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1.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2024 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553653

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early detection and standardized treatment are crucial for enhancing outcomes for patients with cutaneous melanoma, the commonly diagnosed skin cancer. However, access to quality health care services remains a critical barrier for many patients, particularly the uninsured. Whereas Medicaid expansion (ME) has had a positive impact on some cancers, its specific influence on cutaneous melanoma remains understudied. METHODS: The National Cancer Database identified 87,512 patients 40-64 years of age with a diagnosis of non-metastatic cutaneous melanoma between 2004 and 2017. In this study, patient demographics, disease characteristics, and treatment variables were analyzed, and ME status was determined based on state policies. Standard univariate statistics were used to compare patients with a diagnosis of non-metastatic cutaneous melanoma between ME and non-ME states. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests were used to evaluate overall survival (OS) between ME and non-ME states. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to examine associations with OS. RESULTS: Overall, 28.6 % (n = 25,031) of the overall cohort was in ME states. The patients in ME states were more likely to be insured, live in neighborhoods with higher median income quartiles, receive treatment at academic/research cancer centers, have lower stages of disease, and receive surgery than the patients in non-ME states. Kaplan-Meier analysis found enhanced 5-year OS for the patients in ME states across all stages. Cox regression showed improved survival in ME states for stage II (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84) and stage III (HR, 0.75) melanoma. CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores the positive association between ME and improved diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes for patients with non-metastatic cutaneous melanoma. These findings advocate for continued efforts to enhance health care accessibility for vulnerable populations.

2.
Subst Use ; 18: 11782218231222343, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433749

RESUMEN

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic placed extreme burden on hospitals, while opioid overdose is another challenging public health issue. This study aimed to examine the trends and outcomes of opioid overdose hospitalizations in Pennsylvania during 2018 to 2021. Design: We identified opioid overdose hospitalizations in the state of Pennsylvania using the state-wide hospital discharge database (PHC4) 2018 to 2021. We examined the number of opioid overdose hospitalizations, the corresponding mortality and discharges against medical advice comparing the pre-COVID period (2018-2019) and the COVID period (2020-2021). We also assessed what patient and hospital characteristics were associated with in-hospital death or leaving against medical advice. Results: A total of 13 446 opioid-related hospitalizations were identified in 2018 to 2021. Compared to pre-pandemic, a higher percentage of cases involving synthetics (17.0%vs 10.3%, P < .0001) were observed during COVID. After controlling for covariates, there was no significant difference in opioid overdose in-hospital deaths in the years 2020 to 2021 compared to 2018 to 2019 (OR = 0.846, 95% CI: 0.71-1.01, P = .065). The COVID period was significantly associated with more leaving against medical advice compared to years 2018 to 2019 (OR = 1.265, 95% CI: 1.11-1.44, P = .0003). Compared to commercial insurance, Medicaid insurance was associated with higher odds of both in-hospital death (OR = 1.383, 95% CI: 1.06-1.81, P = .0176) and leaving against medical advice (OR = 1.903, 95% CI: 1.56-2.33, P < .0001). Conclusion: There were no substantial changes in the number of overall opioid overdose cases and deaths at hospitals following the outbreak of COVID-19 in Pennsylvania. This observation suggests that an increased number of patients may have succumbed to overdoses outside of hospital settings, possibly due to a higher severity of overdoses. Further, we found that patients were more likely to leave against medical advice during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Urol Pract ; 11(2): 339-346, 2024 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305777

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: With no recommended screening approach, urinary bladder cancer patients rely on referral to urologists to ensure timely diagnosis of bladder cancer. This requires coordination between primary and specialty care. We provide estimates of the relative association between primary care physician and urologist density on stage of urinary bladder cancer diagnosis. METHODS: We used 2010 to 2016 Pennsylvania Cancer Registry data to identify all adult patients diagnosed with bladder cancer. Our primary outcome was locoregional stage of diagnosis, since treatment modality changes and prognosis worsens beyond this stage. Based on patient's residential location at the time of diagnosis we defined both density of urologists and number of primary care providers (defined as providers per population) within the patient's county. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression to estimate the association between provider density and likelihood of locoregional stage of diagnosis. We also controlled for age, sex, race/ethnicity, insurance type, and year. RESULTS: Our sample included 11,771 urinary bladder cancer patients with 10,607 diagnosed at locoregional stage and 1164 at distant stage. Multivariate regression results show primary care density was associated with significantly higher odds of locoregional stage of diagnosis (odds ratio of 1.05 [95% CI: 1.02-1.08]) while urologist density was associated with significantly lower odds of locoregional stage (odds ratio of 0.65 [95% CI: 0.48-0.89]). CONCLUSIONS: We found primary care density but not urologist density was associated with earlier stage of diagnosis, highlighting the importance of access to primary care and need for timely referral to urologic care.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Sistema Urinario , Urología , Adulto , Humanos , Urólogos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/diagnóstico , Atención Primaria de Salud
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397647

