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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with persistent air leak (PAL) pose a therapeutic challenge to physicians, with prolonged hospital stays and high morbidity. There is little evidence on the efficacy and safety of bronchial valves (BV) for PAL. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed and Embase databases to identify studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of BV for PAL. We calculated the success rate (complete resolution of air leak or removal of intercostal chest drain after bronchial valve placement and requiring no further procedures) of BV for PAL in individual studies. We pooled the data using a random-effects model and examined the factors influencing the success rate using multivariable meta-regression. RESULTS: We analyzed 28 observational studies (2472 participants). The pooled success rate of bronchial valves in PAL was 82% (95% confidence intervals, 75 to 88; 95% prediction intervals, 64 to 92). We found a higher success rate in studies using intrabronchial valves versus endobronchial valves (84% vs. 72%) and in studies with more than 50 subjects (93% vs. 77%). However, none of the factors influenced the success rate of multivariable meta-regression. The overall complication rate was 9.1% (48/527). Granulation tissue was the most common complication reported followed by valve migration or expectoration and hypoxemia. CONCLUSION: Bronchial valves are an effective and safe option for treating PAL. However, the analysis is limited by the availability of only observational data.


Asunto(s)
Neumotórax , Humanos , Bronquios , Broncoscopía/métodos , Broncoscopía/efectos adversos , Tubos Torácicos/efectos adversos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Neumotórax/etiología , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Prótesis e Implantes/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento
2.
Mycoses ; 67(5): e13745, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767273

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data on mixed mould infection with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the prevalence of co-existent CAPA in CAPM (mixed mould infection) and whether mixed mould infection is associated with early mortality (≤7 days of diagnosis). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the data collected from 25 centres across India on COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. We included only CAPM and excluded subjects with disseminated or rhino-orbital mucormycosis. We defined co-existent CAPA if a respiratory specimen showed septate hyphae on smear, histopathology or culture grew Aspergillus spp. We also compare the demography, predisposing factors, severity of COVID-19, and management of CAPM patients with and without CAPA. Using a case-control design, we assess whether mixed mould infection (primary exposure) were associated with early mortality in CAPM. RESULTS: We included 105 patients with CAPM. The prevalence of mixed mould infection was 20% (21/105). Patients with mixed mould infection experienced early mortality (9/21 [42.9%] vs. 15/84 [17.9%]; p = 0.02) and poorer survival at 6 weeks (7/21 [33.3] vs. 46/77 [59.7%]; p = 0.03) than CAPM alone. On imaging, consolidation was more commonly encountered with mixed mould infections than CAPM. Co-existent CAPA (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 19.1 [2.62-139.1]) was independently associated with early mortality in CAPM after adjusting for hypoxemia during COVID-19 and other factors. CONCLUSION: Coinfection of CAPA and CAPM was not uncommon in our CAPM patients and portends a worse prognosis. Prospective studies from different countries are required to know the impact of mixed mould infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/mortalidad , Mucormicosis/mortalidad , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Coinfección/mortalidad , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/microbiología , India/epidemiología , Adulto , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/complicaciones , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/mortalidad , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Enfermedades Pulmonares Fúngicas/mortalidad , Enfermedades Pulmonares Fúngicas/complicaciones , Enfermedades Pulmonares Fúngicas/epidemiología
3.
Mycoses ; 67(5): e13746, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767275

