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1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268925, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605005

RESUMEN

Magnetic Resonance images (MRIs) are employed in brain Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) for target and/or critical organ localization and delineation. However, MRIs are inherently distorted, which also impacts the accuracy of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Computed Tomography (MRI/CT) co-registration process. In this phantom-based study, geometric distortion is assessed in 3T T2-weighted images (T2WIs), while the efficacy of an MRI distortion correction technique is also evaluated. A homogeneous polymer gel-filled phantom was CT-imaged before being irradiated with 26 4-mm Gamma Knife shots at predefined locations (reference control points). The irradiated phantom was MRI-scanned at 3T, implementing a T2-weighted protocol suitable for SRS/SRT treatment planning. The centers of mass of all shots were identified in the 3D image space by implementing an iterative localization algorithm and served as the evaluated control points for MRI distortion detection. MRIs and CT images were spatially co-registered using a mutual information algorithm. The inverse transformation matrix was applied to the reference control points and compared with the corresponding MRI-identified ones to evaluate the overall spatial accuracy of the MRI/CT dataset. The mean image distortion correction technique was implemented, and resulting MRI-corrected control points were compared against the corresponding reference ones. For the scanning parameters used, increased MRI distortion (>1mm) was detected at areas distant from the MRI isocenter (>5cm), while median radial distortion was 0.76mm. Detected offsets were slightly higher for the MRI/CT dataset (0.92mm median distortion). The mean image distortion correction improves geometric accuracy, but residual distortion cannot be considered negligible (0.51mm median distortion). For all three datasets studied, a statistically significant positive correlation between detected spatial offsets and their distance from the MRI isocenter was revealed. This work contributes towards the wider adoption of 3T imaging in SRS/SRT treatment planning. The presented methodology can be employed in commissioning and quality assurance programmes of corresponding treatment workflows.

2.
Radiology ; : 211388, 2022 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380497

RESUMEN

Background An imaging-based predictor of response could provide prognostic information early during treatment course in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Purpose To investigate if very early changes in bone marrow relative fat fraction (rFF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram metrics, occurring after one cycle of induction therapy in participants with newly diagnosed MM, could help predict overall best response status. Materials and Methods This prospective study included participants with MM who were enrolled between August 2014 and December 2017. Histogram metrics were extracted from ADC and rFF maps from MRI examinations performed before treatment and after the first treatment cycle. Participants were categorized into the very good partial response (VGPR) or better group and the less than VGPR group per the International Myeloma Working Group response criteria. ADC and rFF map metrics for predicting treatment response were compared using the Wilcoxon rank test, and the false discovery rate (FDR) was used to correct for multiple comparisons. Results A total of 23 participants (mean age, 65 years ± 11 [SD]; 13 men) were evaluated. There was no evidence of a difference in ADC metrics between the two responder groups after correcting for multiple comparisons. The rFF histogram changes between pretreatment MRI and MRI after the first treatment cycle (ΔrFF) that provided significant differences between the VGPR or better and less than VGPR groups were as follows: ΔrFF_10th Percentile (median, 0.5 [95% CI: 0, 1] vs -2.5 [95% CI: -5.1, 0.1], respectively), ΔrFF_90th Percentile (median, 2 [95% CI: 1, 6.8] vs -0.5 [95% CI: -1, 0]), ΔrFF_Mean (median, 3.4 [95% CI: 0.3, 7.6] vs -1.1 [95% CI: -1.8, -0.7]), and ΔrFF_Root Mean Squared (median, 3.2 [95% CI: 0.3, 6.1] vs -0.7 [95% CI: -1.3, -0.4]) (FDR-adjusted P = .03 for all), and the latter two also presented mean group increases in the VGPR or better group that were above the upper 95% CI limit for repeatability. Conclusion Very early changes in bone marrow relative fat fraction histogram metrics, calculated from MRI examination at baseline and after only one cycle of induction therapy, may help to predict very good partial response or better in participants with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

3.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; : e13580, 2022 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285583