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the annual US inflation rate increased from 1.2% in July 2020 to 8% in July 2022. It has since declined to 3.4% (December 2023). This study examined the prevalence of stress due to inflation during a period when it declined from 8.2% in September 2022 to 3% in June 2023 and its association with demographic and social determinants of health (SDOH). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the online Household Pulse Survey (HPS), which surveils the experiences of US households. Beginning September 2022, HPS initiated data collection on "stress due to inflation" through a question on how stressful the increase in prices in the last 2 months has been. Participants could respond: very, moderately, a little, or not stressful. We analyzed data on working-age adults (18-64 years) who responded to the above question of stress due to inflation during 14-26 September 2022 (N = 32,579) and 7-19 June 2023 (N = 36,229). We used replicate weights in chi-squared tests and ordinal logistic regression analyses controlling for gender, age, race and ethnicity, COVID-19, COVID-19 vaccination, health insurance, and SDOH, including education, lost employment income, poverty status, marital status, food affordability, and region. RESULTS: The prevalence of stress due to inflation (price increases being very or moderately stressful) significantly increased from 76.9% in September 2022 to 78.9% in June 2023. The odds of stress due to inflation were higher for individuals with the following characteristics: female, transgender, having income below 400% of the federal poverty line, having lost employment income, not being able to afford food, had long or acute COVID-19, and did not have a COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: More than three quarters of working-age adults in the US experienced stress due to inflation. Despite a declining national inflation rate in recent months, stress due to inflation has significantly increased among working-age adults. Inflation-related stress warrants further research and policy attention.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , 60670 , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología
5.
Int J Surg ; 2024 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38270635

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Predicting operative time is essential for scheduling surgery and managing the operating room (OR). This study aimed to develop machine learning (ML) models to predict the operative time for metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) and to compare each model. METHODS: We used the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program database between 2016 and 2020 to develop ML models, including linear regression, random forest (RF), support vector machine, gradient-boosted tree, and XGBoost model. Patient characteristics and surgical features were included as variables in the model. We used the mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and R2 score to evaluate model performance. We identified the ten most important variables in the best-performing model using the Shapley Additive exPlanations algorithm. RESULTS: In total, 668,723 patients were included in the study. The XGBoost model outperformed the other ML models, with the lowest RMSE and highest R2 score. RF performed better than linear regression. The relative performance of the ML algorithms remained consistent across the models, regardless of the surgery type. The surgery type and surgical approach were the most important features to predict the operative time; specifically, sleeve gastrectomy (vs. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) and the laparoscopic approach (vs. robotic-assisted approach) were associated with a shorter operative time. CONCLUSIONS: The XGBoost model best predicted the operative time for MBS among the ML models examined. Our findings can be useful in managing OR scheduling and in developing software tools to predict the operative times of MBS in clinical settings.

6.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 42(4): 409-418, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184494

