Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 381
Filtrar
1.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 255-261, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881288

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Systemic inflammation is characteristic for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is responsible for the accumulation of its disease-specific Tau-protein and ß-amyloid plaques. Studies focusing on an association with periodontitis showed worse periodontal conditions in patients with dementia, but until now, no study has investigated the differences between AD and other forms of dementia (noAD/DEM). Expecting severe periodontal disease in AD, the aim of this pilot-study was to compare the periodontal and dental status in patients with either AD or noAD/DEM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients recently diagnosed with AD and 20 with noAD/DEM between the ages of 50 and 70 years were recruited at the Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Münster, Germany and clinically examined at the Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Münster, Germany. Neuropsychological testing, levels of Tau-protein and ß-amyloid in serum and liquor were used to distinguish between both groups. Dental and periodontal parameters such as clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding-on-probing (BOP), radiographic bone loss, full-mouth plaque score (FMPS), and missing and restored teeth were recorded. RESULTS: Periodontitis was diagnosed in all patients. Patients with AD presented mean BOP of 54.7 ± 31.1% and radiographic bone loss of 42.5 ± 25.3%; the mean BOP of those with noAD/DEM was 52.0 ± 23.7% and radiographic bone loss was 40.9 ± 32.3%. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding other periodontal and dental parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Both patients with AD and noAD/DEM had periodontal disease. Consequently, patients with all forms of dementia (AD/other) need special dental care to improve periodontal and oral health.

2.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 263-270, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881289

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To use and evaluate two methods for measuring gingival thickness (GT) at mandibular incisors of orthodontic patients and compare their performance in assessing periodontal anatomy through soft tissue thickness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 40 consecutive adult orthodontic patients. GT was measured just before bracket placement at both central mandibular incisors, mid-facially on the buccal aspect, 2 mm apically to the free gingival margin with two methods: clinically with an ultrasound device (USD) and radiographically with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). RESULTS: CBCT measurements were consistently higher than USD measurements, with the difference ranging from 0.13 mm to 0.21 mm. No statistically significant difference was noted between the repeated CBCT measurements at the right central incisor (bias = 0.05 mm; 95% CI = -0.01, 0.11; p = 0.104). Although the respective results for the left incisor statistically indicated that the measurements were not exactly replicated, the magnitude of the point estimate was small and not clinically significant (bias = 0.06 mm; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.11; p = 0.014). Small differences between CBCT measurements made by the 2 examiners at the left central incisor (bias = 0.06 mm; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.11; p = 0.014) were detected. However, this difference was minor and also not clinically significant. The respective analysis on the right incisor showed no statistically significant difference (bias = 0.05 mm; 95% CI = -0.01, 0.11; p = 0.246). CONCLUSIONS: Based on reproducibility, CBCT imaging for gingival thickness assessment proved to be as reliable as ultrasound determination. However, CBCT consistently yielded higher values, albeit at a marginal level, than did the ultrasound device.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800894

RESUMEN

Dental implants may be considered a reliable routine procedure in clinical practice for the replacement of missing teeth. Results from long-term studies indicate that implant-supported dental prostheses constitute a predictable treatment method for the management of fully and partially edentulous patients. Implants and their restorations, however, are not free from biological complications. In fact, peri-implantitis, defined as progressive bone loss associated to clinical inflammation, is not a rare finding nowadays. This constitutes a concern for clinicians and patients given the negative impact on the quality of life and the sequelae originated by peri-implantitis lesions. The purpose of this narrative review is to report on the prevalence of peri-implantitis and to overview the indications, contraindications, complexity, predictability and effectiveness of the different surgical therapeutic modalities to manage this disorder.

4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803281

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of subgingival instrumentation (SI) alone or combined with either local drug delivery (LDD) or photodynamic therapy (PDT) in persistent/recurrent pockets in patients enrolled in supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). A total of 105 patients enrolled in SPT were randomly treated as follows: group A (n = 35): SI +PDT and 7 days later 2nd PDT; group B (n = 35): SI+LDD; group C (n = 35): SI (control). Prior intervention, at 3 and 6 months after therapy, probing pocket depths, clinical attachment level, number of treated sites with bleeding on probing (n BOP), full mouth plaque and bleeding scores (gingival bleeding index, %BOP) were recorded. At the same time points, 8 periodontopathogens were quantitatively determined. All three treatments resulted in statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) of all clinical parameters without statistically significant intergroup differences (p > 0.05). Several bacterial species were reduced in both test groups, with statistically significantly higher reductions for LDD compared to PDT and the control group. In conclusion, the present data indicate that: (a) In periodontal patients enrolled in SPT, treatment of persistent/recurrent pockets with SI alone or combined with either PDT or LDD may lead to comparable clinical improvements and (b) the adjunctive use of LDD appears to provide better microbiological improvements for some periodontal pathogens than SI alone or combined with PDT.