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Post-tuberculosis lung abnormality (PTLA) is the most common risk factor for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), and 14%-25% of the subjects with PTLA develop CPA. The pathogenesis and the host immune response in subjects with PTLA who develop CPA need to be better understood. METHODS: We prospectively compared the innate and adaptive immune responses mounted by patients of PTLA with or without CPA (controls). We studied the neutrophil oxidative burst (by dihydrorhodamine 123 test), classic (serum C3 and C4 levels) and alternative (mannose-binding lectin [MBL] protein levels) complement pathway, serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA), B and T lymphocytes and their subsets in subjects with PTLA with or without CPA. RESULTS: We included 111 subjects (58 CPA and 53 controls) in the current study. The mean ± SD age of the study population was 42.6 ± 15.7 years. The cases and controls were matched for age, gender distribution and body weight. Subjects with CPA had impaired neutrophil oxidative burst, lower memory T lymphocytes and impaired Th-1 immune response (lower Th-1 lymphocytes) than controls. We found no significant difference between the two groups in the serum complement levels, MBL levels, B-cell subsets and other T lymphocyte subsets. CONCLUSION: Subjects with CPA secondary to PTLA have impaired neutrophil oxidative burst and a lower Th-1 response than controls.


Asunto(s)
Inmunidad Adaptativa , Inmunidad Innata , Aspergilosis Pulmonar , Tuberculosis Pulmonar , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/inmunología , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/inmunología , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/complicaciones , Neutrófilos/inmunología , Pulmón/inmunología , Estallido Respiratorio , Adulto Joven
5.
Respiration ; 2024 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531335

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Observational data suggest that the 19-gauge (G) needle for endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) offers a higher diagnostic yield in sarcoidosis than the 22-G needle. No randomized trial has compared the yield of the two needles. METHODS: We randomized consecutive subjects with suspected sarcoidosis and enlarged thoracic lymph nodes to undergo EBUS-TBNA with either the 19-G or the 22-G needle. We compared the study groups for diagnostic sensitivity (primary outcome) assessed by the yield of granulomas in subjects finally diagnosed with sarcoidosis. We also compared the sample adequacy, difficulty performing the needle puncture assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS), the subject's cough intensity on an operator-rated VAS, and procedure-related complications (secondary outcomes). RESULTS: We randomized 150 (mean age, 43.0 years; 55% women) subjects and diagnosed sarcoidosis in 116 subjects. The diagnostic sensitivity of the 19-G needle (45/60, 75.0%) was not higher (p=0.52) than the 22-G needle (39/56, 69.6%). We obtained adequate aspirates in 90.0% and 85.7% of subjects in the respective groups (p=0.48). The operators had greater difficulty puncturing lymph nodes with the 19-G needle (p=0.03), while operator-assessed cough intensity was similar in the groups (p=0.41). Transient hypoxemia was the only complication encountered during EBUS-TBNA (two subjects in either group). CONCLUSIONS: We did not find the 19-G needle superior to the 22-G in diagnostic sensitivity, specimen adequacy, or safety of EBUS-TBNA in sarcoidosis. Puncturing the lymph nodes was more difficult with the 19-G needle. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04770948.

6.
Eur Respir J ; 63(4)2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423624

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) working group proposed recommendations for managing allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) a decade ago. There is a need to update these recommendations due to advances in diagnostics and therapeutics. METHODS: An international expert group was convened to develop guidelines for managing ABPA (caused by Aspergillus spp.) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM; caused by fungi other than Aspergillus spp.) in adults and children using a modified Delphi method (two online rounds and one in-person meeting). We defined consensus as ≥70% agreement or disagreement. The terms "recommend" and "suggest" are used when the consensus was ≥70% and <70%, respectively. RESULTS: We recommend screening for A. fumigatus sensitisation using fungus-specific IgE in all newly diagnosed asthmatic adults at tertiary care but only difficult-to-treat asthmatic children. We recommend diagnosing ABPA in those with predisposing conditions or compatible clinico-radiological presentation, with a mandatory demonstration of fungal sensitisation and serum total IgE ≥500 IU·mL-1 and two of the following: fungal-specific IgG, peripheral blood eosinophilia or suggestive imaging. ABPM is considered in those with an ABPA-like presentation but normal A. fumigatus-IgE. Additionally, diagnosing ABPM requires repeated growth of the causative fungus from sputum. We do not routinely recommend treating asymptomatic ABPA patients. We recommend oral prednisolone or itraconazole monotherapy for treating acute ABPA (newly diagnosed or exacerbation), with prednisolone and itraconazole combination only for treating recurrent ABPA exacerbations. We have devised an objective multidimensional criterion to assess treatment response. CONCLUSION: We have framed consensus guidelines for diagnosing, classifying and treating ABPA/M for patient care and research.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva , Adulto , Niño , Animales , Humanos , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/tratamiento farmacológico , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/tratamiento farmacológico , Itraconazol/uso terapéutico , Micología , Prednisolona , Inmunoglobulina E
8.
Mycoses ; 67(3): e13711, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414309

