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1.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 50: 102866, 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652233

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Balance and ataxic symptoms are commonly encountered in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Many intervention approaches have been proposed to address balance in PwMS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of adding core stability versus task oriented trainings on traditional approaches on balance in ataxic PwMS. METHODS: Forty five ataxic relapsing-remitting PwMS from both sexes were randomly assigned into three identical groups. Control group (CG) treated with conventional balance exercise program; study groups I (GI) and II (GII) received respectively additional training using core stability exercises and task oriented trainings. Outcome measures recorded pre and post study period included stability index (SI), anterior posterior stability index (APSI), and mediolateral stability index (MLSI) using Biodex stability system in addition to the Berg balance scale (BBS). RESULTS: Post treatment, the results indicated significant improvement in (SI) and (APSI) (p<0.05), and non-significant improvement (p>0.05) in (MLSI) and BBS in CG. In GI and GII there was a significant improvement in all balance measures (p<0.05). Comparison of post treatment results between groups indicated a significant improvement of GII compared to CG in all study measures, GI showed non- significant difference in all balance measures compared to the CG(P>0.05). CONCLUSION: In PwMS balance rehabilitation should be multimodal; core stability exercises and task-oriented training in addition to conventional balance training are effective to improve balance and should be considered as an essential part of the training program for balance rehabilitation in ataxic PwMS. Task-oriented training in addition to conventional balance rehabilitation seem to be a favorable approach.

2.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 53, 2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535985

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Egypt, the characterization of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographics, clinical features, aquaporin4 antibodies (AQP4-IgG) status, and neuroimaging of Egyptian NMOSD patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 70 NMOSD patients' records from the MS clinic, Kasr Alainy hospital, between January 2013 and June 2018. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 34.9 ± 9.2 years, and the mean at disease onset was 28.9 ± 10.5 years. Fifty-nine patients had an initial monosymptomatic presentation. AQP4-IgG was measured using either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (22 patients) or cell-based assay (CBA) (34 patients). Six and 29 patients had positive results, respectively (p < 0.001). 84% had typical NMOSD brain lesions. Longitudinally extensive myelitis was detected in 49 patients, and 9 had either short segments or normal cords. Treatment failure was higher in seropositive patients. Rituximab significantly reduced the annualized relapse rate (ARR) compared to Azathioprine with a percentage reduction of (76.47 ± 13.28) and (10.21 ± 96.07), respectively (p = 0.04). Age at disease onset was the only independent predictor for disability (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Treatment failure was higher in seropositive patients. However, there was no difference in clinical or radiological parameters between seropositive and seronegative patients. Patients, who are polysymptomatic or with older age of onset, are predicted to have higher future disability regardless of the AQP4-IgG status.


Asunto(s)
Acuaporina 4/inmunología , Autoanticuerpos/inmunología , Neuromielitis Óptica/inmunología , Neuromielitis Óptica/patología , Adolescente , Adulto , Autoantígenos/inmunología , Azatioprina/uso terapéutico , Egipto , Femenino , Humanos , Factores Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Inmunosupresores/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neuromielitis Óptica/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
3.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 759-767, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884277

RESUMEN

The ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency of international concern and has affected management plans of many autoimmune disorders. Immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies are pivotal in the management of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), potentially placing patients at an increased risk of contracting infections such as COVID-19. The optimal management strategy of NMOSD during the COVID-19 era remains unclear. Here, however, we examined the evidence of NMOSD disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) use during the present period and highlighted different scenarios including treatment of relapses as well as initiation and maintenance of DMTs in order to optimize care of NMOSD patients in the COVID-19 era.