5.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(7)2021 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805477

RESUMEN

Surface chemistry and nanotopography of dental implants can have a substantial impact on osseointegration. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of surface chemistry and nanotopography on the osseointegration of titanium-zirconium (TiZr; Roxolid®) discs, using a biomechanical pull-out model in rabbits. Two discs each were placed in both the right and left tibiae of 16 rabbits. Five groups of sandblasted acid etched (SLA) discs were tested: (1) hydrophobic without nanostructures (dry/micro) (n = 13); (2) hydrophobic with nanostructures, accelerated aged (dry/nano/AA) (n = 12); (3) hydrophilic without nanostructures (wet/micro) (n = 13); (4) hydrophilic with nanostructures, accelerated aged (wet/nano/AA; SLActive®) (n = 13); (5) hydrophilic with nanostructures, real-time aged (wet/nano/RTA). The animals were sacrificed after four weeks and the biomechanical pull-out force required to remove the discs was evaluated. Adjusted mean pull-out force was greatest for group wet/nano/RTA (64.5 ± 17.7 N) and lowest for group dry/micro (33.8 ± 10.7 N). Multivariate mixed model analysis showed that the pull-out force was significantly greater for all other disc types compared to the dry/micro group. Surface chemistry and topography both had a significant effect on pull-out force (p < 0.0001 for both), but the effect of the interaction between chemistry and topography was not significant (p = 0.1056). The introduction of nanostructures on the TiZr surface significantly increases osseointegration. The introduction of hydrophilicity to the TiZr implant surface significantly increases the capacity for osseointegration, irrespective of the presence or absence of nanotopography.

6.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687555

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The mechanical disruption and removal of the subgingival biofilm represent the most important step in the treatment of periodontitis. However, in deep periodontal pockets, mechanical removal of the subgingival biofilm is difficult and frequently incomplete. Preliminary findings indicate that the use of amino acid buffered sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) gel may chemically destroy the bacterial biofilm and facilitate its mechanical removal. OBJECTIVES: To clinically evaluate the efficacy of minimally invasive nonsurgical therapy (MINST) of periodontal pockets with or without local application of an amino acid buffered sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) gel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty untreated patients diagnosed with severe/advanced periodontitis (i.e. stage III/IV) with a slow/moderate rate of progression (i.e. grade A/B) were randomly allocated in two treatment groups. In the test group, the periodontal pockets were treated by means of MINST and NaOCl gel application, while in the control group, treatment consisted of MINST alone. Full-mouth plaque scores (FMPS), full-mouth bleeding scores (FMBS), probing depths (PD), clinical attachment levels (CAL) and gingival recessions (GR) were assessed at baseline and at 6 months following therapy. The primary outcome variable was PD reduction at sites with PD ≥ 5 mm at baseline. RESULTS: At 6 months, statistically significant differences between the two groups were found (p = 0.001) in terms of PD and CAL change. No statistically significant differences were found in terms of GR (p = 0.81). The number of sites with PD ≥ 5 mm and BOP (+) decreased statistically significantly (p = 0.001), i.e. from 85.3 to 2.2% in the test group and from 81.6 to 7.3% in the control group, respectively. Statistically significant differences between test and control groups were recorded at 6 months (p = 0.001). MINST + NaOCl compared to MINST alone decreased statistically significantly (p = 0.001) the probability of residual PDs ≥ 5 mm with BOP- (14.5% vs 18.3%) and BOP+ (2.2% vs. 7.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Within their limits, the present results indicate that (a) the use of MINST may represent a clinically valuable approach for nonsurgical therapy and (b) the application of NaOCl gel in conjunction with MINST may additionally improve the clinical outcomes compared to the use of MINST alone. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In patients with untreated periodontitis, treatment of deep pockets by means of MINST in conjunction with a NaOCl gel may represent a valuable approach to additionally improve the clinical outcomes obtained with MINST alone.