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: In frame-based Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery two treatment planning workflows are commonly employed; one based solely on magnetic resonance (MR) images and the other based on magnetic resonance/computed tomography (MR/CT) co-registered images. In both workflows, target localization accuracy (TLA) can be deteriorated due to MR-related geometric distortions and/or MR/CT co-registration uncertainties. In this study, the overall TLA following both clinical workflows is evaluated for cases of multiple brain metastases. METHODS: A polymer gel-filled head phantom, having the Leksell stereotactic headframe attached, was CT-imaged and irradiated by a GK Perfexion unit. A total of 26 4-mm shots were delivered at 26 locations directly defined in the Leksell stereotactic space (LSS), inducing adequate contrast in corresponding T2-weighted (T2w) MR images. Prescribed shot coordinates served as reference locations. An additional MR scan was acquired to implement the "mean image" distortion correction technique. The TLA for each workflow was assessed by comparing the radiation-induced target locations, identified in MR images, with corresponding reference locations. Using T1w MR and CT images of 15 patients (totaling 81 lesions), TLA in clinical cases was similarly assessed, considering MR-corrected data as reference. For the MR/CT workflow, both global and region of interest (ROI)-based MR/CT registration approaches were studied. RESULTS: In phantom measurements, the MR-corrected workflow demonstrated unsurpassed TLA (median offset of 0.2 mm) which deteriorated for MR-only and MR/CT workflows (median offsets of 0.8 and 0.6 mm, respectively). In real-patient cases, the MR-only workflow resulted in offsets that exhibit a significant positive correlation with the distance from the MR isocenter, reaching 1.1 mm (median 0.6 mm). Comparable results were obtained for the MR/CT-global workflow, although a maximum offset of 1.4 mm was detected. TLA was improved with the MR/CT-ROI workflow resulting in median/maximum offsets of 0.4 mm/1.1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Subpixel TLA is achievable in all workflows. For the MR/CT workflow, a ROI-based MR/CT co-registration approach could considerably increase TLA and should be preferred instead of a global registration.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267451

RESUMEN

Accurate in situ diagnosis and optimal surgical removal of a malignancy constitute key elements in reducing cancer-related morbidity and mortality. In surgical oncology, the accurate discrimination between healthy and cancerous tissues is critical for the postoperative care of the patient. Conventional imaging techniques have attempted to serve as adjuvant tools for in situ biopsy and surgery guidance. However, no single imaging modality has been proven sufficient in terms of specificity, sensitivity, multiplexing capacity, spatial and temporal resolution. Moreover, most techniques are unable to provide information regarding the molecular tissue composition. In this review, we highlight the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a spectroscopic technique with high detection sensitivity and spatial resolution for distinguishing healthy from malignant margins in microscopic scale and in real time. A Raman spectrum constitutes an intrinsic "molecular finger-print" of the tissue and any biochemical alteration related to inflammatory or cancerous tissue state is reflected on its Raman spectral fingerprint. Nowadays, advanced Raman systems coupled with modern instrumentation devices and machine learning methods are entering the clinical arena as adjunct tools towards personalized and optimized efficacy in surgical oncology.

5.
J Digit Imaging ; 34(4): 1014-1025, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027587

RESUMEN

The recent introduction of wireless head-mounted displays (HMD) promises to enhance 3D image visualization by immersing the user into 3D morphology. This work introduces a prototype holographic augmented reality (HAR) interface for the 3D visualization of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for the purpose of planning neurosurgical procedures. The computational platform generates a HAR scene that fuses pre-operative MRI sets, segmented anatomical structures, and a tubular tool for planning an access path to the targeted pathology. The operator can manipulate the presented images and segmented structures and perform path-planning using voice and gestures. On-the-fly, the software uses defined forbidden-regions to prevent the operator from harming vital structures. In silico studies using the platform with a HoloLens HMD assessed its functionality and the computational load and memory for different tasks. A preliminary qualitative evaluation revealed that holographic visualization of high-resolution 3D MRI data offers an intuitive and interactive perspective of the complex brain vasculature and anatomical structures. This initial work suggests that immersive experiences may be an unparalleled tool for planning neurosurgical procedures.