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While the efficacy and safety of zanubrutinib have been established in relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the evidence on cost effectiveness is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of zanubrutinib versus ibrutinib in relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia from the commercial payer perspective in the USA. METHODS: A partitioned survival model was developed based on survival curves from the phase III ALPINE trial. We reconstructed patient-level data for each curve and conducted a parametric estimation to incorporate long-term clinical outcomes and treatment costs into the model. Medical costs and utilities were obtained from public data and previous cost-effectiveness studies. A discount rate of 3.0% per annum was applied and costs were adjusted to 2023 US dollars. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated by dividing the incremental costs of zanubrutinib over ibrutinib by the incremental life-years or quality-adjusted life-years. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the robustness of the results. RESULTS: Over a 10-year analysis period, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of zanubrutinib versus ibrutinib was $91,260 per life-year gained and $120,634 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, making it cost effective within a threshold of $150,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was most sensitive to drug acquisition costs and progression-free survival distributions, and the probability of zanubrutinib being cost effective was approximately 52.8%, with a 30.0% likelihood of dominance. CONCLUSIONS: Zanubrutinib is likely to be cost effective versus ibrutinib in relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the USA, but the high threshold should be noted. Our findings may provide a basis for pricing strategy and reimbursement decisions for zanubrutinib.


Asunto(s)
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crónica de Células B , Piperidinas , Pirazoles , Pirimidinas , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crónica de Células B/tratamiento farmacológico , Análisis Costo Beneficio , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228862

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patient-centered communication (PCC) is an important metric related to patient health outcomes. Non-Hispanic Asian (NHA) individuals reported lower PCC scores with healthcare providers than individuals of other races and ethnicities. We aim to determine the ethnic disparities in PCC and further investigate the association between PCC, individual's confidence in obtaining health-related information (health literacy), and confidence in taking care of themselves (health self-efficacy) among NHA in comparison to the Non-Hispanic White (NHW) population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. We used data from the Health Information National Trends Survey 5 (HINTS) cycles 1 and 3. PCC was measured using seven validated survey questions with scores ranging from 7 to 28. Individuals' health literacy and self-efficacy were accessed using two-item survey questions. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association of independent factors (e.g., self-efficacy, health literacy, and race and ethnicity) with PCC. RESULTS: We included 3,831 participants. Fewer NHAs (35.43%) reported high PCC scores compared to NHWs (48.99%, p = 0.0184). In fully adjusted logistic regression model, although NHAs were less likely to have high PCC scores (aOR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.46-1.32) compared to NHWs, the association was not statistically significant (p = 0.350). However, the aOR of confidence in self-efficacy associated with high PCC scores was 2.27 (95% CI 1.68-3.07, p < 0.001) and the aOR of confidence in health literacy with high PCC scores was 2.13 (95% CI 1.64-2.76, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: High PCC scores reported by NHA were not significantly different from those of NHW individuals in adjusted comparisons. Individual's confidence in self-efficacy and health literacy was positively associated with high PCC regardless of race and ethnicity.

8.
Am Surg ; 90(2): 292-302, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37941362

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is associated with better outcomes in high-volume hospitals. However, it is unknown whether and to what extent the improved performance of high-volume hospitals may be associated with racial and socioeconomic factors, which have been shown to impact operative and postoperative outcomes in major surgeries. This review aims to identify the differences in racial and socioeconomic characteristics of patients who underwent PD surgery in high- and low-volume hospitals. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane, and Web of Science were systematically searched between May 1, 2023 and May 7, 2023 without any time restriction on publication date. Studies that were conducted in the United States and had a direct comparison between high- and low-volume hospitals were included. RESULTS: A total of 30 observational studies were included. When racial proportions were compared by hospital volume, thirteen studies reported that compared to high-volume hospitals, a higher percentage of racial minorities underwent PD in low-volume hospitals. Disparities in traveling distance, education levels, and median income at baseline between high- and low-volume hospitals were reported by four, three, and two studies, respectively. CONCLUSION: A racial difference at baseline between high- and low-volume hospitals was observed. Socioeconomic factors were less frequently included in existing literature. Future studies are needed to understand the socioeconomic differences between patients receiving PD surgery in high- and low-volume hospitals.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales de Bajo Volumen , Pancreaticoduodenectomía , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Hospitales de Alto Volumen , Factores Socioeconómicos , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Oncologist ; 29(2): 176-184, 2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37944042