7.
Quintessence Int ; 0(0): 0, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749221

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To describe the step-by-step procedure of a novel surgical technique consisting of a combination of the laterally closed tunnel (LCT) and the modified coronally advanced tunnel (MCAT) (ie, LCT/MCAT), designed to treat multiple mandibular adjacent gingival recessions (MAGR) and to present the clinical outcomes obtained in 11 consecutively treated patients. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Eleven systemically and periodontally healthy patients (7 females, mean ± SD 33.62 ± 14.6 years, min. 19 years max. 67 years) with a total of 40 adjacent mandibular RT1 (ie, Miller Class 1 and 2) gingival recessions with a minimum depth ≥ 3 mm, were consecutively treated with LCT/MCAT, in conjunction with an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and subepithelial palatal connective tissue graft (SCTG). Treatment outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 12 months postoperatively. Prior to surgery and at 12 months postoperatively, recession depth (RD) and recession width (RW) were evaluated. The primary outcome variable was complete root coverage (CRC, ie 100% root coverage), the secondary outcome was mean root coverage (MRC). RESULTS: Postoperative pain and discomfort were low and the healing was uneventful in all cases without any complications. At 12 months, statistically significant (P < .05) root coverage (RC) was obtained in all patients. CRC was obtained in five patients with a total of 21 recessions, while MRC measured 92.9% (ie, 3.75 mm). In seven patients (ie, 63.6%), RC amounted to > 93% while the minimum RC per patient measured 83.76%. CONCLUSION: The results of the present case series suggest that the LCT/MCAT is a valuable technique for the treatment of mandibular RT1 MAGR.

8.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 135, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740959

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been widely utilized in modern medicine and dentistry owing to its ability to rapidly stimulate neoangiogenesis, leading to faster tissue regeneration. While improvements over traditional platelet rich plasma therapies (which use chemical additives such as bovine thrombin and calcium chloride) have been observed, most clinicians are unaware that many tubes utilized for the production of 'natural' and '100% autologous' PRF may in fact contain chemical additives without appropriate or transparent knowledge provided to the treating clinician. The aim of this overview article is therefore to provide a technical note on recent discoveries related to PRF tubes and describe recent trends related to research on the topic from the authors laboratories. METHODS: Recommendations are provided to clinicians with the aim of further optimizing PRF clots/membranes by appropriate understanding of PRF tubes. The most common additives to PRF tubes reported in the literature are silica and/or silicone. A variety of studies have been performed on their topic described in this narrative review article. RESULTS: Typically, PRF production is best achieved with plain, chemical-free glass tubes. Unfortunately, a variety of other centrifugation tubes commonly used for lab testing/diagnostics and not necessarily manufactured for human use have been utilized in clinical practice for the production of PRF with unpredictable clinical outcomes. Many clinicians have noted an increased variability in PRF clot sizes, a decreased rate of clot formation (PRF remains liquid even after an adequate protocol is followed), or even an increased rate in the clinical signs of inflammation following the use of PRF. CONCLUSION: This technical note addresses these issues in detail and provides scientific background of recent research articles on the topic. Furthermore, the need to adequately select appropriate centrifugation tubes for the production of PRF is highlighted with quantitative data provided from in vitro and animal investigations emphasizing the negative impact of the addition of silica/silicone on clot formation, cell behavior and in vivo inflammation.

9.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672690

RESUMEN

Interest in the application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in the medical field has been increasing. Indications in dentistry are surface modifications and antimicrobial interventions. The antimicrobial effect of CAP is mainly attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. The aim of this article is to systematically review the available evidence from in-vitro studies on the antimicrobial effect of CAP on dental pathogens. A database search was performed (PubMed, Embase, Scopus). Data concerning the device parameters, experimental set-ups and microbial cultivation were extracted. The quality of the studies was evaluated using a newly designed assessment tool. 55 studies were included (quality score 31-92%). The reduction factors varied strongly among the publications although clusters could be identified between groups of set pathogen, working gases, and treatment time intervals. A time-dependent increase of the antimicrobial effect was observed throughout the studies. CAP may be a promising alternative for antimicrobial treatment in a clinically feasible application time. The introduced standardized protocol is able to compare the outcome and quality of in-vitro studies. Further studies, including multi-species biofilm models, are needed to specify the application parameters of CAP before CAP should be tested in randomized clinical trials.