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Post-tuberculosis lung abnormality (PTLA) is the most common risk factor for developing chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). However, the prevalence and incidence of CPA in PTLA patients in India remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to ascertain the incidence and prevalence of CPA in subjects with PTLA. METHODS: We identified a cohort of pulmonary tuberculosis who completed anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) before November 2019 from the records of the 12 tuberculosis treatment centers attached to the national program. We recorded the clinical and demographic details. We performed computed tomography (CT) of the chest and estimated serum A. fumigatus-specific IgG. We categorised subjects as PTLA with or without CPA using a composite of clinical, radiological, and microbiological features. We resurveyed the subjects at 6 months (or earlier) for the presence of new symptoms. We calculated the prevalence and the incidence rate (per 100-person years) of CPA. RESULTS: We included 117 subjects with PTLA, with a median of 3 years after ATT completion. Eleven subjects had CPA in the initial survey, and one additional case developed CPA during the second survey. The prevalence of CPA in PTLA subjects was 10.3% (12/117). The total observation period was 286.7 person-years. The median (interquartile range) time to develop CPA after ATT completion was 12.5 (5-36.7) months. We found the CPA incidence rate (95% confidence interval) of 4.2 (1.8-6.5) per 100-person years. CONCLUSION: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis complicates 10% of PTLA subjects after successful outcomes with ATT. Four new CPA cases may develop per 100-persons years of observation after ATT completion. We suggest screening patients with PTLA who develop new symptoms for CPA.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Pulmonares , Aspergilosis Pulmonar , Tuberculosis Pulmonar , Humanos , Incidencia , Prevalencia , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/complicaciones , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Pulmonares/complicaciones , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/complicaciones , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/microbiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enfermedad Crónica
9.
Mycoses ; 67(2): e13700, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369615

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus-specific IgG estimation is crucial for diagnosing allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). A point-of-care LDBio immunochromatographic lateral flow assay (LFA) had 0%-90% sensitivity to detect IgG/IgM antibodies against A. fumigatus. OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of LDBio-LFA in diagnosing ABPA, using the modified ISHAM-ABPA working group criteria as the reference standard. The secondary objective was to compare the diagnostic performance between LDBio-LFA and A. fumigatus-specific IgG (cut-offs, 27 and 40 mgA/L), using a multidisciplinary team (blinded to A. fumigatus-IgG and LDBio-LFA results) diagnosis of ABPA as the reference standard. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled adult subjects with asthma and ABPA. We performed the LDBio-LFA per the manufacturer's recommendations. We used the commercially available automated fluorescent enzyme immunoassay for measuring serum A. fumigatus-specific IgG. We used the same serum sample to perform both index tests. The tests were performed by technicians blinded to the results of other tests and clinical diagnoses. RESULTS: We included 123 asthmatic and 166 ABPA subjects, with a mean ± SD age of 37.4 ± 14.4 years. Bronchiectasis and high-attenuation mucus were seen in 93.6% (146/156) and 24.3% (38/156) of the ABPA subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of LDBio-LFA in diagnosing ABPA were 84.9% and 82.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of serum A. fumigatus-specific IgG ≥27 mgA/L was 13% better than LDBio-LFA, with no difference in specificity. There was no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity between LDBio-LFA and serum A. fumigatus-IgG ≥40 mgA/L. CONCLUSION: LDBio-LFA is a valuable test for diagnosing ABPA. However, a negative test should be confirmed using an enzyme immunoassay.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica , Asma , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aspergillus fumigatus , Inmunoglobulina E , Anticuerpos Antifúngicos , Aspergillus , Asma/complicaciones , Asma/diagnóstico , Inmunoglobulina G
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 30(3): 368-374, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081413