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study examined the trends and patterns of opioid and non-opioid pharmacotherapy use among a large national sample of privately insured pediatric patients with cancer in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified pediatric (aged < 21) patients diagnosed with central nervous system (CNS), lymphoma, gonadal, leukemia, or bone cancer from MarketScan data 2005-2019. We examined the proportion of patients who filled a prescription for the following 5 types of pharmacotherapy: opioid, anticonvulsant, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), antidepressant, and muscle relaxant during active cancer treatment. We assessed the trends and patterns in pharmacotherapy using multivariable logistic regressions. RESULTS: Among 4174 patients included, 2979 (71%) had an opioid prescription; 746 (18%), 384 (9%), 202 (5%), and 169 (4%) had anticonvulsant, NSAID, antidepressant and muscle relaxant prescriptions, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression showed a nonlinear trend in the use of opioids among pediatric patients with cancer over time such that use slightly increased until 2012 (OR of 1.40 [95% CI, 1.12-1.73] for 2012 vs. 2006) but then decreased thereafter (OR of 0.51 [0.37-0.68] for 2018 vs. 2012). The use of anticonvulsants, NSAIDs, and muscle relaxants increased significantly linearly over time (all P < .005). CONCLUSION: There has been a downward trend in the use of opioids in recent years among pediatric patients with cancer and an upward trend in the use of non-opioid pharmacotherapy for pain management potentially as an alternative to opioids.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides , Neoplasias , Humanos , Niño , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Manejo del Dolor , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Prescripciones de Medicamentos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Seguro de Salud , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico
10.
J Surg Res ; 293: 685-692, 2024 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37839100

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Occult breast cancer (OBC) consists of <0.1% of breast cancer cases in the United States. Male occult breast cancer (mOBC) has not been well-studied outside of case reports, and management is largely based on female OBC (fOBC) studies. We aim to examine the prevalence of mOBC among those in the National Cancer Database with breast cancer and describe treatment modalities received by mOBC compared to fOBC. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with OBC from 2004 to 2018. Chi-Square test and Fisher's exact tests compared patient, clinical, and facility characteristics by sex. Treatment modalities [systemic therapy, radiation therapy, axillary lymph node dissection, modified radical mastectomy (MRM)] were compared. A subgroup analysis examined pathologic upstaging in patients who underwent MRM. RESULTS: Of 23,374 male patients with breast cancer, 0.13% were identified to have mOBC [versus 0.09% in fOBC]. cN2/N3 disease was significantly more prevalent in the mOBC cohort (61.3%) than in the fOBC cohort (30.7%, P < 0.001). Receipt of axillary lymph node dissection or MRM was not significantly different by sex. Male OBC (mOBC) patients were less likely to receive trimodality treatment than fOBC patients. In patients who underwent MRM, more mOBC patients [75%] were pathologically upstaged as T+ after mastectomy than fOBC patients [30%, P < 0.001], questioning the adequacy of diagnostic workup for mOBC compared to fOBC. CONCLUSIONS: This review confirms mOBC as an extremely rare disease. Multimodal treatments have been highly utilized to optimize care in this patient population. Further investigation is warranted to examine the survival benefit of treatment regimens for mOBC.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama Masculina , Neoplasias de la Mama , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Mastectomía , Metástasis Linfática/patología , Neoplasias de la Mama Masculina/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Mama Masculina/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama Masculina/terapia , Escisión del Ganglio Linfático , Terapia Combinada , Axila/patología
11.
J Occup Environ Med ; 66(3): 226-233, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38151973

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to estimate the association between productivity losses and the use of prescription opioids and benzodiazepines among employed US adults with painful conditions. METHODS: Using Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (2010-2019), we used two-part (logistic regression and generalized linear model with zero-truncated negative binomial link) model to compare missed workdays due to illness or injury among employed adults with a painful condition. RESULTS: Of the eligible sample of 57,413 working US individuals, 14.65% were prescription opioid users, 2.95% were benzodiazepine users, and 1.59% were both opioid and benzodiazepine users. The predicted missed workdays were 5.75 (95% Confidence Limit [CL]: 5.58-5.92) days for benzodiazepine users, 13.06 (95% CL: 12.88-13.23) days among opioid users, and 15.18 (95% CL: 14.46-15.90) days for opioid and benzodiazepine concomitant users. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant use of prescription opioids and benzodiazepines was significantly associated with having more missed workdays among employed adults with documented painful conditions.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides , Benzodiazepinas , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapéutico , Gastos en Salud , Modelos Logísticos , Prescripciones
12.
J Surg Res ; 294: 160-168, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37897875