Asunto(s)
Realidad Aumentada , Holografía , Cirugía Asistida por Computador , Imagenología Tridimensional , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos , Programas Informáticos , Interfaz Usuario-Computador
6.
Brain Topogr ; 34(4): 511-524, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837867

RESUMEN

Language fMRI has become an integral part of the planning process in brain surgery. However, fMRI may suffer from confounding factors both on the patient side, as well as on the provider side. In this study, we investigate how patient-related confounds affect the ability of the patient to perform language fMRI tasks (feasibility), the task sensitivity from an image contrast point of view, and the anatomical specificity of expressive and receptive language fMRI protocols. 104 patients were referred for language fMRI in the context of presurgical procedures for epilepsy and brain tumor surgery. Four tasks were used: (1) a verbal fluency (VF) task to map vocabulary use, (2) a semantic description (SD) task to map sentence formation/semantic integration skills, (3) a reading comprehension (RC) task and (4) a listening comprehension (LC) task. Feasibility was excellent in the LC task (100%), but in the acceptable to mediocre range for the rest of the tasks (SD: 87.50%, RC: 85.57%, VF: 67.30%). Feasibility was significantly confounded by age (p = 0.020) and education level (p = 0.003) in VF, by education level (p = 0.004) and lesion laterality (p = 0.019) in SD and by age (p = 0.001), lesion laterality (p = 0.007) and lesion severity (p = 0.048) in RC. All tasks were comparable regarding sensitivity in generating statistically significant image contrast (VF: 90.00%, SD: 92.30%, RC: 93.25%, LC: 88.46%). The lobe of the lesion (p = 0.005) and the age (p = 0.009) confounded contrast sensitivity in the VF and SD tasks respectively. Both VF and LC tasks demonstrated unilateral lateralization of posterior language areas; only the LC task showed unilateral lateralization of anterior language areas. Our study highlights the effects of patient-related confounding factors on language fMRI and proposes LC as the most feasible, less confounded, and efficiently lateralizing task in the clinical presurgical context.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Epilepsia , Mapeo Encefálico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirugía , Sensibilidad de Contraste , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagen , Epilepsia/cirugía , Estudios de Factibilidad , Lateralidad Funcional , Humanos , Lenguaje , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710925

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The cerebellum has a crucial role in mood regulation. While cerebellar grey matter (GM) alterations have been previously reported in bipolar disorder (BD), cerebro-cerebellar white matter (WM) connectivity alterations and cerebellar GM profiles have not been characterised in the context of predominant polarity (PP) and onset polarity (OP) subphenotypes of BD patients which is the aim of the present study. METHODS: Forty-two euthymic BD patients stratified for PP and OP and 42 healthy controls (HC) were included in this quantitative neuroimaging study to evaluate cerebellar GM patterns and cerebro-cerebellar WM connections. Diffusion tensor tractography was used to characterise afferent and efferent cerebro-cerebellar tract integrity. False discovery rate corrections were applied in post-hoc comparisons. RESULTS: BD patients exhibited higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in fronto-ponto-cerebellar tracts bilaterally compared to HC. Subphenotype-specific FA profiles were identified within the BD cohort. Regarding PP subgroups, we found FA changes in a) left contralateral fronto-ponto-cerebellar tract (depressive-PP > HC) and b) contralateral/ipsilateral fronto-ponto-cerebellar tracts bilaterally (manic-PP > HC). Regarding OP subgroups, we observed FA changes in a) left/right contralateral fronto-ponto-cerebellar tracts (depressive-OP > HC) and b) all fronto-ponto-cerebellar, most parieto-ponto-cerebellar and right contralateral occipito-ponto-cerebellar tracts (manic-OP>HC). In general, greater and more widespread cerebro-cerebellar changes were observed in manic-OP patients than in depressive-OP patients compared to HC. Manic-OP showed higher FA compared to depressive-OP patients in several afferent WM tracts. No GM differences were identified between BD and HC and across BD subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight fronto-ponto-cerebellar connectivity alterations in euthymic BD. Polarity-related subphenotypes have distinctive cerebro-cerebellar WM signatures with potential clinical and pathobiological implications.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagen , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagen , Lóbulo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagen , Red Nerviosa/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Cerebro/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Transversales , Imagen de Difusión Tensora/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
8.
Med Phys ; 48(4): 1661-1672, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230923

