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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8470, 2024 04 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605046

RESUMEN

The nasal microbiota is a key contributor to animal health, and characterizing the nasal microbiota composition is an important step towards elucidating the role of its different members. Efforts to characterize the nasal microbiota composition of domestic pigs and other farm animals frequently report the presence of bacteria that are typically found in the gut, including many anaerobes from the Bacteroidales and Clostridiales orders. However, the in vivo role of these gut-microbiota associated taxa is currently unclear. Here, we tackled this issue by examining the prevalence, origin, and activity of these taxa in the nasal microbiota of piglets. First, analysis of the nasal microbiota of farm piglets sampled in this study, as well as various publicly available data sets, revealed that gut-microbiota associated taxa indeed constitute a substantial fraction of the pig nasal microbiota that is highly variable across individual animals. Second, comparison of herd-matched nasal and rectal samples at amplicon sequencing variant (ASV) level showed that these taxa are largely shared in the nasal and rectal microbiota, suggesting a common origin driven presumably by the transfer of fecal matter. Third, surgical sampling of the inner nasal tract showed that gut-microbiota associated taxa are found throughout the nasal cavity, indicating that these taxa do not stem from contaminations introduced during sampling with conventional nasal swabs. Finally, analysis of cDNA from the 16S rRNA gene in these nasal samples indicated that gut-microbiota associated taxa are indeed active in the pig nasal cavity. This study shows that gut-microbiota associated taxa are not only present, but also active, in the nasal cavity of domestic pigs, and paves the way for future efforts to elucidate the function of these taxa within the nasal microbiota.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Cavidad Nasal , Porcinos , Animales , Cavidad Nasal/microbiología , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/análisis , Nariz/microbiología , Microbiota/genética , Sus scrofa/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2349, 2024 Mar 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514609

RESUMEN

Safe and effective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are crucial to fight against the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Most vaccines are based on a mutated version of the Spike glycoprotein [K986P/V987P (S-2P)] with improved stability, yield and immunogenicity. However, S-2P is still produced at low levels. Here, we describe the V987H mutation that increases by two-fold the production of the recombinant Spike and the exposure of the receptor binding domain (RBD). S-V987H immunogenicity is similar to S-2P in mice and golden Syrian hamsters (GSH), and superior to a monomeric RBD. S-V987H immunization confer full protection against severe disease in K18-hACE2 mice and GSH upon SARS-CoV-2 challenge (D614G or B.1.351 variants). Furthermore, S-V987H immunized K18-hACE2 mice show a faster tissue viral clearance than RBD- or S-2P-vaccinated animals challenged with D614G, B.1.351 or Omicron BQ1.1 variants. Thus, S-V987H protein might be considered for future SARS-CoV-2 vaccines development.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Melfalán , SARS-CoV-2 , gammaglobulinas , Cricetinae , Animales , Humanos , Ratones , Mesocricetus , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Inmunización , Glicoproteínas , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales
3.
NPJ Vaccines ; 9(1): 48, 2024 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38413645

RESUMEN

Age is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and linked to higher risk of severe COVID-19. Here we determined the impact of ageing on the efficacy of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine based on a stabilised Spike glycoprotein (S-29) that had previously shown high efficacy in young animals. Thirteen to 18-month-old golden Syrian hamsters (GSH) and 22-23-month-old K18-hCAE2 mice were immunised twice with S-29 protein in AddaVaxTM adjuvant. GSH were intranasally inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 either two weeks or four months after the booster dose, while all K18-hACE2 mice were intranasally inoculated two weeks after the second immunisation. Body weight and clinical signs were recorded daily post-inoculation. Lesions and viral load were investigated in different target tissues. Immunisation induced seroconversion and production of neutralising antibodies; however, animals were only partially protected from weight loss. We observed a significant reduction in the amount of viral RNA and a faster viral protein clearance in the tissues of immunized animals. Infectious particles showed a faster decay in vaccinated animals while tissue lesion development was not altered. In GSH, the shortest interval between immunisation and inoculation reduced RNA levels in the lungs, while the longest interval was equally effective in reducing RNA in nasal turbinates; viral nucleoprotein amount decreased in both tissues. In mice, immunisation was able to improve the survival of infected animals. Despite the high protection shown in young animals, S-29 efficacy was reduced in the geriatric population. Our research highlights the importance of testing vaccine efficacy in older animals as part of preclinical vaccine evaluation.