4.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 651-662, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801722

RESUMEN

The emergence of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major public health challenge of global concern since December 2019, when the virus was recognized in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province in China and epicenter of the COVID-19 epidemic. Given the novelty of COVID-19 and the lack of specific anti-virus therapies, the current management is essentially supportive. There is an absence of consensus on guidelines or treatment strategies for complex disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS), in which the risk of infections is higher than in the general population. This is due to the overall impairment of the immune system typical of autoimmune diseases, in addition to accumulation of disabilities, and the iatrogenic effect generated by corticosteroids and the recommended disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). DMTs have different modes of action, but all modulate and interfere with the patient's immune response, thereby raising concerns about adverse effects, such as an increased susceptibility to infections. In this review, we analyze the evidence for use of DMTs during the current critical period and ratify an algorithmic approach for management to optimize care between keeping DMTs, with their infection hazards, or coming off them, with the risk of disease activation. We also provide an algorithmic approach to the management of breakthrough activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
J Pain Res ; 13: 537-545, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210609

RESUMEN

Background: Studies have shown that interferon-beta (IFN-ß) treatment is associated with headaches in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Headaches can affect quality of life and overall function of patients with MS. We examined the frequency, relationships, patterns, and characteristics of headaches in response to IFN-ß in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Patients and Methods: This study was a prospective, longitudinal analysis with 1-year follow-up. The study comprised 796 patients with RRMS treated with IFN-ß (mean age 30.84±8.98 years) at 5 tertiary referral center outpatient clinics in Egypt between January 2015 and December 2017. Headaches were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders ICHD-3 (beta version), and data were collected through an interviewer-administered Arabic-language-validated questionnaire with an addendum specifically designed to investigate the temporal relationship between commencement of interferon treatment, and headache onset and characteristics. Results: Two hundred seventy-six patients had pre-existing headaches, and 356 experienced de novo headaches. Of 122 patients who experienced headaches before IFN-ß treatment, 55 reported headaches that worsened following onset of IFN-ß treatment. In patients with post-IFN-ß headaches, 329 had headaches that persisted for >3 months, 51 had chronic headaches, and 278 had episodic headaches, and 216 of these patients required preventive therapies. Univariate analysis showed a >6- and an approximately 5-fold increased risk of headache among those treated with intramuscular (IM) INF-ß-1a (OR 6.51; 95% CI: 3.73-10.01; P-value <0.0001) and 44 µg of SC INF-ß-1a (OR 5.44; 95% CI: 3.15-9.37; P-value <0.0001), respectively, compared with that in patients who received 22 µg of SC INF-ß-1a. Conclusion: Interferon-ß therapy aggravated pre-existing headaches and caused primary headaches in patients with MS. Headache risk was greater following treatment with IM INF-ß-1a and 44 µg SC INF-ß-1a.

6.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 14: 631-640, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503547

RESUMEN

Introduction: Although the frequency of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) has increased in recent decades, it is still highly uncommon, which creates a need for the involvement of more registries from various clinical centers. Objective: To characterize the demographic, clinical, and paraclinical features of Egyptian patients with POMS. Patients and methods: A retrospective chart review study was undertaken on 237 Egyptian patients with demyelinating events which started before the age of 18 years who attended one of five tertiary referral centers in Cairo, Egypt. Results: Multiple sclerosis was diagnosed in 186 patients, 47 (25.27%) patients had disease onset before the age of 12 years; "early-onset pediatric multiple sclerosis (EOPMS)". The mean age of disease onset was (14.13±2.49 years), with a female:male ratio of 1.62:1, none of the enrolled patients had a primary progressive course (PPMS), whereas 10 patients (5.38%) had a secondary progressive form. Approximately two-thirds of the patients had monofocal disease onset, and less than 10% presented with encephalopathy; most of them had EOPMS. Motor weakness was the presenting symptom in half of the patients, whereas cerebellar presentation was detected in 34.95%, mainly in EOPMS. Seizures (not related to encephalopathy) were more frequent in those with EOPMS. Initial brain magnetic resonance images were positive in all patients, with detected atypical lesions in 29.03%, enhanced lesions in 35.48%, black holes in 13.98%, and infratentorial in 34.41%. Cervical cord involvement was found in 68.28%. More than two-thirds of the patients received either immunomodulatory or immunosuppressant (IS) treatment throughout their disease course, and about half of them received their treatment within the first year from symptoms onset, with a more favorable outcome, and patients with highly active disease received natalizumab, fingolimod, or other IS. Conclusion: The results from this registry - the largest for MS in the Arab region to date - are comparable to other registries. Immunomodulatory therapies in POMS are well tolerated and efficacious and they can improve the long-term outcome in children.