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This work aims at promoting target localization accuracy in cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) applications by focusing on the correction of sequence-dependent (also patient induced) magnetic resonance (MR) distortions at the lesion locations. A phantom-based quality assurance (QA) methodology was developed and implemented for the evaluation of three distortion correction techniques. The same approach was also adapted to cranial MR images used for SRS treatment planning purposes in single or multiple brain metastases cases. METHODS: A three-dimensional (3D)-printed head phantom was filled with a 3D polymer gel dosimeter. Following treatment planning and dose delivery, volumes of radiation-induced polymerization served as hypothetical lesions, offering adequate MR contrast with respect to the surrounding unirradiated areas. T1-weighted (T1w) MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T using the clinical scanning protocol for SRS. Additional images were acquired to implement three distortion correction methods; the field mapping (FM), mean image (MI) and signal integration (SI) techniques. Reference lesion locations were calculated as the averaged centroid positions of each target identified in the forward and reverse read gradient polarity MRI scans. The same techniques and workflows were implemented for the correction of contrast-enhanced T1w MR images of 10 patients with a total of 27 brain metastases. RESULTS: All methods employed in the phantom study diminished spatial distortion. Median and maximum distortion magnitude decreased from 0.7 mm (2.10 ppm) and 0.8 mm (2.36 ppm), respectively, to <0.2 mm (0.61 ppm) at all target locations, using any of the three techniques. Image quality of the corrected images was acceptable, while contrast-to-noise ratio slightly increased. Results of the patient study were in accordance with the findings of the phantom study. Residual distortion in corrected patient images was found to be <0.3 mm in the vast majority of targets. Overall, the MI approach appears to be the most efficient correction method from the three investigated. CONCLUSIONS: In cranial SRS applications, patient-specific distortion correction at the target location(s) is feasible and effective, despite the expense of longer imaging time since additional MRI scan(s) need to be performed. A phantom-based QA methodology was developed and presented to reassure efficient implementation of correction techniques for sequence-dependent spatial distortion.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Radiocirugia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Fantasmas de Imagen
9.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 20(10): 704-711, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653455

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Socioeconomic status (SES) has been shown to be a prognostic factor for overall survival in a variety of hematologic malignancies, especially for patients who require continuous care such as those with multiple myeloma (MM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 223 patients with symptomatic MM diagnosed and treated in our department from January 2005 to December 2019. The modified Kuppuswamy scale, slightly modified, was used for the SES assessment. The Kaplan-Meier estimator of survival and Cox regression analysis were used. RESULTS: In our cohort of 223 patients with MM, low SES was an independent poor prognostic factor for overall survival (OS), in addition to higher International Staging System stage and high-risk cytogenetics (hazard ratio for low SES on Cox regression analysis, 2.092; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-3.2; log-rank P = .000). Patients with low SES had inferior survival compared with the whole patient cohort (median OS: low SES, 28 months; 95% CI, 18-37.9; high SES, 68 months; 95% CI, 55.6-80.4; log-rank P = .000). The low SES effect on OS was more evident for the elderly patients who were not transplant eligible and in those with a diagnosis of MM International Staging System stage I. The effect of low SES on OS was attenuated by time, and ethnic origin had no effect on OS. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study have shown that low SES is an independent poor prognostic factor for survival of patients with MM.