4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1051, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316751

RESUMEN

Here we report the characterization of 17T2, a SARS-CoV-2 pan-neutralizing human monoclonal antibody isolated from a COVID-19 convalescent individual infected during the first pandemic wave. 17T2 is a class 1 VH1-58/κ3-20 antibody, derived from a receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific IgA+ memory B cell, with a broad neutralizing activity against former and new SARS-CoV-2 variants, including XBB.1.16 and BA.2.86 Omicron subvariants. Consistently, 17T2 demonstrates in vivo prophylactic and therapeutic activity against Omicron BA.1.1 infection in K18-hACE2 mice. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction shows that 17T2 binds the BA.1 spike with the RBD in "up" position and blocks the receptor binding motif, as other structurally similar antibodies do, including S2E12. Yet, unlike S2E12, 17T2 retains its neutralizing activity against all variants tested, probably due to a larger RBD contact area. These results highlight the impact of small structural antibody changes on neutralizing performance and identify 17T2 as a potential candidate for future clinical interventions.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales , COVID-19 , Humanos , Animales , Ratones , SARS-CoV-2 , Microscopía por Crioelectrón , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética
5.
J Immunol ; 212(8): 1307-1318, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416036

RESUMEN

Plitidepsin is a host-targeted compound known for inducing a strong anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, as well as for having the capacity of reducing lung inflammation. Because IL-6 is one of the main cytokines involved in acute respiratory distress syndrome, the effect of plitidepsin in IL-6 secretion in different in vitro and in vivo experimental models was studied. A strong plitidepsin-mediated reduction of IL-6 was found in human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to nonproductive SARS-CoV-2. In resiquimod (a ligand of TLR7/8)-stimulated THP1 human monocytes, plitidepsin-mediated reductions of IL-6 mRNA and IL-6 levels were also noticed. Additionally, although resiquimod-induced binding to DNA of NF-κB family members was unaffected by plitidepsin, a decrease in the regulated transcription by NF-κB (a key transcription factor involved in the inflammatory cascade) was observed. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of p65 that is required for full transcriptional NF-κB activity was significantly reduced by plitidepsin. Moreover, decreases of IL-6 levels and other proinflammatory cytokines were also seen in either SARS-CoV-2 or H1N1 influenza virus-infected mice, which were treated at low enough plitidepsin doses to not induce antiviral effects. In summary, plitidepsin is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of viral infections, not only because of its host-targeted antiviral effect, but also for its immunomodulatory effect, both of which were evidenced in vitro and in vivo by the decrease of proinflammatory cytokines.


Asunto(s)
Depsipéptidos , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , FN-kappa B , Humanos , Animales , Ratones , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/farmacología , Antivirales/farmacología , Factores Inmunológicos/farmacología , Citocinas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
6.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 53(1): 122-130, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242688

RESUMEN

A 7-month-old intact female bearded collie dog was admitted after a 2-week history of progressive cough, inappetence, and lethargy, with no response to previous treatment with doxycycline and steroids. Mild attenuation of lung sounds in the right middle hemithorax was the only abnormality detected on physical examination. Abdominal ultrasound and thoracic radiographs were performed and revealed multifocally distributed nodules and masses, well-circumscribed and of variable size in the kidneys and pulmonary parenchyma. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirates of the renal and pulmonary masses were taken. A cytologic evaluation of these lesions pointed towards a malignant mesenchymal neoplasia. Euthanasia was elected due to the poor prognosis and rapid progression. The post-mortem histopathology, a positive result to IBA1 immunoperoxidase staining, and a lack of detection of infectious agents, and negative E-cadherin immunostaining enabled the final diagnosis of a disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. We report an atypical form, both in breed and age, of canine disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. While all breeds can be affected, there is a clear predisposition in some, and no cases have been previously described in bearded collies. Moreover, to the authors' knowledge, this is the youngest dog with this histiocytic disorder described to date. Disseminated histiocytic sarcoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis of multinodular tumors in dogs, regardless of the anatomic location and age of the dogs, even in puppies.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Sarcoma Histiocítico , Sarcoma , Perros , Animales , Femenino , Sarcoma Histiocítico/patología , Sarcoma Histiocítico/veterinaria , Sarcoma/patología , Sarcoma/veterinaria , Biopsia con Aguja Fina/veterinaria , Histiocitos/patología , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico
7.
Porcine Health Manag ; 10(1): 4, 2024 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38229182

