, and C1q2orf43 displayed significantly increased risk for breast cancer. We found a number of novel top markers for CRP and IL6, which interacted with obesity factors. A substantial proportion of those SNPs' susceptibility influenced breast cancer risk. Our findings may contribute to better understanding of genetic associations between pro-inflammation and cancer and suggest intervention strategies for women who carry the risk genotypes, reducing breast cancer risk. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: The top GWA-SNPs associated with pro-inflammatory biomarkers have implications for breast carcinogenesis by interacting with obesity factors. Our findings may suggest interventions for women who carry the inflammatory-risk genotypes to reduce breast cancer risk.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14543, 2020 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884069

RESUMEN

RNA G-quadruplexes have been suggested to play key roles in fundamental biological processes and are linked to human diseases. Thus, they also represent good potential therapeutic targets. Here, we describe, using the methods of molecular biophysics, interactions of a series of biologically-active supramolecular cationic metallohelices with human telomeric RNA G-quadruplex. We demonstrate that the investigated metallohelices bind with a high affinity to human telomeric RNA G-quadruplex and that their binding selectivity considerably differs depending on the dimensions and overall shape of the metallohelices. Additionally, the investigated metallohelices inhibit DNA synthesis on the RNA template containing four repeats of the human telomeric sequence by stabilizing the RNA G-quadruplex structure. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that stabilization of RNA sequences capable of G-quadruplex formation by metallohelices investigated in this work might contribute to the mechanism of their biological activity.

18.
Mol Imaging ; 19: 1536012120936397, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907484

RESUMEN

This meeting report summarizes a Consultants Meeting that was held at International Atomic Energy Agency headquarters in Vienna to provide an update on radionuclide imaging for neuroscience applications.

19.
Avian Pathol ; 49(6): 658-665, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835491

RESUMEN

Spotty Liver Disease (SLD) is an emerging disease of serious concern in the egg production industry, as it causes significant egg loss and mortality in layer hens. The causative agent is a newly identified Gram-negative bacterium, Campylobacter hepaticus, and knowledge about C. hepaticus pathogenesis and the potential for vaccine development is still in its infancy. Current detection methods for SLD, such as PCR and culturing, only detect an active infection and will not give any indication of a past infection from which the bacteria have been cleared. An immunological assay, on the other hand, can provide information on previous infections and therefore is crucial in vaccine development against SLD. In the present study, we have developed the first immunoassay capable of detecting C. hepaticus-specific antibodies present in the sera of infected birds. The assay uses C. hepaticus total protein extract (TPE) as the antigen coating on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates. The cross reactivity of C. hepaticus antibodies with closely related C. jejuni and C. coli antigens was successfully overcome by pre-absorbing the sera using C. jejuni cell extracts. The assay was validated using sera samples from both naturally- and experimentally-infected birds, birds vaccinated with formalin-killed bacteria, and serum samples from SLD-negative birds (control group). The optimized ELISA assay had 95.5% specificity and 97.6% sensitivity. The immunoassay provides a useful tool for monitoring the exposure of poultry flocks to C. hepaticus infection and can be used to direct and support vaccine development. HIGHLIGHTS The first immunoassay developed for Spotty Liver Disease (SLD). A useful method for detecting C. hepaticus-specific antibodies in birds. Highly specific (95.5%) and sensitive (97.6%) assay. A key tool for use in epidemiological studies and vaccine development.

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