Asunto(s)
Citogenética/métodos , Mieloma Múltiple/mortalidad , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Clase Social , Análisis de Supervivencia
10.
Data Brief ; 28: 104991, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31921944

RESUMEN

A prospective, standardised neuroimaging protocol was implemented to characterise mesial temporal lobe pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls focusing on the evaluation of interconnected white and grey matter structures. "Hippocampal pathology in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: selective vulnerability of subfields and their associated projections" [1]. High-resolution diffusion tensor and structural imaging data were acquired on a 3 T MRI platform using standardised sequence parameters. The integrity of the fornix and the perforant pathway was assessed by tractography, to provide fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity measures. Quantitative structural imaging was used to estimate the total intracranial volume, total hippocampal volumes and hippocampal subfield volumes for each participant. Raw white- and grey-matter measures, demographic and clinical data are available online at 'Mendeley Data'. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease exhibit divergent hippocampal profiles.

11.
Neurobiol Aging ; 84: 178-188, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629116

RESUMEN

Although hippocampal involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been consistently highlighted by postmortem studies, memory impairment remains under-recognized and the involvement of specific hippocampal subfields and their connectivity patterns are poorly characterized in vivo. A prospective multimodal neuroimaging study has been undertaken with 50 well-characterized ALS patients, 18 patients with Alzheimer's disease, and 40 healthy controls to evaluate their mesial temporal lobe profile. Patients with ALS and Alzheimer's disease have divergent hippocampal signatures. The cornu ammonis 2/3 subfield and the hippocampus-amygdala transition area are the most affected regions in ALS in contrast to Alzheimer's disease, where the presubiculum and subiculum are the most vulnerable regions. Tractography reveals considerable fornix and perforant pathway pathology in both patient groups. Mesial temporal lobe structures in ALS have a selective and disease-specific vulnerability profiles, and their white matter projections exhibit concomitant degeneration. Our combined gray and white matter analyses indicate a connectivity-based, network-defined involvement of interconnected temporal lobe structures as opposed to contiguous involvement of adjacent structures. Our findings underline the importance of screening for memory deficits and personalized management strategies in ALS.


Asunto(s)
Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral/patología , Hipocampo/patología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/patología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/fisiopatología , Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatología , Humanos , Memoria
12.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 185(4): 532-541, 2019 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329986

RESUMEN

Rehabilitation practice for many patients consisting of a combined use of magneto therapy resulting emission of low frequency magnetic fields to the patient, elicit concerns about occupational exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) for the operators. The time extended use of the device periodically leads to mechanical failures or troubleshooting of the machine which, in most cases, are not perceived by the operator of the device. All device's efficient functionality have a major impact on the completion of the treatment procedure in a large percentage of specific clinical conditions. If the device's operating condition is technically out of order or in a mode of over-activity, operators are mainly seeking solutions by reviewing the clinical case of the patient. This eliminates their contribution during the primary therapeutic plan or increases the treatment sessions. In this work, an extended survey is presented including 75 physiotherapy centres concerning usability and maintenance issues of magneto therapy devices throughout Greek territory combined with extended measurements of Electromagnetic Radiation in the unit room were performed. Physiotherapists' perceptions revealed lack of technical support, maintenance and safe use of magneto therapy devices that extract auxiliary observations upon their clinical practice routines. Additionally safety measurements have not revealed field strengths over International Reference Levels which could result health risks for users and coexisting patients. The pilot survey that conducted in Attica and Western Greece confirms that magnetic fields strength that are measured are in accordance with the statutory legislation but will, at the same time, revealed lack of maintenance of the devices. Deficiency in topics such as proper equipment function will necessitate the creation of quality safety protocols, concerning the use of magneto-therapy, with the main aim the improvement of treatment procedures for the higher performance of therapeutic rehabilitation services to patients. Finally in this work, the proposal of a QC protocol for magnetotherapy devices is proposed for evaluation.