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) poses a significant economic threat for the swine industry, causing a range of diseases collectively referred to as porcine circovirus diseases (PCVDs). Despite PCV-2 vaccine effectiveness, the need for monitoring infectious pressure remains. PCV-2 coinfection with other pathogens like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can exacerbate disease severity and lead to PCV-2-systemic disease cases. Monitoring both PRRSV and PCV-2 in co-infected farms is crucial for an effective management and vaccination programs. The present cross-sectional study aimed to determine PCV-2 antibody levels in piglets at weaning and PCV-2 and PRRSV viremia in pooled serum samples at weaning (vaccination age) and at 6 and 9 weeks of age from a Spanish swine integration system in 2020 (48 farms) and in 2022 (28 out of the 48 analysed previously). RESULTS: The frequency of PCV-2 detection in pools of piglet sera was 2.1% (2020) and 7.1% (2022) at vaccination age but increased at the end of the nursery period (10.4% in 2020 and 39.3% in 2022) in both years. Co-infections between PCV-2 and PRRSV were detected in a significant proportion of PRRSV positive farms (15% in 2020, and 60% in 2022). PCV-2 antibody levels (ELISA S/P ratios) at weaning were lower in PCV-2 qPCR positive farms at different sampling time-points (0.361 in 2020 and 0.378 in 2022) compared to PCV-2 qPCR negative ones (0.587 in 2020 and 0.541 in 2022). The 28 farms tested both years were classified in four different epidemiological scenarios depending on their PCV-2 virological status. Those PCV-2 qPCR negative farms in 2020 that turned to be positive in 2022 had a statistically significant increase of PRRSV RT-qPCR detection and a PCV-2 antibody levels reduction, facts that were not observed in the rest of the scenarios. CONCLUSION: This epidemiological study in farms from the same integration system determined the occurrence, in 2020 and in 2022, of PCV-2 and PRRSV infections in piglets during the nursery period by using pooled serum samples.

8.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 110001, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280305

RESUMEN

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging zoonotic virus of public and animal health concern, of which felids have been suggested as potential reservoirs. Although SARS-CoV-2 exposure has been detected in domestic and wild captive animals belonging to Felidae family, surveillance has not been carried out in free-ranging wild felids so far. The aim of the present study was to assess SARS-CoV-2 exposure in the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), the most endangered felid in the world. Between 2019 and 2022, we conducted a seroepidemiological study of SARS-CoV-2 in 276 free-ranging and captive Iberian lynxes. Our results evidenced limited (0.4%; 95%CI: 0.0-1.1) but not negligible exposure to this emerging virus in this endangered felid species, increasing the SARS-CoV-2 host range. The circulation of this virus in wildlife evidences the need of integrated European wildlife monitoring.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Lynx , Animales , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/veterinaria , Animales Salvajes , Especies en Peligro de Extinción
9.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1291972, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38124756

RESUMEN

Most COVID-19 vaccines are based on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein (S) or their subunits. However, S shows some structural instability that limits its immunogenicity and production, hampering the development of recombinant S-based vaccines. The introduction of the K986P and V987P (S-2P) mutations increases the production and immunogenicity of the recombinant S trimer, suggesting that these two parameters are related. Nevertheless, S-2P still shows some molecular instability and it is produced with low yield. Here we described a novel set of mutations identified by molecular modeling and located in the S2 region of the S-2P that increase its production up to five-fold. Besides their immunogenicity, the efficacy of two representative S-2P-based mutants, S-29 and S-21, protecting from a heterologous SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant challenge was assayed in K18-hACE2 mice (an animal model of severe SARS-CoV-2 disease) and golden Syrian hamsters (GSH) (a moderate disease model). S-21 induced higher level of WH1 and Delta variants neutralizing antibodies than S-2P in K18-hACE2 mice three days after challenge. Viral load in nasal turbinate and oropharyngeal samples were reduced in S-21 and S-29 vaccinated mice. Despite that, only the S-29 protein protected 100% of K18-hACE2 mice from severe disease. When GSH were analyzed, all immunized animals were protected from disease development irrespectively of the immunogen they received. Therefore, the higher yield of S-29, as well as its improved immunogenicity and efficacy protecting from the highly pathogenic SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant, pinpoint the S-29 mutant as an alternative to the S-2P protein for future SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animales , Humanos , Ratones , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Mesocricetus , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19
10.
Microbes Infect ; : 105252, 2023 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37981029

