*Phys Rev Lett ; 126(21): 210504, 2021 May 28.*

##### RESUMEN

Ternary quantum processors offer significant potential computational advantages over conventional qubit technologies, leveraging the encoding and processing of quantum information in qutrits (three-level systems). To evaluate and compare the performance of such emerging quantum hardware it is essential to have robust benchmarking methods suitable for a higher-dimensional Hilbert space. We demonstrate extensions of industry standard randomized benchmarking (RB) protocols, developed and used extensively for qubits, suitable for ternary quantum logic. Using a superconducting five-qutrit processor, we find an average single-qutrit process infidelity of 3.8×10^{-3}. Through interleaved RB, we characterize a few relevant gates, and employ simultaneous RB to fully characterize crosstalk errors. Finally, we apply cycle benchmarking to a two-qutrit CSUM gate and obtain a two-qutrit process fidelity of 0.85. Our results present and demonstrate RB-based tools to characterize the performance of a qutrit processor, and a general approach to diagnose control errors in future qudit hardware.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(26): 261803, 2021 Dec 24.*

##### RESUMEN

We report the results from a haloscope search for axion dark matter in the 3.3-4.2 µeV mass range. This search excludes the axion-photon coupling predicted by one of the benchmark models of "invisible" axion dark matter, the Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov model. This sensitivity is achieved using a large-volume cavity, a superconducting magnet, an ultra low noise Josephson parametric amplifier, and sub-Kelvin temperatures. The validity of our detection procedure is ensured by injecting and detecting blind synthetic axion signals.

*Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(12): 124502, 2021 Dec 01.*

##### RESUMEN

Axion dark matter experiment ultra-low noise haloscope technology has enabled the successful completion of two science runs (1A and 1B) that looked for dark matter axions in the 2.66-3.1 µeV mass range with Dine-Fischler-Srednicki-Zhitnisky sensitivity [Du et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 151301 (2018) and Braine et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 101303 (2020)]. Therefore, it is the most sensitive axion search experiment to date in this mass range. We discuss the technological advances made in the last several years to achieve this sensitivity, which includes the implementation of components, such as the state-of-the-art quantum-noise-limited amplifiers and a dilution refrigerator. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a frequency tunable microstrip superconducting quantum interference device amplifier in run 1A, and a Josephson parametric amplifier in run 1B, along with novel analysis tools that characterize the system noise temperature.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(10): 101303, 2020 Mar 13.*

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This Letter reports on a cavity haloscope search for dark matter axions in the Galactic halo in the mass range 2.81-3.31 µeV. This search utilizes the combination of a low-noise Josephson parametric amplifier and a large-cavity haloscope to achieve unprecedented sensitivity across this mass range. This search excludes the full range of axion-photon coupling values predicted in benchmark models of the invisible axion that solve the strong CP problem of quantum chromodynamics.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(6): 067701, 2020 Feb 14.*

##### RESUMEN

Spins in silicon quantum devices are promising candidates for large-scale quantum computing. Gate-based sensing of spin qubits offers a compact and scalable readout with high fidelity, however, further improvements in sensitivity are required to meet the fidelity thresholds and measurement timescales needed for the implementation of fast feedback in error correction protocols. Here, we combine radio-frequency gate-based sensing at 622 MHz with a Josephson parametric amplifier, that operates in the 500-800 MHz band, to reduce the integration time required to read the state of a silicon double quantum dot formed in a nanowire transistor. Based on our achieved signal-to-noise ratio, we estimate that singlet-triplet single-shot readout with an average fidelity of 99.7% could be performed in 1 µs, well below the requirements for fault-tolerant readout and 30 times faster than without the Josephson parametric amplifier. Additionally, the Josephson parametric amplifier allows operation at a lower radio-frequency power while maintaining identical signal-to-noise ratio. We determine a noise temperature of 200 mK with a contribution from the Josephson parametric amplifier (25%), cryogenic amplifier (25%) and the resonator (50%), showing routes to further increase the readout speed.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 120(4): 040505, 2018 Jan 26.*