7.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 13: 1895-1903, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765711

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease with a heterogeneous presentation and diverse disease course. Recent studies indicate a rising prevalence of MS in the Middle East. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the demographics and disease features of Egyptian patients attending four tertiary referral MS centers in Cairo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study on 1,581 patients between 2001 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed and data were identified and extracted in a standardized electronic registry. RESULTS: The mean age of disease onset was 26.6±7.8 years, with the majority being female (2.11:1). Relapsing-remitting MS was the most common type (75.1%). The main presenting symptom was motor weakness (43.9%), which was also the most frequent symptom during the disease course. Family history of MS was found in 2.28%. Higher initial Expanded Disability Status Scale score, black holes, and infratentorial lesions on initial magnetic resonance imaging were independent factors for disease progression by univariate analysis (OR 3.87 [95% CI 1.84-6.51], 4.14 [95% CI 3.08-5.58], 4.07 [95% CI 3.21-4.99], respectively); however, in multivariate analysis, only infratentorial lesions were an independent risk for disease progression (OR 6, 95% CI 2.99-12.02; P=0.0005). CONCLUSION: The results from this registry - the largest for MS in the Arab region to date - are comparable to other registries with slight differences.

8.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 13: 779-785, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28721058

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Refractory epilepsy is a common clinical manifestation in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), which can be complicated by many life-threatening conditions, such as status epilepticus (SE). However, very few reports mention the patterns and semiology of SE in those patients. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics and outcomes of SE in TSC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational, prospective study was carried out on 36 Egyptian children with definite TSC. Clinical history, general and neurological examination and psychometric evaluation by standard questionnaires were used to explore characteristics of epileptic manifestations and clinical patterns of SE. All included patients were required to have long-term video electroencephalograms (EEGs) and brain MRI performed. RESULTS: A total of 32 attacks of SE were recorded in 21 patients (58.3%) in our cohort during a follow-up period of 2.8±1.1 years; of those patients, 15 had convulsive status, 7 had non-convulsive SE, 6 had refractory/super-refractory SE and 14 patients had a history of infantile spasms (epileptic spasms). The duration of status ranged from 40 to 150 min (mean ± standard deviation: 90±15). Fourteen patients with SE had severe mental retardation, 9 had autistic spectrum disorder and 22 had severe epileptogenic EEG findings. Patients with SE had higher tuber numbers (mean: 9.6), 5 patients had subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and 2 patients had their SE after receiving everolimus. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of SE in our patient sample is high (>50%); severe mental retardation, autistic features, history of infantile spasm (epileptic spasms) and high tuber burden are risk factors for developing SE.

9.
J Pain Res ; 10: 1289-1295, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28603429

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence of headache disorders in Arab regions varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of standardized survey instruments that capture the prevalence. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Our goal was to construct and validate a structured headache questionnaire for Arabic-speaking headache patients to be used as an epidemiological survey instrument. METHODS: We developed a culturally adapted interviewer-administered questionnaire in Arabic language comprising two sets of questions. The first set included personal and sociodemographic data together with a screening question regarding the presence of headaches over the last year. The second set was designed to define the type and pattern of headaches according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria (for subjects with "yes" answers on the screening question). Validation process took place in two phases through probability random sampling selected from 1,221 headache subjects collected in an epidemiological survey 3 (n=70) and 6 months (n=232) later. A detailed assessment of patients' headaches was performed by neurologists (blinded from the questionnaire diagnosis) who clinically assessed the patients' headache. RESULTS: The validity of the questionnaire was tested in 232 subjects with a mean age of 41.2±10.9 years, 72.8% of whom were females. The mean time to complete the questionnaire was 8.4±1.7 minutes. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.903 (95% confidence interval: 0.875-0.925), the Cronbach κ coefficient was 0.775 (95% confidence interval: 0.682-0.837), and the percentage of agreement was 84.5%. CONCLUSION: Our results support the use of this comprehensive questionnaire as a valid tool for headache assessment among Arabic-speaking patients.