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis (CAROM), ascertain factors associated with CAPM among patients with COVID-19, and identify factors associated with 12-week mortality in CAPM. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentre cohort study. All study participants had COVID-19. We enrolled CAPM, CAROM, and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis (controls; age-matched). We collected information on demography, predisposing factors, and details of COVID-19 illness. Univariable analysis was used to compare CAPM and CAROM. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with CAPM (with hypoxemia during COVID-19 as the primary exposure) and at 12-week mortality. RESULTS: We included 1724 cases (CAPM [n = 122], CAROM [n = 1602]) and 3911 controls. Male sex, renal transplantation, multimorbidity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, intensive care admission, and cumulative glucocorticoid dose for COVID-19 were significantly higher in CAPM than in CAROM. On multivariable analysis, COVID-19-related hypoxemia (aOR, 2.384; 95% CI, 1.209-4.700), male sex, rural residence, diabetes mellitus, serum C-reactive protein, glucocorticoid, and zinc use during COVID-19 were independently associated with CAPM. CAPM reported a higher 12-week mortality than CAROM (56 of the 107 [52.3%] vs. 413 of the 1356 [30.5%]; p = 0.0001). Hypoxemia during COVID-19 (aOR [95% CI], 3.70 [1.34-10.25]) and Aspergillus co-infection (aOR [95% CI], 5.40 [1.23-23.64]) were independently associated with mortality in CAPM, whereas surgery was associated with better survival. DISCUSSION: CAPM is a distinct entity with a higher mortality than CAROM. Hypoxemia during COVID-19 illness is associated with CAPM. COVID-19 hypoxemia and Aspergillus co-infection were associated with higher mortality in CAPM.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Masculino , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Glucocorticoides , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , India/epidemiología , Hipoxia/complicaciones
12.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 30(2): 156-166, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37902135

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-tuberculosis lung disease (PTLD) is an increasingly recognized and debilitating consequence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of PTLD with airflow obstruction (PTLD-AFO), focusing on its burden, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods, and management strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The relationship between PTLD and airflow obstruction is complex and multifactorial. Approximately 60% of the patients with PTLD have some spirometric abnormality. Obstruction is documented in 18-22% of PTLD patients. The host susceptibility and host response to mycobacterium drive the pathogenic mechanism of PTLD. A balance between inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and fibrotic pathways decides whether an individual with PTB would have PTLD after microbiological cure. An obstructive abnormality in PTLD-AFO is primarily due to destruction of bronchial walls, aberrant healing, and reduction of mucosal glands. The most common finding on computed tomography (CT) of thorax in patients with PTLD-AFO is bronchiectasis and cavitation. Therefore, the 'Cole's vicious vortex' described in bronchiectasis applies to PTLD. A multidisciplinary approach is required for diagnosis and treatment. The disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributed to PTLD represent about 50% of the total estimated burden of DALYs due to tuberculosis (TB). Patients with PTLD require comprehensive care that includes psychosocial support, pulmonary rehabilitation, and vaccination against respiratory pathogens. In the absence of trials evaluating different treatments for PTLD-AFO, therapy is primarily symptomatic. SUMMARY: PTLD with airflow obstruction has considerable burden and causes a significant morbidity and mortality. However, many aspects of PTLD-AFO still need to be answered. Studies are required to evaluate different phenotypes, especially concerning Aspergillus -related complications. The treatment should be personalized based on the predominant phenotype of airflow obstruction. Extensive studies to understand the exact burden, pathogenesis, and treatment of PTBLD-AFO are needed.