RESUMEN

Severe Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is characterized by massive infiltration of immune cells in lungs. MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) replicates in vitro in human macrophages, inducing high pro-inflammatory responses. In contrast, camelids, the main reservoir for MERS-CoV, are asymptomatic carriers. Although limited infiltration of leukocytes has been observed in the lower respiratory tract of camelids, their role during infection remains unknown. Here we studied whether llama alveolar macrophages (LAMs) are susceptible to MERS-CoV infection and can elicit pro-inflammatory responses. MERS-CoV did not replicate in LAMs; however, they effectively capture and degrade viral particles. Moreover, transcriptomic analyses showed that LAMs do not induce pro-inflammatory cytokines upon MERS-CoV sensing.

11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1258321, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37780850

RESUMEN

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are characterized by having a segmented genome, low proofreading polymerases, and a wide host range. Consequently, IAVs are constantly evolving in nature causing a threat to animal and human health. In 2009 a new human pandemic IAV strain arose in Mexico because of a reassortment between two strains previously circulating in pigs; Eurasian "avian-like" (EA) swine H1N1 and "human-like" H1N2, highlighting the importance of swine as adaptation host of avian to human IAVs. Nowadays, although of limited use, a trivalent vaccine, which include in its formulation H1N1, H3N2, and, H1N2 swine IAV (SIAV) subtypes, is one of the most applied strategies to reduce SIAV circulation in farms. Protection provided by vaccines is not complete, allowing virus circulation, potentially favoring viral evolution. The evolutionary dynamics of SIAV quasispecies were studied in samples collected at different times from 8 vaccinated and 8 nonvaccinated pigs, challenged with H1N2 SIAV. In total, 32 SIAV genomes were sequenced by next-generation sequencing, and subsequent variant-calling genomic analysis was carried out. Herein, a total of 364 de novo single nucleotide variants (SNV) were found along all genetic segments in both experimental groups. The nonsynonymous substitutions proportion found was greater in vaccinated animals suggesting that H1N2 SIAV was under positive selection in this scenario. The impact of each substitution with an allele frequency greater than 5% was hypothesized according to previous literature, particularly in the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. The H1N2 SIAV quasispecies evolution capacity was evidenced, observing different evolutionary trends in vaccinated and nonvaccinated animals.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Humanos , Animales , Porcinos , Subtipo H1N2 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H3N2 del Virus de la Influenza A , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/prevención & control , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Filogenia
12.
Porcine Health Manag ; 9(1): 45, 2023 Oct 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37848972

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding the financial consequences of endemically prevalent pathogens within the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) and the effects of interventions assists decision-making regarding disease prevention and control. The aim of this systematic review was to identify what economic studies have been carried out on infectious endemic respiratory disease in pigs, what methods are being used, and, when feasible, to identify the economic impacts of PRDC pathogens and the costs and benefits of interventions. RESULTS: By following the PRISMA method, a total of 58 studies were deemed eligible for the purpose of this systematic review. Twenty-six studies used data derived from European countries, 18 from the US, 6 from Asia, 4 from Oceania, and 4 from other countries, i.e., Canada, Mexico, and Brazil. Main findings from selected publications were: (1) The studies mainly considered endemic scenarios on commercial fattening farms; (2) The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus was by far the most studied pathogen, followed by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, but the absence or presence of other endemic respiratory pathogens was often not verified or accounted for; (3) Most studies calculated the economic impact using primary production data, whereas twelve studies modelled the impact using secondary data only; (4) Seven different economic methods were applied across studies; (5) A large variation exists in the cost and revenue components considered in calculations, with feed costs and reduced carcass value included the most often; (6) The reported median economic impact of one or several co-existing respiratory pathogen(s) ranged from €1.70 to €8.90 per nursery pig, €2.30 to €15.35 per fattening pig, and €100 to €323 per sow per year; and (7) Vaccination was the most studied intervention, and the outcomes of all but three intervention-focused studies were neutral or positive. CONCLUSION: The outcomes and discussion from this systematic review provide insight into the studies, their methods, the advantages and limitations of the existing research, and the reported impacts from the endemic respiratory disease complex for pig production systems worldwide. Future research should improve the consistency and comparability of economic assessments by ensuring the inclusion of high impact cost and revenue components and expressing results similarly.