10.
J Pain Res ; 9: 771-777, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27785091

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic migraine is a prevalent disabling disease, with major health-related burden and poor quality of life. Long-term use of preventive medications carries risk of side effects. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injection as preventive therapies for chronic migraine. METHODS: A pilot, randomized study was conducted on a small-scale sample of 29 Egyptian patients with chronic migraine, recruited from Kasr Al-Aini teaching hospital outpatient clinic and diagnosed according to ICHD-III (beta version). Patients were randomly assigned into two groups; 15 patients received BTX-A injection following the Phase III Research Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy injection paradigm and 14 patients were subjected to 12 rTMS sessions delivered at high frequency (10 Hz) over the left motor cortex (MC, M1). All the patients were requested to have their 1-month headache calendar, and they were subjected to a baseline 25-item (beta version) Henry Ford Hospital Headache Disability Inventory (HDI), Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), and visual analogue scale assessment of headache intensity. The primary efficacy measures were headache frequency and severity; secondary measures were 25-item HDI, HIT-6, and number of acute medications. Follow-up visits were scheduled at weeks 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after baseline visit. RESULTS: A reduction in all outcome measures was achieved in both the groups. However, this improvement was more sustained in the BTX-A group, and both the therapies were well tolerated. CONCLUSION: BTX-A injection and rTMS have favorable efficacy and safety profiles in chronic migraineurs. rTMS is of comparable efficacy to BTX-A injection in chronic migraine therapy, but with less sustained effect.

11.
J Vasc Interv Neurol ; 9(1): 52-9, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27403225

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) are generally clinically unstable, with fear of developing a handicapping stroke. Identification of those at highest and lowest risk of stroke in the first days and weeks after a TIA would allow appropriate use of worthy secondary prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: Incorporation of a clinical scoring system, neurovascular imaging, and magnetic resonance-diffusion-weighted imaging (MR-DWI) to help predicting risk of developing an ischemic stroke following a TIA. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted on 25 patients with TIAs, 64% were females, and 26% were males, with a mean age of 57±10.36. Patients were assessed clinically and an ABCD(2) score was applied. Patients have undergone diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), within 24 h from the event, and intra- and extracranial duplex study. Patients were followed up at intervals of one week, three months, six months, and one year. RESULTS: Six patients (24%) developed stroke on their follow-up, most of them (83.3%) had their strokes within the first three months and had an initial ABCD(2) score of ≥4. The development of stroke was associated with the presence of significant extra and/or intracranial vessel disease (P=0.006) and the presence of acute lesions on their DWI (P=0.035). CONCLUSION: Incorporation of brain MR-DWIs and neurovascular imaging together with the ABCD(2) score improves prediction of ischemic stroke following TIA.

12.
J Headache Pain ; 16: 85, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26438329

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is abundance of epidemiological studies of headache in developed and western countries; however, data in developing countries and in Egypt are still lacking. This study aims to detect the prevalence of primary headache disorders in both urban and rural sectors in Fayoum governorate, Egypt. METHODS: A total of 2600 subjects were included using multi-stage stratified systematic random sampling, with respondent rate of 91.3 %. A pre-designed Arabic version, interviewer-administered, pilot tested structured questionnaire was developed according to The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version), and this questionnaire was validated and the strength of agreement in headache diagnosis was good. RESULTS: The 1-year headache prevalence was 51.4 %, which was more prevalent in urban dwellers. The most common primary headache type was episodic tension type headache (prevalence; 24.5 %), followed by episodic migraine (prevalence; 17.3 %), both types peaked in midlife. Headache disorders were more common in females with exception of cluster headache that showed the expected male dominance. The risk of chronic headache increased more than one fold and half when the participants were females, married, and in those with high education. More than 60 % of our participants did not seek medical advice for their headaches problem; this percentage was higher in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Primary headache disorders are common in Egypt; prevalence rate was comparable with western countries with exception of episodic tension headache. Still headache is under-estimated and under-recognized in Egypt and this problem should be targeted by health care providers.