Asunto(s)
Bronquiectasia , Enfermedades Pulmonares , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Tuberculosis Pulmonar , Humanos , Pulmón , Enfermedades Pulmonares/complicaciones , Bronquiectasia/complicaciones
15.
Eur Respir J ; 62(3)2023 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37690784

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend 20-40 mg·day-1 of oral prednisolone for treating pulmonary sarcoidosis. Whether the higher dose (40 mg·day-1) can improve outcomes remains unknown. METHODS: We conducted an investigator-initiated, single-centre, open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03265405). Consecutive subjects with pulmonary sarcoidosis were randomised (1:1) to receive either high-dose (40 mg·day-1 initial dose) or low-dose (20 mg·day-1 initial dose) oral prednisolone, tapered over 6 months. The primary outcome was the frequency of relapse or treatment failure at 18 months from randomisation. Key secondary outcomes included the time to relapse or treatment failure, overall response, change in forced vital capacity (FVC, in litres) at 6 and 18 months, treatment-related adverse effects and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores using the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire and Fatigue Assessment Scale. FINDINGS: We included 86 subjects (43 in each group). 42 and 43 subjects completed treatment in the high-dose and low-dose groups, respectively, while 37 (86.0%) and 41 (95.3%), respectively, completed the 18-month follow-up. 20 (46.5%) subjects had relapse or treatment failure in the high-dose group and 19 (44.2%) in the low-dose group (p=0.75). The mean time to relapse/treatment failure was similar between the groups (high-dose 307 days versus low-dose 269 days, p=0.27). The overall response, the changes in FVC at 6 and 18 months and the incidence of adverse effects were also similar. Changes in HRQoL scores did not differ between the study groups. INTERPRETATION: High-dose prednisolone was not superior to a lower dose in improving outcomes or the HRQoL in sarcoidosis and was associated with similar adverse effects.


Asunto(s)
Prednisolona , Sarcoidosis Pulmonar , Humanos , Prednisolona/administración & dosificación , Calidad de Vida , Sarcoidosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Sarcoidosis Pulmonar/psicología , Adulto Joven , Adulto
16.
Mycoses ; 66(11): 953-959, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37555291

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The long-term outcomes of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are poorly characterised. METHODS: We retrospectively included treatment-naïve subjects of acute stage ABPA-complicating asthma from three randomised trials. All the subjects received oral prednisolone for 4 months and were monitored every 6 weeks for 6 months and then every 6 months. Our primary objective was to estimate the incidence rate and the frequency of subjects experiencing ABPA exacerbation. The key secondary objectives were to evaluate the factors predicting ABPA exacerbation and the changes in serum total IgE seen during treatment. RESULTS: We included 182 subjects. Eighty-one (44.5%) patients experienced 120 exacerbations during 512 patient-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of ABPA exacerbations was 234/1000 patient-years. Most (73/81, 90.1%) subjects experienced ABPA exacerbation within three years of stopping therapy. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, peripheral blood eosinophil count ≥1000 cells/µL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-4.67), the extent of bronchiectasis (aOR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18), age (aOR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), and female sex (aOR 2.16; 95% CI, 1.10-4.24) independently predicted ABPA exacerbation after adjusting for serum total IgE and high-attenuation mucus. The best cut-off for serum total IgE after 6 weeks for identifying treatment response and ABPA exacerbations was a 20% decline and a 50% increase, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ABPA exacerbations were common within 3 years of stopping treatment. Age, female sex, peripheral blood eosinophilia and the extent of bronchiectasis predicted ABPA exacerbations. The optimal serum total IgE cut-off for defining ABPA response and exacerbations is a 20% decline and a 50% increase, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica , Asma , Bronquiectasia , Femenino , Humanos , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/complicaciones , Aspergillus fumigatus , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Asma/complicaciones , Bronquiectasia/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios de Seguimiento , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Inmunoglobulina E , Estudios Retrospectivos , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
17.
Mycopathologia ; 188(5): 705-711, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37550433