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Minority serving hospitals (MSH) are those serving a disproportionally high number of minority patients. Previous research has demonstrated that treatment at MSH is associated with worse outcomes. We hypothesize that patients treated at MSH are less likely to undergo surgical resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma compared to patients treated at non-MSH. METHODS: Patients with resectable pancreatic cancer were identified using the National Cancer Database. Institutions treating Black and Hispanic patients in the top decile were categorized as an MSH. Factors associated with the primary outcome of definitive surgical resection were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Univariate and multivariable survival analysis was performed. RESULTS: Of the 75,513 patients included in this study, 7.2% were treated at MSH. Patients treated at MSH were younger, more likely to be uninsured, and higher stage compared to those treated at non-MSH (P < 0.001). Patients treated at MSH underwent surgical resection at lower rates (MSH 40% versus non-MSH 44.5%, P < 0.001). On multivariable logistic regression, treatment at MSH was associated with decreased likelihood of undergoing definitive surgery (odds ratio 0.91, P = 0.006). Of those who underwent surgical resection, multivariable survival analysis revealed that treatment at an MSH was associated with increased morality (hazard ratio 1.12, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated at MSH are less likely to undergo surgical resection compared to those treated at non-MSH. Targeted interventions are needed to address the unique barriers facing MSH facilities in providing care to patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Hospitales , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiología , Adenocarcinoma/etnología , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Adenocarcinoma/cirugía , Población Negra , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etnología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hispánicos o Latinos/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 31(6): 1750-1756, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38071056

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic results of whole exome sequencing of bone marrow from new onset multiple myeloma (MM) patients to analyze the process of genetic clonal evolution in MM patients. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from bone marrow samples of 15 MM patients and the whole exomes sequencing was performed using next generation sequencing technology. Using own buccal cells as germline controls, combinated with clinical information, the mutation profile of genes from high-risk asymptomatic myeloma to symptomatic myeloma were analyzed, and genes that may be associated with the efficacy and side effects of bortezomib were screened. RESULTS: Except for two patients in whom no peripheral neuropathy was observed after a short treatment period, other patients peripheral neuropathy developed of various degrees during treatment with bortezomib containing chemotherapy, and the vast majority of patients achieved remission after receiving this bortezomib-related chemotherapy regimen. All patients had comparable levels of the inherited mutations number, but the somatic mutations was correlated with disease evolution. CONCLUSION: different gene "mutational spectra" exist in myeloma patients at different stages and are associated with progression through all stages of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Mieloma Múltiple , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiple/genética , Mieloma Múltiple/tratamiento farmacológico , Bortezomib/uso terapéutico , Médula Ósea , Secuenciación del Exoma , Mucosa Bucal , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico
14.
Cancer Med ; 2023 Dec 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38131646

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthcare costs in the U.S. are high and variable, which can hinder access and impact health outcomes across communities. This study examined hospital- and county-level characteristics to identify factors that explain geographic variation in prices for four cancer-related procedures. METHODS: Data sources included Turquoise Health, which compiles publicly-available price data from U.S. hospitals. We examined list prices for four procedures: abdominal ultrasound, diagnostic colonoscopy, brain MRI, and pelvis CT scan, which we linked to characteristics of hospitals (e.g., number of beds) and counties (e.g., metropolitan status). We used multilevel linear regression models to assess multivariable relationships between prices and hospital- and county-level characteristics. Supplementary analyses repeated these models using procedures prices for commercial insurance plans. RESULTS: For each procedure, list prices varied across counties (intraclass correlation: abdominal ultrasound = 23.2%; colonoscopy = 17.1%; brain MRI = 37.2%; pelvis CT = 50.9%). List prices for each procedure were associated with hospital ownership (all p < 0.001) and percent of population without health insurance (all p < 0.05). For example, list prices for abdominal ultrasound were higher for proprietary versus Government-owned hospitals (ß = 539.10, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 256.12, 822.08, p < 0.001) and for hospitals in counties with more uninsured residents (ß = 23.44, 95% CI: 2.55, 44.33, p = 0.03). Commercial insurance prices were negatively associated with metropolitan status. CONCLUSIONS: Prices for cancer-related healthcare procedures varied substantially, with considerable heterogeneity associated with county location as well as county-level social determinants of health (e.g., health insurance coverage). Interventions and policy changes are needed to alleviate the financial burden of cancer care among patients, including geographic variation in prices for cancer-related procedures.