Asunto(s)
Diatermia/efectos adversos , Magnetismo , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Control de Calidad , Monitoreo de Radiación/métodos , Protección Radiológica/métodos , Adulto , Diatermia/instrumentación , Campos Electromagnéticos/efectos adversos , Radiación Electromagnética , Femenino , Grecia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Seguridad del Paciente , Proyectos Piloto , Traumatismos por Radiación , Valores de Referencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
J Integr Neurosci ; 18(2): 95-105, 2019 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321950

RESUMEN

This research investigates the chronic effect of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury on brain white matter integrity, as reflected by diffusion tensor imaging metrics, and the assessment of their correlation to neuropsychological response. Thirteen male participants with traumatic brain injury (8.4 years average post-injury time) were compared to a matched group of neurologically healthy controls. None of the traumatic brain injury subjects had received post-acute neurocognitive and/or neuropsychological rehabilitation. Between-group comparison of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity was performed for the whole brain and corpus callosum. An extensive battery of visual and verbal memory tasks was employed for the comparative assessment of neurocognitive performance. Between-group and within-group performance differences were correlated with fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity of corpus callosum. Significant changes in global fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and radial diffusivity were associated with traumatic brain injury. Visual memory capacity was reduced in traumatic brain injury, and this deficit was correlated to white matter integrity loss at the corpus callosum. Participants with traumatic brain injury underperformed controls in verbal memory as well, but no correlation with corpus callosum diffusion tensor imaging properties was established. Between-group performance difference was correlated with corpus callosum diffusion metrics in several tasks. Significant correlations were found between corpus callosum diffusion tensor imaging metrics and neuropsychological response within the traumatic brain injury group. Changes in whole brain and corpus callosum diffusion tensor metrics inflicted by moderate to severe traumatic brain injury are still evident several years post-injury and relate to neurocognitive impairment, while loss of white matter integrity seems to correlate with episodic and working memory impairment.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/patología , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/psicología , Encéfalo/patología , Cuerpo Calloso/patología , Memoria/fisiología , Adulto , Imagen de Difusión Tensora , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Conducta Verbal/fisiología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto Joven
14.
Australas Phys Eng Sci Med ; 42(2): 563-571, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054027

RESUMEN

The inconsistency of volumetric results often seen in MR neuroimaging studies can be partially attributed to small sample sizes and variable data analysis approaches. Increased sample size through multi-scanner studies can tackle the former, but combining data across different scanner platforms and field-strengths may introduce a variability factor capable of masking subtle statistical differences. To investigate the sample size effect on regression analysis between depressive symptoms and grey matter volume (GMV) loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a retrospective multi-scanner investigation was conducted. A cohort of 172 AD patients, with or without comorbid depressive symptoms, was studied. Patients were scanned with different imaging protocols in four different MRI scanners operating at either 1.5 T or 3.0 T. Acquired data were uniformly analyzed using the computational anatomy toolbox (CAT12) of the statistical parametric mapping (SPM12) software. Single- and multi-scanner regression analyses were applied to identify the anatomical pattern of correlation between GM loss and depression severity. A common anatomical pattern of correlation between GMV loss and increased depression severity, mostly involving sensorimotor areas, was identified in all patient subgroups imaged in different scanners. Analysis of the pooled multi-scanner data confirmed the above finding employing a more conservative statistical criterion. In the retrospective multi-scanner setting, a significant correlation was also exhibited for temporal and frontal areas. Increasing the sample size by retrospectively pooling multi-scanner data, irrespective of the acquisition platform and parameters employed, can facilitate the identification of anatomical areas with a strong correlation between GMV changes and depression symptoms in AD patients.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagen , Depresión/complicaciones , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Neuroimagen , Anciano , Femenino , Sustancia Gris/diagnóstico por imagen , Sustancia Gris/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Análisis de Regresión , Tamaño de la Muestra
15.
Electromagn Biol Med ; 38(3): 218-229, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079506