13.
Curr Opin Virol ; 63: 101365, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37793299

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a zoonotic virus able to infect humans and multiple nonhuman animal species. Most natural infections in companion, captive zoo, livestock, and wildlife species have been related to a reverse transmission, raising concern about potential generation of animal reservoirs due to human-animal interactions. To date, American mink and white-tailed deer are the only species that led to extensive intraspecies transmission of SARS-CoV-2 after reverse zoonosis, leading to an efficient spread of the virus and subsequent animal-to-human transmission. Viral host adaptations increase the probability of new SARS-CoV-2 variants' emergence that could cause a major global health impact. Therefore, applying the One Health approach is crucial to prevent and overcome future threats for human, animal, and environmental fields.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ciervos , Humanos , Animales , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Zoonosis
14.
Virol J ; 20(1): 230, 2023 10 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37817216

RESUMEN

Porcine circovirus 4 (PCV-4) is a novel virus recently discovered (2019) in domestic pigs from China, although several studies have proven its circulation since 2008. Later, PCV-4 was also detected in wild boar populations from China and domestic pigs from South Korea and Thailand. Currently, Asia is so far the only continent where this novel virus has been reported; few studies carried out in South America and Europe failed in the attempt to detect it. The objective of this Comment is to communicate the first detection of PCV-4 in Europe, specifically in wild boar and domestic pigs from Mid-South-Western Spain. A retrospective study was carried out on wild boar and domestic pigs, both extensively (Iberian breed) and intensively raised, from Spain and Italy, sampled between 1998 and 2022. PCV-4 genome detection was attempted using different conventional or quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) protocols and some positive results were confirmed through Sanger sequencing. A total of 57 out of 166 (34.3%) Spanish wild boar and 9 out of 223 (4%) Iberian pigs (both geographically located in the Mid-South-Western Spain) were qPCR positive, while the rest of tested animals from North-Eastern Spain and Italy were negative. Partial sequences of Rep or Cap genes of selected samples confirmed the presence of PCV-4. The relatively high prevalence in wild boar and the low one in Iberian pigs from the same areas suggests intra- and interspecific transmission, being the wild boar a potential viral reservoir. The epidemiological and clinical importance of these findings are currently unknown, but guarantees further research on this novel virus.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Circoviridae , Circovirus , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Porcinos , Animales , Circovirus/genética , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Sus scrofa , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Tailandia , Infecciones por Circoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Circoviridae/veterinaria
15.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0290309, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37656696

RESUMEN

Ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a member of the genus Macavirus, causes sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a fatal lymphoproliferative disease affecting a wide variety of ungulates in addition to horses. This study described an outbreak of SA-MCF in Mexico and the identification of the OvHV-2 virus in primary rabbit testis cultures through the generation of intranuclear inclusion bodies, syncytia, immunofluorescence (IF), immunocytochemistry (ICC), immunohistochemistry (IHC), endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing of the ORF75 gene. The animals involved in this outbreak showed mucogingival ulcers in the vestibule of the mouth and tongue, hypersalivation, corneal opacity, reduced food consumption, and weight loss of variable severity. These clinical signs and the histopathological findings suggested the diagnosis of SA-MCF. Buffy coat fractions from the anticoagulated blood samples of ill animals were collected and analyzed by PCR. Positive buffy coats were used to inoculate the primary cell cultures of rabbit testis to identify the virus. Small clusters of refractile cytomegalic cells, characteristic of viral cytopathic effects, were observed between 48 and 72 h post-infection. Furthermore, intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies (IBs) were identified in the inoculated primary culture cells, and the cytoplasm showed immunoreactivity with hyperimmune rabbit serum against OvHV-2. Moreover, in the liver histological sections from sick deer, immunoreactive juxtanuclear IBs were identified with the same rabbit hyperimmune serum. The obtained sequences were aligned with the OvHV-2 sequences reported in GenBank and revealed a nucleotide identity higher than 98%. Based on the evidence provided in this study, we conclude that the outbreak of SA-MCF in the municipality of Tequisquiapan in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, was caused by OvHV-2. This is the second study reporting that horses are susceptible to OvHV-2 infection and can develop SA-MCF. We identified for the first time in Mexico, the presence of OvHV-2 in buffy coats from horses and Artiodactyla.