15.
J Clin Transl Sci ; 7(1): e219, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38028338

RESUMEN

REAP-2 is an interactive dose-response curve estimation tool for Robust and Efficient Assessment of drug Potency. It provides user-friendly dose-response curve estimation for in vitro studies and conducts statistical testing for model comparisons with a redesigned user interface. We also make a major update of the underlying estimation method with penalized beta regression, which demonstrates great reliability and accuracy in dose estimation and uncertainty quantification. In this note, we describe the method and implementation of REAP-2 with a highlight on potency estimation and drug comparison.

16.
J Subst Use Addict Treat ; 155: 209164, 2023 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37730014

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pennsylvania saw a dramatic increase in take-home doses of methadone after the COVID-19 pandemic-related relaxation in regulations. We evaluated whether pandemic-initiated relaxation in take-home methadone dose regulations was associated with changes in attrition and urine drug test (UDT) results at one outpatient opioid treatment program (OTP) among adult patients treated with methadone for opioid use disorder (OUD). METHODS: We analyzed aggregated, retrospective clinical practice data, using data abstracted from the OTP's electronic health record (EHR) on the number of patients treated with methadone, those allowed take-home doses, the number of take-home methadone doses dispensed, and the number and type of patient discharge ("attrition") from treatments for 12 months before (March 2019-February 2020; "pre-pandemic") and 12 months after (March 2020-February 2021; "pandemic") the regulatory changes took place. We also examined monthly aggregate data on the number of urine samples testing positive for amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines or illicit opioids, and compared these findings between the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. RESULTS: Pre-pandemic, 229 patients were treated with methadone, compared to 278 patients during the pandemic period. They received 11,047 and 28,563 take-home daily-doses of methadone (p < 0.0001) during each assessment period, respectively. All-cause treatment attrition (discharge from the program for any reason) decreased from 27.1 % in the pre-pandemic to 15.5 % in the pandemic period (p < 0.001). Compared to pre-pandemic, during the pandemic period the urine toxicology testing showed reduced positivity rates for cocaine (26.4 % vs 18.9 %, p < 0.001), and oxycodone and morphine (1.8 % vs 1.1 %, p < 0.019), and increased for fentanyl (24.0 % vs 30.5 %, p < 0.007), without statistically significant changes for benzodiazepines or amphetamines. CONCLUSIONS: The relaxation of regulations guiding take-home methadone doses accompanied reduced treatment attrition and favorable changes in urine toxicology results in one OTP. Allowing OTPs to apply flexible decisions regarding take-home methadone doses could improve treatment retention, outcomes, and, in turn, save lives.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Cocaína , Adulto , Humanos , Metadona/uso terapéutico , Analgésicos Opioides/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pandemias , Pennsylvania/epidemiología , Benzodiazepinas , Anfetaminas
17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 115(10): 1132-1138, 2023 10 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37364007

RESUMEN

Many multicenter randomized clinical trials in oncology are conducted through the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), an organization consisting of 5 cooperative groups. These groups are made up of multidisciplinary investigators who work collaboratively to conduct trials that test novel therapies and establish best practice for cancer care. Unfortunately, disparities in clinical trial leadership are evident. To examine the current state of diversity, equity, and inclusion across the NCTN, an independent NCTN Task Force for Diversity in Gastrointestinal Oncology was established in 2021, the efforts of which serve as the platform for this commentary. The task force sought to assess existing data on demographics and policies across NCTN groups. Differences in infrastructure and policies were identified across groups as well as a general lack of data regarding the composition of group membership and leadership. In the context of growing momentum around diversity, equity, and inclusion in cancer research, the National Cancer Institute established the Equity and Inclusion Program, which is working to establish benchmark data regarding diversity of representation within the NCTN groups. Pending these data, additional efforts are recommended to address diversity within the NCTN, including standardizing membership, leadership, and publication processes; ensuring diversity of representation across scientific and steering committees; and providing mentorship and training opportunities for women and individuals from underrepresented groups. Intentional and focused efforts are necessary to ensure diversity in clinical trial leadership and to encourage design of trials that are inclusive and representative of the broad population of patients with cancer in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Liderazgo , Neoplasias , Humanos , Femenino , Estados Unidos , Diversidad, Equidad e Inclusión , Neoplasias/terapia , National Cancer Institute (U.S.)
18.
J Surg Res ; 290: 232-240, 2023 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37301175