RESUMEN

Although rehabilitation practice for most patients consists of a combined use of thermotherapy that is produced from diathermy devices resulting faster and deeper heating to the patient, major concerns about occupational exposure to electromagnetic radiation for the operators must be considered. In most occasions, physiotherapists have involved multi-hour treatment sessions to different patients, resulting overuse of the diathermy device. Recently, our team along with other groups have raised serious concerns about the occupational safety aspects related to microwave diathermy (MWD) use. Driven by these recent reports, in this work, we tried to investigate the in vitro effects of a physiotherapist routine MWD device regarding its potential inflammatory biological effects that could be evoked in human cultured monocytes. Our results show that MWD does not alter the integrity of the cell membrane and, consequently, the viability of monocytes as assessed by Trypan blue and MTT measurements. Then again, members of the MAPK family (p38 and ERK1/2) were activated upon MWD exposure at 5-30 min, eventually leading to a time-dependent considerable increase in TNF-α production, a key pro-inflammatory mediator. Our results are indicative of a stress-activated phenomenon of monocytes upon MWD radiation, which could trigger potential hazardous cellular outcomes due to thermal and/or non-thermal bystander effects. Our results deserve further investigation, planned by our team in due course, to delineate the clinical correlations of these findings.


Asunto(s)
Diatermia , Microondas , Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo , Monocitos/metabolismo , Monocitos/efectos de la radiación , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de la radiación , Activación Enzimática/efectos de la radiación , Humanos , Espacio Intracelular/metabolismo , Espacio Intracelular/efectos de la radiación , Monocitos/citología
16.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 31(3): 201-209, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605361

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Self-monitoring is a crucial component of human empathy and necessary for the formation and repair of social relations. Several studies have brought to light possible neuronal substrates associated with self-monitoring, but the information that they have provided is inconclusive. The authors, therefore, studied a large group of patients with dementia to assess what brain structures are necessary for the self-monitoring function.Methods: Seventy-seven patients with dementia of various types were screened using voxel-based morphometry to assess possible volume reduction in the brain structures of patients with self-monitoring problems, and the decrease of socioemotional expressiveness and modification of self-presentation was estimated using the Revised Self-Monitoring Scale. Regression analysis was employed to investigate the correlation between gray matter loss and deficient self-monitoring.Results: The socioemotional expressiveness scores were associated with decreased gray matter volume in the right olfactory cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, and medial temporal gyrus bilaterally. Self-presentation scores were associated with bilateral gray matter volume reduction in the olfactory cortex, insula, rectus gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, right superior temporal pole, and parahippocampal gyrus, as well as the left medial temporal gyrus and anterior superior frontal gyrus.Conclusions: These results suggest that patients with dementia present decreased ability of self-monitoring, probably due to impaired insula and orbitofrontal cortex and their disconnection from structures of the salience network.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Cerebral/patología , Demencia/patología , Demencia/psicología , Sustancia Gris/patología , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/patología , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/psicología , Autocontrol , Conducta Social , Anciano , Atrofia/patología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Demencia/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/complicaciones , Neuroimagen
17.
J Digit Imaging ; 32(3): 420-432, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483988

RESUMEN

This work presents a platform that integrates a customized MRI data acquisition scheme with reconstruction and three-dimensional (3D) visualization modules along with a module for controlling an MRI-compatible robotic device to facilitate the performance of robot-assisted, MRI-guided interventional procedures. Using dynamically-acquired MRI data, the computational framework of the platform generates and updates a 3D model representing the area of the procedure (AoP). To image structures of interest in the AoP that do not reside inside the same or parallel slices, the MRI acquisition scheme was modified to collect a multi-slice set of intraoblique to each other slices; which are termed composing slices. Moreover, this approach interleaves the collection of the composing slices so the same k-space segments of all slices are collected during similar time instances. This time matching of the k-space segments results in spatial matching of the imaged objects in the individual composing slices. The composing slices were used to generate and update the 3D model of the AoP. The MRI acquisition scheme was evaluated with computer simulations and experimental studies. Computer simulations demonstrated that k-space segmentation and time-matched interleaved acquisition of these segments provide spatial matching of the structures imaged with composing slices. Experimental studies used the platform to image the maneuvering of an MRI-compatible manipulator that carried tubing filled with MRI contrast agent. In vivo experimental studies to image the abdomen and contrast enhanced heart on free-breathing subjects without cardiac triggering demonstrated spatial matching of imaged anatomies in the composing planes. The described interventional MRI framework could assist in performing real-time MRI-guided interventions.