Asunto(s)
Artiodáctilos , Ciervos , Gammaherpesvirinae , Fiebre Catarral Maligna , Animales , Bovinos , Masculino , Conejos , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Caballos , Fiebre Catarral Maligna/epidemiología , México/epidemiología , Ovinos
16.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 149: 105061, 2023 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37717710

RESUMEN

Camelids are economically and socially important in several parts of the world and might carry pathogens with epizootic or zoonotic potential. However, biological research in these species is limited due to lack of reagents. Here, we developed RT-qPCR assays to quantify a panel of camelid innate and adaptive immune response genes, which can be monitored in a single run. The assays were validated with PHA, PMA-ionomycin, and Poly I:C-stimulated PBMCs from alpaca, dromedary camel and llama, including normalization by multiple reference genes. Further, comparative gene expression analyses for the different camelid species were performed by a unique microfluidic qPCR assay. Compared to unstimulated controls, PHA and PMA-ionomycin stimulation elicited robust Th1 and Th2 responses in PBMCs from camelid species. Additional activation of type I and type III IFN signalling pathways was described exclusively in PHA-stimulated dromedary lymphocytes, in contrast to those from alpaca and llama. We also found that PolyI:C stimulation induced robust antiviral response genes in alpaca PBMCs. The proposed methodology should be useful for the measurement of immune responses to infection or vaccination in camelid species.


Asunto(s)
Camélidos del Nuevo Mundo , Citocinas , Animales , Citocinas/genética , Camelus , Ionomicina , Microfluídica , ARN Mensajero
17.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 52(9): 202-210, 2023 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37620562

RESUMEN

More than 40% of individuals infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have experienced persistent or relapsing multi-systemic symptoms months after the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) has debilitating effects on the daily life of patients and encompasses a broad spectrum of neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms including olfactory and gustative impairment, difficulty with concentration and short-term memory, sleep disorders and depression. Animal models have been instrumental to understand acute COVID-19 and validate prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Similarly, studies post-viral clearance in hamsters, mice and nonhuman primates inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 have been useful to unveil some of the aspects of PCC. Transcriptomic alterations in the central nervous system, persistent activation of immune cells and impaired hippocampal neurogenesis seem to have a critical role in the neurological manifestations observed in animal models infected with SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, the proinflammatory transcriptomic profile observed in the central nervous system of SARS-CoV-2-inoculated mice partially overlaps with the pathological changes that affect microglia in humans during Alzheimer's disease and aging, suggesting shared mechanisms between these conditions. None of the currently available animal models fully replicates PCC in humans; therefore, multiple models, together with the fine-tuning of experimental conditions, will probably be needed to understand the mechanisms of PCC neurological symptoms. Moreover, given that the intrinsic characteristics of the new variants of concern and the immunological status of individuals might influence PCC manifestations, more studies are needed to explore the role of these factors and their combinations in PCC, adding further complexity to the design of experimental models.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , COVID-19 , Humanos , Cricetinae , Animales , Ratones , SARS-CoV-2 , Recuento de Leucocitos , Modelos Animales
18.
PLoS One ; 18(8): e0290395, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37607204