Asunto(s)
Cefaleas Primarias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Egipto/epidemiología , Femenino , Cefaleas Primarias/etiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Migrañosos/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sexuales , Cefalea de Tipo Tensional/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
13.
Epilepsy Res ; 117: 133-7, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26454046

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies of epilepsy are lacking from the majority of the Arab countries; although there are significant needs for such studies. This study was conducted on a sample of Al-Manial Island, Cairo city, one of the highest cities in population density in the world. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A community-based, door to door, cross-sectional study using multistage random sample including 512 families (1751 individuals). The study extended from March 2009 to September 2012 and involved three main stages; the preparatory stage, the field work stage and the stage of establishing epilepsy diagnosis and classifying confirmed epileptic patients. RESULTS: The lifetime point prevalence of epilepsy among inhabitants of Al-Manial island was 6.9/1000 inhabitants while the prevalence of active epilepsy was 5.1/1000 inhabitants. The age distribution showed bimodal peaks in adolescents and in elderly with equal sex ratio (6/855 vs 6/896). Focal seizures were the commonest type (58.3%) and the treatment gap was 66.7%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of epilepsy among inhabitants of Al-Manial Island go in agreement with most global studies. High treatment gap detected in our study indicates that proper management of epilepsy requires a multi-factorial approach.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Egipto/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
14.
Neurol Sci ; 36(9): 1651-7, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25917399

RESUMEN

Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is a sporadic tauopathy that manifests by a various combination of motor and cognitive deficits, which makes its diagnosis challenging. Treatment of CBS is symptomatic and based on evidence from other similar disorders due to the lack of studies on CBS. The aim of the study was to investigate low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a therapeutic tool in CBS. Twenty-six patients with clinically evident CBS according to Cambridge criteria were followed for 12-18 months while receiving low-frequency rTMS combined with pharmacological, rehabilitation treatment and botulinum toxin injection. The majority of patients are manifested with akinetic-rigid syndrome and cognitive dysfunction. There was improvement of the UPDRS and quality of life after 3 months of therapeutic interventions (P < 0.001 and <0.05, respectively). No significant deterioration in cognitive functions was detected over the study period. There was a significant reduction of caregiver burden after 3 months of interventions (P < 0.01); this improvement was maintained up to 18 months. Cognitive dysfunction is a frequent manifestation of CBS. CBS patients can benefit from multidisciplinary therapeutic approach employing low-frequency rTMS.


Asunto(s)
Tauopatías/fisiopatología , Tauopatías/terapia , Anciano , Cuidadores/psicología , Fármacos del Sistema Nervioso Central/uso terapéutico , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Costo de Enfermedad , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Rehabilitación Neurológica/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estimulación Magnética Transcraneal/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento
15.
J Headache Pain ; 14: 92, 2013 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24251833

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been reported to have analgesic effects independent of its action on muscle tone, mostly by acting on neurogenic inflammatory mediators and controlling the neurotransmitter release of sensory and autonomic nerve terminals that are involved in many chronic painful conditions as chronic intractable trigeminal neuralgia (TN).The aim of our work was evaluating the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of BTX-A for the treatment of intractable idiopathic TN. METHODS: This was a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-control study carried out on 20 Egyptian patients with intractable TN. Patients received a one-time subcutaneous administration of BTX-A using "follow the pain" method. The primary efficacy measure was reduction in pain severity on the 10-cm VAS score as well as in paroxysms frequency from the baseline to week 12 (endpoint last observation carried forward [LOCF]). Secondary efficacy measures included QoL assessment and number of acute medications received from baseline to the endpoint. RESULTS: Pain reduction at the 12-week endpoint was significant in BTX-A group (p<0.0001); VAS scores at endpoint LOCF relative to baseline for BTX-A group showed a decrease of 6.5 compared with a decrease of 0.3 for placebo, also there was a significant decrease in the number of acute medications and an increase in QoL functioning scale. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that BTX-A has a direct analgesic effect in patients with TN and can represent a therapeutic option for intractable cases.


Asunto(s)
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapéutico , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapéutico , Neuralgia del Trigémino/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dimensión del Dolor , Método Simple Ciego , Resultado del Tratamiento
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