11.
Quintessence Int ; 0(0): 394-401, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533238

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Transgingival probing is often used in the clinic to assess gingival thickness. However, what is not completely known is how well this method represents the true value of soft tissue thickness. The aim of this study was to assess differences and variation in gingival thickness when measured with transgingival probing or scanned with an intraoral device. METHOD AND MATERIALS: This ex vivo study evaluated gingival thickness on 20 porcine cadavers. Gingival thickness was assessed at both central and lateral mandibular incisors through transgingival probing with a standard metal periodontal probe and also using intraoral scanning, which was considered as the method providing the 'true value' of soft tissue thickness. Intra-examiner repeatability and method error were evaluated. RESULTS: No evidence of systematic difference for any of the mandibular central or lateral incisors (mandibular right incisors: mean difference -0.17 to -0.01 mm, and mandibular left incisors: mean difference -0.11 to 0.04 mm) was observed between the periodontal probe and intraoral scanning methods. The absolute differences between the repeated measurements with intraoral scanning for each tooth type (n = 30) were calculated: the overall median was 0.089 mm and the interquartile range was 0.080 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Transgingival probing with a standard metal periodontal probe for assessing gingival thickness is a reliable method, with values very close to the true gingival thickness, and it can thus be considered as the clinical gold standard.


Asunto(s)
Encía , Incisivo , Animales , Humanos , Mandíbula , Examen Físico , Estándares de Referencia , Porcinos
12.
Clin Oral Investig ; 25(5): 2461-2478, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609186

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes of periodontal intrabony defects by using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) with other commonly utilized modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The eligibility criteria comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical outcomes of PRF with that of other modalities. Studies were classified into 10 categories as follows: (1) open flap debridement (OFD) alone versus OFD/PRF; (2) OFD/bone graft (OFD/BG) versus OFD/PRF; (3) OFD/BG versus OFD/BG/PRF; (4-6) OFD/barrier membrane (BM), OFD/PRP, or OFD/enamel matrix derivative (EMD) versus OFD/PRF; (7) OFD/EMD versus OFD/EMD/PRF; (8-10) OFD/PRF versus OFD/PRF/metformin, OFD/PRF/bisphosphonates, or OFD/PRF/statins. Weighted means and forest plots were calculated for probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic bone fill (RBF). RESULTS: From 551 articles identified, 27 RCTs were included. The use of OFD/PRF statistically significantly reduced PD and improved CAL and RBF when compared to OFD. No clinically significant differences were reported when OFD/BG was compared to OFD/PRF. The addition of PRF to OFD/BG led to significant improvements in CAL and RBF. No differences were reported between any of the following groups (OFD/BM, OFD/PRP, and OFD/EMD) when compared to OFD/PRF. No improvements were also reported when PRF was added to OFD/EMD. The addition of all three of the following biomolecules (metformin, bisphosphonates, and statins) to OFD/PRF led to statistically significant improvements of PD, CAL, and RBF. CONCLUSIONS: The use of PRF significantly improved clinical outcomes in intrabony defects when compared to OFD alone with similar levels being observed between OFD/BG and OFD/PRF. Future research geared toward better understanding potential ways to enhance the regenerative properties of PRF with various small biomolecules may prove valuable for future clinical applications. Future research investigating PRF at histological level is also needed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of PRF in conjunction with OFD statistically significantly improved PD, CAL, and RBF values, yielding to comparable outcomes to OFD/BG. The combination of PRF with bone grafts or small biomolecules may offer certain clinical advantages, thus warranting further investigations.

13.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565017

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the clinical outcomes obtained in intrabony defects following regenerative periodontal surgery using the single-flap approach (SFA) in conjunction with either hyaluronic acid (HA) or enamel matrix derivative (EMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two intrabony defects in 32 healthy subjects were randomly assigned: HA (test group) or EMD (control group). Clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), gingival recession (REC), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at baseline,12, 18, and 24 months after surgery. RESULTS: At 24 months, both treatments resulted in statistically significant clinical improvements evidenced by PD-reduction and CAL-gain (p<0.001). The mean CAL-gain was 2.19±1.11 mm in the test and 2.94±1.12 mm in the control sites (p=0.067). PD-reduction was statistically significantly higher for the control group (4.5±0.97 mm) than the test group (3.31±0.70 mm), (p=0.001). CAL-gain ≤ 3 mm was observed in 87.5% and in 62.5% of the test and control sites, respectively. Test sites showed slightly lower REC values than the control sites. No statistically significant differences were found for BOP between treatments. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that both treatments led to statistically significant clinical improvements compared to baseline, although the application of EMD resulted in statistically significantly higher PD-reduction compared to the use of HA. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of HA in conjunction with a SFA resulted in significant PD-reduction and CAL-gain, pointing to the potential clinical relevance of this material in regenerative periodontal surgery.