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The role of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) for diagnosing chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) remains unknown. Herein, we investigate the diagnostic performance of serum ESR and CRP in CPA. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of treatment-naïve subjects with CPA and diseased controls (post-tuberculosis lung disease on CT thorax). We treated CPA subjects with six months of oral itraconazole. Our primary objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of ESR and CRP in diagnosing CPA. The key secondary objective was to study the change in the inflammatory markers with treatment. RESULTS: We included 434 subjects and 20 diseased controls. The sensitivity and specificity of ESR (n = 434) and CRP (at cut-off value of 10 mg/L, n = 308) in diagnosing CPA were 42.9% and 65%, and 52.3% and 65%, respectively. Both ESR and CRP had erratic trend following treatment. ESR and CRP declined or remained stable in approximately 60% of subjects but increased in approximately 40% of the subjects despite treatment. CONCLUSION: Serum CRP and ESR have limited utility in diagnosing and following subjects with CPA.

18.
Allergol Int ; 72(4): 507-520, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37633774

RESUMEN

Fungal sensitization is highly prevalent in severe asthma. The relationship between fungus and asthma, especially Aspergillus fumigatus, has been the subject of extensive research. The ubiquitous presence of A. fumigatus, its thermotolerant nature, the respirable size of its conidia, and its ability to produce potent allergens are pivotal in worsening asthma control. Due to the diverse clinical manifestations of fungal asthma and the lack of specific biomarkers, its diagnosis remains intricate. Diagnosing fungal asthma requires carefully assessing the patient's clinical history, immunological tests, and imaging. Depending on the severity, patients with fungal asthma require personalized treatment plans, including inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators, and antifungal therapy. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the association between Aspergillus and asthma by reviewing the relevant literature and highlighting key findings. We discuss the diagnosis of various entities included in fungal asthma. We also debate whether newer definitions, including allergic fungal airway disease, offer any additional advantages over the existing ones. Finally, we provide the current treatment options for the individual entities, including A. fumigatus-associated asthma, severe asthma with fungal sensitization, and allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica , Asma , Micosis , Humanos , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/tratamiento farmacológico , Aspergillus fumigatus , Alérgenos , Sistema Respiratorio
19.
Mycopathologia ; 188(5): 755-763, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37501018

RESUMEN

Mucormycosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is uncommon; notably, many cases have additional predisposing factors. Whether mucormycosis differs in HIV-affected individuals with and without additional risk factors (e.g., neutropenia, diabetes mellitus, and transplantation) remains unclear. In this systematic review, we identified 94 cases of HIV and mucormycosis classifiable into three groups: (1) HIV with additional risk factors (n = 50), (2) intravenous drug users (IVDU, n = 24), and (3) no other risk factor (n = 19) for mucormycosis. The most common presentation in IVDU was renal (41.7%) and cerebral mucormycosis (39.2%), whereas rhino-orbital mucormycosis (ROM, 4.2%) was uncommon. In the other two groups, ROM was the most common presentation. Rhizopus was the most frequently isolated Mucorales; however, in IVDU, Lichtheimia was the most common. The overall mortality was 53% and not significantly different in the three groups. Mucormycosis in HIV-infected individuals is rare without additional risk factors or IVDU.

20.
Lung India ; 40(4): 368-400, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37417095

RESUMEN

Over the past decade, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has become an indispensable tool in the diagnostic armamentarium of the pulmonologist. As the expertise with EBUS-TBNA has evolved and several innovations have occurred, the indications for its use have expanded. However, several aspects of EBUS-TBNA are still not standardized. Hence, evidence-based guidelines are needed to optimize the diagnostic yield and safety of EBUS-TBNA. For this purpose, a working group of experts from India was constituted. A detailed and systematic search was performed to extract relevant literature pertaining to various aspects of EBUS-TBNA. The modified GRADE system was used for evaluating the level of evidence and assigning the strength of recommendations. The final recommendations were framed with the consensus of the working group after several rounds of online discussions and a two-day in-person meeting. These guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations encompassing indications of EBUS-TBNA, pre-procedure evaluation, sedation and anesthesia, technical and procedural aspects, sample processing, EBUS-TBNA in special situations, and training for EBUS-TBNA.

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