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Depression is disproportionately high in patients with coronary artery disease and has been associated with adverse outcomes following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). One quality metric, non-home discharge (NHD), can have substantial implications for patients and health care resource utilization. Depression increases the risk of NHD after many operations, but it has not been studied after CABG. We hypothesized that a history of depression would be associated with an increased risk of NHD following CABG. METHODS: CABG cases were identified from the 2018 National Inpatient Sample using ICD-10 codes. Depression, demographic data, comorbidities, length of stay (LOS), rate of NHD were analyzed using appropriate statistical tests where a P-value < 0.05 was defined as statistically significant. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess independent association between depression and NHD as well as LOS while controlling for confounders. RESULTS: There were 31,309 patients, of which 2743 (8.8%) had depression. Depressed patients were younger, females, in a lower income quartile, and more medically complex. They also demonstrated more frequent NHD and prolonged LOS. After adjusted multivariable analysis, depressed patients had a 70% increased odds of NHD (adjusted odds ratio: 1.70 [1.52-1.89] P < 0.001) and a 24% increased odds of prolonged LOS (AOR: 1.24 [1.12-1.38] P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: From a national sample, depressed patients were associated with more frequent NHD following CABG. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate this, and it highlights the need for improved preoperative identification in order to improve risk stratification and timely allocation of discharge services.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria , Alta del Paciente , Femenino , Humanos , Puente de Arteria Coronaria/efectos adversos , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/epidemiología , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/cirugía , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Tiempo de Internación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Masculino
19.
Digit Health ; 9: 20552076231163797, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37124332

RESUMEN

Objective: To examine the association of multimorbidity with health information technology use among adults in the USA. Methods: We used cross-sectional study design and data from the Health Information National Trends Survey 5 Cycle 4. Health information technology use was measured with ten variables comprising access, recent use, and healthcare management. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used to model the associations of multimorbidity with health information technology use. Results: Among adults with multimorbidity, health information technology use for specific purposes ranged from 37.8% for helping make medical decisions to 51.7% for communicating with healthcare providers. In multivariable regressions, individuals with multimorbidity were more likely to report general use of health information technology (adjusted odds ratios = 1.48, 95% confidence intervals = 1.01-2.15) and more likely to use health information technology to check test results (adjusted odds ratios = 1.85, 95% confidence intervals = 1.33-2.58) compared to adults with only one chronic condition, however, there were no significant differences in other forms of health information technology use. We also observed interactive associations of multimorbidity and age on various components of health information technology use. Compared to younger adults with multimorbidity, older adults (≥ 65 years of age) with multimorbidity were less likely to use almost all aspects of health information technology. Conclusion: Health information technology use disparities by age and multimorbidity were observed. Education and interventions are needed to promote health information technology use among older adults in general and specifically among older adults with multimorbidity.

20.
PLOS Glob Public Health ; 3(4): e0001474, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37040327

RESUMEN

The effects of the COVID-19 period among people who smoke (compared by sex) are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare body mass index (BMI) increase among men and women who smoked during the pandemic. We used a retrospective longitudinal, observational study design of secondary data. We used electronic health records from TriNetX network (n = 486,072) from April 13, 2020-May 5, 2022 among adults aged 18-64 who smoked and had a normal BMI prior to the pandemic. The main measure was a change of BMI from < 25 to ≥25. Risk ratio was determined between men and women with propensity score matching. Overall, 15.8% increased BMI to ≥25; 44,540 (18.3%) were women and 32,341 (13.3%) were men (Risk Ratio = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.40; p < .0001). Adults with diabetes, hypertension, asthma, COPD or emphysema or who were women, were more likely to develop BMI≥25 during the pandemic. Women who smoked were more likely to have an increase in BMI than men who smoked during the COVID-19 period.

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