14.
Quintessence Int ; 0(0): 308-316, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533237

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In-vitro data have shown that cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA) enhances the proliferative and migratory properties of cells involved in periodontal wound healing/regeneration, stabilizes the blood clot, reduces the inflammatory response, and facilitates angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to histologically evaluate the effects of cross-linked HA alone or combined with a collagen matrix (CM) on the periodontal wound healing/regeneration in intrabony defects. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Two-wall intrabony defects (5 mm wide, 5 mm deep) were surgically created at the distal and mesial aspects of mandibular premolars in six beagle dogs. The 24 defects were randomly treated as follows: open flap debridement (OFD) + HA, OFD + CM, OFD + HA + CM (HA/CM), and OFD alone (control). At 2 months, the animals were euthanized for histologic evaluation. RESULTS: The HA (2.43 ±â€¯1.25 mm) and HA/CM (2.60 ±â€¯0.99 mm) groups yielded statistically significantly (P < .05) greater formation of new attachment (ie, linear length of new cementum adjacent to newly formed bone, with inserting collagen fibers) compared with the OFD (0.55 ± 0.99 mm) group. Among the four treatment groups, the HA/CM group demonstrated the highest amount of regenerated tissues, although no statistically significant differences in any of the histometric parameters were observed between the HA and HA/CM groups. CONCLUSION: Within their limits, it can be concluded that cross-linked HA alone or combined with CM promotes periodontal wound healing/regeneration in two-wall intrabony defects in dogs.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/cirugía , Animales , Regeneración Ósea , Colágeno , Perros , Regeneración Tisular Guiada Periodontal , Ácido Hialurónico , Cicatrización de Heridas
15.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 19-29, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427214

RESUMEN

The pH value of a biofilm influences the pathogenesis and therapy of oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis. This study aimed to investigate the influence of different initial pH values on the microbial composition, bacterial counts, metabolic activity, and quantity of three defined biofilms representing oral health, caries, and periodontal disease. Respective bacterial suspensions in the nutrient broth were initially adjusted to pH values between 5 and 8. Then biofilms were cultured on polystyrene surfaces coated with a proteinaceous solution for 2 h ("healthy" biofilm), 6 h ("healthy," and "cariogenic" biofilms), 24 h ("cariogenic," and "periodontitis" biofilms), and 48 h ("periodontitis" biofilm). In all biofilms, total bacterial counts were lower at an initial pH of 5 or 5.5 than at higher pH values. In the biofilm representing caries, the percentage of cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus) was higher at a low pH, the metabolic activity was highest at pH 6-6.5, and biofilm mass was greatest at pH 7-7.5. In the biofilm representing periodontitis, the percentage of Porphyromonas gingivalis increased with the pH. Also, the metabolic activity was highest at pH 8, whereas mass had the highest value at pH 7. In conclusion, the initial pH value influences biofilm formation. In particular, metabolic activity and the amount of bacteria associated with disease correlated with the respective pH known to be of importance in the development of caries (relatively low pH) and periodontitis (higher pH). Modifying the pH level in oral biofilms might be an alternative concept in (primary) prevention and treatment, not only of caries but also of periodontitis.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Streptococcus mutans , Biopelículas , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Lactobacillus acidophilus
16.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 133-143, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427227

RESUMEN

During the last decade, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been extensively investigated for the treatment of periodontal and peri-implant infections. Nonetheless, contradicting clinical and microbiological outcomes and only results on a short-term basis have been reported so far, thus making it difficult to conclude on clinically relevant recommendations for the use of PDT. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the current evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the potential clinical and/or microbiological benefit for the use of PDT in non-surgical periodontal and peri-implant therapy, and to draw clinically relevant conclusions on the use of PDT in periodontal practice. Based on the available evidence from RCTs and recent meta-analyses, we can conclude the following: in patients with mild to moderate periodontitis, the combination of scaling and root planing (SRP) and PDT may result in significantly higher clinical improvements (bleeding on probing and probing depth reduction, clinical attachment gain) compared to SRP alone in the non-surgical treatment of periodontitis; in patients with stage III and IV grade C periodontitis (previously known as AgP) the use of PDT provides clinical improvements, although PDT cannot so far be recommended as a replacement for systemic antibiotics (i.e., amoxicillin and metronidazole); PDT may be indicated as a valuable tool for treating moderate residual periodontal pockets during maintenance therapy; limited evidence on the use of PDT in medically compromised patients (i.e., diabetes mellitus, oral lichen planus) indicates that PDT may represent a possible alternative to other more invasive medication/treatment procedures; limited evidence suggests that PDT may represent a valuable tool in attaining inflammation reduction on a short-term basis in peri-implant diseases (i.e., peri-implantitis, peri-implant mucositis).