RESUMEN

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a dsDNA virus that can cause high mortality in pigs of all ages. Spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) is a highly digestible ingredient used in feed because it benefits performance, gut function and immunity. The objectives were to test if the spray-drying (SD) conditions along with post-drying storage of product for 14 days can inactivate ASFV inoculated in liquid plasma. Fresh liquid porcine plasma was inoculated with ASFV (BA71V) to a final concentration of 105.18 ±0.08 TCID50/mL of liquid plasma. Triplicate 2-L samples of spiked plasma were SD in a lab drier set at an outlet temperature of 80°C or 71°C. The final dried samples were stored at 4°C or 20°C for 14 d. Liquid and SD samples were analyzed for ASFV infectivity in two mirror 24-well plaques containing VERO cells monolayers. Wells were inoculated with different dilutions of SDPP dissolved 1:9 in PBS. One plaque was immediately frozen at -80°C and the other was incubated at 37°C for 3 d. Each dilution was replicated 9 times. After incubation both plaques were analyzed for ASFV by qRT-PCR. Results indicated that the SD process inactivated between 3.2 to 4.2 Logs ASFV TCID50/mL and 2.53 to 2.75 Logs TCID50/mL when the outlet temperature were 80°C and 71°C respectively. All SD samples stored at 4°C or 20°C for 14 d were absent of infectious ASFV. The combination of SD and post drying storage at both temperatures for 14 d was able to inactive >5.18 ±0.08 Log10 of ASFV inoculated in liquid porcine plasma, demonstrating that the manufacturing process for SDPP can be considered safe regarding ASFV.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Africana , Fiebre Porcina Africana , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animales , Porcinos , Secado por Pulverización , Células Vero , Comercio , Placa Amiloide
19.
iScience ; 26(7): 107224, 2023 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37502366

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 emerged in December 2019 and quickly spread worldwide, continuously striking with an unpredictable evolution. Despite the success in vaccine production and mass vaccination programs, the situation is not still completely controlled, and therefore accessible second-generation vaccines are required to mitigate the pandemic. We previously developed an adjuvanted vaccine candidate coded PHH-1V, based on a heterodimer fusion protein comprising the RBD domain of two SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we report data on the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of PHH-1V in cynomolgus macaques. PHH-1V prime-boost vaccination induces high levels of RBD-specific IgG binding and neutralizing antibodies against several SARS-CoV-2 variants, as well as a balanced Th1/Th2 cellular immune response. Remarkably, PHH-1V vaccination prevents SARS-CoV-2 replication in the lower respiratory tract and significantly reduces viral load in the upper respiratory tract after an experimental infection. These results highlight the potential use of the PHH-1V vaccine in humans, currently undergoing Phase III clinical trials.

20.
Porcine Health Manag ; 9(1): 17, 2023 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37443098

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Scrotal swelling is a clinical situation which can be caused by different aetiologies. In this case report, we describe a multi-week episode of unilateral and bilateral scrotal swelling in boars at an Austrian boar stud and its diagnostic work-up. CASE PRESENTATION: In the summer of 2020, the herd veterinarian of an Austrian boar stud reported that over a period of six weeks, five out of 70 boars presented with unilateral severe swelling of the left scrotum and three out of 70 boars with bilateral severe swelling of the left and moderate swelling of the right scrotum, respectively. A complete history was obtained and an on-site evaluation of the facility was done. Five boars were necropsied, and a variety of samples harvested for further diagnostic investigations. Infectious differential diagnoses associated with unilateral swelling of the scrotum or the testis were excluded through serological and tissue testing. In three of the five boars, histopathology revealed complete acute haemorrhagic necrosis of the left testis concurrent with strongly congested blood vessels. Review of the collected information with a group of experts in the field of boar stud management resulted with consensus that, most likely, trauma was the etiologic event causing the clinical signs and pathology. Coincident with discussion of implementing video recording cameras in the boar housing area, no further clinical cases followed. As this case occurred during the first lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic, we propose that the distress and travelling restrictions may have contributed to frustration among boar stud workers, which was consequently expressed as misbehaviour against boars. CONCLUSIONS: Once all known infectious causes of unilateral swelling of the scrotum were excluded, a critical diagnostic work-up focused on non-infectious causes. Non-infectious causes, such as trauma, need to be carefully evaluated, as it may also include human misbehaviour against boars. Summarizing all findings of this case report, the authors hypothesize that a blunt trauma was the reason for the series of mainly unilateral swelling of the scrota of boars.

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