Asunto(s)
Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética Intervencional , Robótica/instrumentación , Abdomen/diagnóstico por imagen , Simulación por Computador , Medios de Contraste , Humanos
18.
J BUON ; 23(5): 1448-1459, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570872

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare results regarding the penumbra size, flatness and symmetry obtained using six different measuring systems. METHODS: Beam profile measurements were performed in standard water phantom set-up for two photon beams for various square field sizes and for five electron beams for several applicator sizes at several depths. Six measuring systems were used: three ionization chambers; a Semiflex (31002, PTW), a Markus (23343, PTW) and a Roos (34001, PTW); Two semiconductor detectors; a p-type diode (60008, PTW) and an e-type diode (60017, PTW) and a one dimensional Linear Array (LA48, PTW). RESULTS: Our results indicate that penumbra size determination is strongly dependent on the measuring system. For the photon measurements the diodes showed the narrowest penumbra followed by the LA48, while the largest penumbra was presented by the Semiflex. The unshielded diode overestimates the penumbra in large field sizes and big depths. The parallel plate ionization chambers overestimate the penumbra width of electron beam profiles. The LA48 presents the most symmetric beam profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Regarding penumbra size determination, the LA48 can be considered acceptable in terms of accuracy, and is the most time-effective system. It is also adequate for symmetry and flatness measurements. For greatest possible accuracy silicon diode is recommended. Parallel plate ionization chambers are not appropriate for penumbra measurements.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Fotones/uso terapéutico , Radiometría/métodos , Planificación de la Radioterapia Asistida por Computador/métodos , Humanos , Dosificación Radioterapéutica
19.
Phys Med Biol ; 63(13): 135006, 2018 06 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29794347

RESUMEN

This work focuses on MR-related sequence dependent geometric distortions, which are associated with B 0 inhomogeneity and patient-induced distortion (susceptibility differences and chemical shift effects), in MR images used in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) applications. Emphasis is put on characterizing distortion at target brain areas identified by gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) paramagnetic contrast agent uptake. A custom-made phantom for distortion detection was modified to accommodate two small cylindrical inserts, simulating small brain targets. The inserts were filled with Gd-DTPA solutions of various concentrations (0-20 mM). The phantom was scanned at 1.5 T unit using both the reversed read gradient polarity (to determine the overall distortion as reflected by the inserts centroid offset) and the field mapping (to determine B 0 inhomogeneity related distortion in the vicinity of the inserts) techniques. Post-Gd patient images involving a total of 10 brain metastases/targets were also studied using a similar methodology. For the specific imaging conditions, contrast agent presence was found to evidently affect phantom insert position, with centroid offset extending up to 0.068 mm mM-1 (0.208 ppm mM-1). The Gd-DTPA induced distortion in patient images was of the order of 0.5 mm for the MRI protocol used, in agreement with the phantom results. Total localization uncertainty of metastases-targets in patient images ranged from 0.35 mm to 0.87 mm, depending on target location, with an average value of 0.54 mm (2.24 ppm). This relative wide range of target localization uncertainty results from the fact that the B 0 inhomogeneity distortion vector in a specific location may add to or partly counterbalance Gd-DTPA induced distortion, thus increasing or decreasing, respectively, the total sequence dependent distortion. Although relatively small, the sequence dependent distortion in Gd-DTPA enhanced brain images can be easily taken into account for SRS treatment planning and target definition purposes by carefully inspecting both the forward and reversed polarity series.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Contraste , Aumento de la Imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Radiocirugia , Planificación de la Radioterapia Asistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundario , Gadolinio DTPA , Humanos , Fantasmas de Imagen
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