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Nature ; 539(7629): 407-410, 2016 11 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27786173


Energy dissipation is a fundamental process governing the dynamics of physical, chemical and biological systems. It is also one of the main characteristics that distinguish quantum from classical phenomena. In particular, in condensed matter physics, scattering mechanisms, loss of quantum information or breakdown of topological protection are deeply rooted in the intricate details of how and where the dissipation occurs. Yet the microscopic behaviour of a system is usually not formulated in terms of dissipation because energy dissipation is not a readily measurable quantity on the micrometre scale. Although nanoscale thermometry has gained much recent interest, existing thermal imaging methods are not sensitive enough for the study of quantum systems and are also unsuitable for the low-temperature operation that is required. Here we report a nano-thermometer based on a superconducting quantum interference device with a diameter of less than 50 nanometres that resides at the apex of a sharp pipette: it provides scanning cryogenic thermal sensing that is four orders of magnitude more sensitive than previous devices-below 1 µK Hz-1/2. This non-contact, non-invasive thermometry allows thermal imaging of very low intensity, nanoscale energy dissipation down to the fundamental Landauer limit of 40 femtowatts for continuous readout of a single qubit at one gigahertz at 4.2 kelvin. These advances enable the observation of changes in dissipation due to single-electron charging of individual quantum dots in carbon nanotubes. They also reveal a dissipation mechanism attributable to resonant localized states in graphene encapsulated within hexagonal boron nitride, opening the door to direct thermal imaging of nanoscale dissipation processes in quantum matter.

Nat Commun ; 6: 8239, 2015 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26359206


The interface between the two band insulators SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 has the unexpected properties of a two-dimensional electron gas. It is even superconducting with a transition temperature, T(c), that can be tuned using gate bias V(g), which controls the number of electrons added or removed from the interface. The gate bias-temperature (V(g), T) phase diagram is characterized by a dome-shaped region where superconductivity occurs, that is, T(c) has a non-monotonic dependence on V(g), similar to many unconventional superconductors. Here, we report, the frequency of the quantum resistance-oscillations versus inverse magnetic field for various V(g). This frequency follows the same non-monotonic behaviour as T(c); a similar trend is seen in the low field limit of the Hall coefficient. We theoretically show that electronic correlations result in a non-monotonic population of the mobile band, which can account for the experimental behaviour of the normal transport properties and the superconducting dome.