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Periimplantitis , Fotoquimioterapia , Raspado Dental , Humanos , Periimplantitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Aplanamiento de la Raíz
17.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 98-104, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427228

RESUMEN

The present narrative review provides a summary of the temporal and spatial reactions of the oral microbiome to the placement of a dental implant into the oral cavity, depicting the most important interactions between the oral microbiota and the host response involved in the development of peri-implant infections in humans (i.e., peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis). Starting with the formation of a pellicle to acute and rampant peri-implant inflammation, a number of steps, including biofilm formation, aggressive bacterial invasion, and host defense mechanisms, are involved. Better understanding of the factors related to the host response and changes in the composition of microbiota has led to the development of novel treatment modalities. Finally, a short outlook into the future is provided.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Microbiota , Periimplantitis , Estomatitis , Bacterias , Implantes Dentales/efectos adversos , Humanos , Periimplantitis/etiología , Estomatitis/etiología
19.
J Clin Periodontol ; 48(4): 560-569, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471389

RESUMEN

AIM: To histologically evaluate the effect of a new collagen matrix on periodontal regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-wall intrabony defects were surgically created bilaterally distally to the maxillary first and third pre-molars in beagle dogs. The defects were randomly allocated to open flap debridement either with (test) or without (control) a volume-stable collagen matrix (VCMX). After 12 weeks, the dogs were euthanized, and the specimens histologically processed. Descriptive, histomorphometrical (vertical gain of periodontal tissues) and statistical analyses were then performed. RESULTS: Healing was uneventful in most cases. Residual VCMX was still present and showed integration into new bone, new periodontal ligament, connective tissue and, in some specimens, into new cementum. Periodontal regeneration occurred to a varying extent in both groups. New continuous cementum and new bone formation were statistically significantly greater in the test group (4.12 mm and 3.28 mm, respectively) than in the control group (1.54 mm and 2.47 mm, respectively) (p = .009 and p = .037, respectively). The junctional epithelium was longer in the control group (2.21 mm) than in the test group (1.49 mm, p = .16). CONCLUSION: The present results have for the first time provided histologic evidence for the potential of this novel VCMX to facilitate periodontal regeneration thus warranting further pre-clinical and clinical testing.

20.
J Clin Periodontol ; 48(4): 570-580, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513277

RESUMEN

AIM: To clinically and histologically evaluate in dogs the healing of gingival recessions treated with coronally advanced flap (CAF) with or without cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gingival recession defects were surgically created on the vestibular side of both maxillary canines in 8 dogs. After 8 weeks of plaque accumulation, the 16 chronic defects were randomly treated with either CAF alone or CAF and HA-gel (CAF/HA). Clinical and histological outcomes were evaluated at 10 weeks post-surgically. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, the clinical measurements at 10 weeks revealed a statistically significant decrease in gingival recession for both CAF (p < 0.01) and CAF/HA (p < 0.001) groups. Statistically significant differences were found in clinical attachment level (p < 0.05) and width of gingival recession (p < 0.01) favouring the CAF/HA group. Bone formation was statistically significantly greater in the CAF/HA group than in the CAF group (1.84 ± 1.16 mm vs., 0.72 ± 0.62 mm, respectively, p < 0.05). Formation of cementum and connective tissue attachment were statistically significantly higher in the CAF/HA group compared with the CAF group (i.e. 4.31 ± 1.78 mm versus 2.40 ± 1.35 mm and 1.69 ± 0.98 mm versus 0.74 ± 0.68 mm, respectively (p < 0.05)). CONCLUSIONS: The present data have for the first time provided histologic evidence for periodontal regeneration of gingival recession defects following treatment with CAF and HA. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of HA in conjunction with CAF may represent a novel modality for treating gingival recession defects.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...