##### RESUMEN

Microwave squeezing represents the ultimate sensitivity frontier for superconducting qubit measurement. However, measurement enhancement has remained elusive, in part because integration with standard dispersive readout pollutes the signal channel with antisqueezed noise. Here we induce a stroboscopic light-matter coupling with superior squeezing compatibility, and observe an increase in the final signal-to-noise ratio of 24%. Squeezing the orthogonal phase slows measurement-induced dephasing by a factor of 1.8. This scheme provides a means to the practical application of squeezing for qubit measurement.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 120(2): 020505, 2018 Jan 12.*

##### RESUMEN

The quantum Zeno effect is the suppression of Hamiltonian evolution by repeated observation, which pins the system to an eigenstate of the measurement observable. Using measurement alone, control of the state can be achieved if the observable is slowly varied, so that the state tracks the now time-dependent eigenstate. We demonstrate this using a circuit-QED readout technique that couples to a dynamically controllable observable of a qubit. Continuous monitoring of the measurement record allows us to detect an escape from the eigenstate, thus serving as a built-in form of error detection. We show this by postselecting on realizations with high fidelity with respect to the target state. Our dynamical measurement operator technique offers a new tool for numerous forms of quantum feedback protocols, including adaptive measurements and rapid state purification.

*Int J Lab Hematol ; 40(2): 209-214, 2018 Apr.*

##### RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Evaluation of cellularity is an essential component of bone marrow trephine biopsy examination. The standard practice is to report the results as visual estimates (VE). Digital image analysis (DIA) offers the promise of more objective measurements of cellularity. METHODS: Adult bone marrow trephine biopsy sections were assessed for cellularity by VE. Sections were scanned using an Aperio AT2 Scanscope and analyzed using a Cytonuclear (version 1.4) algorithm on halo software. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess relatedness between VE and DIA, and between MRI and DIA for a separate subset of patients. Trephine biopsy sections from a subset of patients with bone marrow biopsies uninvolved by malignancy were assessed for age-related changes. RESULTS: Interobserver VE agreement was good to excellent. The ICC value was 0.81 for VE and DIA, and 0.50 for MRI and DIA. Linearity studies showed no statistically significant trend for age-related changes in cellularity in our cohort (r = -.29, P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: Agreement was good between VE and DIA. It may be possible to use DIA or VE to measure cellularity in the appropriate clinical scenario. The limited sample size precludes similar determinations for MRI calculations. Further studies examining healthy donors are necessary before making definitive conclusions regarding age and cellularity.

##### Asunto(s)

Examen de la Médula Ósea/normas , Adulto , Biopsia , Células de la Médula Ósea/patología , Examen de la Médula Ósea/métodos , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador*Phys Rev Lett ; 118(13): 130501, 2017 Mar 31.*

##### RESUMEN

The topology of a single-particle band structure plays a fundamental role in understanding a multitude of physical phenomena. Motivated by the connection between quantum walks and such topological band structures, we demonstrate that a simple time-dependent, Bloch-oscillating quantum walk enables the direct measurement of topological invariants. We consider two classes of one-dimensional quantum walks and connect the global phase imprinted on the walker with its refocusing behavior. By disentangling the dynamical and geometric contributions to this phase, we describe a general strategy to measure the topological invariant in these quantum walks. As an example, we propose an experimental protocol in a circuit QED architecture where a superconducting transmon qubit plays the role of the coin, while the quantum walk takes place in the phase space of a cavity.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 116(24): 240503, 2016 Jun 17.*

##### RESUMEN

Bath engineering, which utilizes coupling to lossy modes in a quantum system to generate nontrivial steady states, is a tantalizing alternative to gate- and measurement-based quantum science. Here, we demonstrate dissipative stabilization of entanglement between two superconducting transmon qubits in a symmetry-selective manner. We utilize the engineered symmetries of the dissipative environment to stabilize a target Bell state; we further demonstrate suppression of the Bell state of opposite symmetry due to parity selection rules. This implementation is resource efficient, achieves a steady-state fidelity F=0.70, and is scalable to multiple qubits.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 115(24): 240501, 2015 Dec 11.*

##### RESUMEN

We engineer a quantum bath that enables entropy and energy exchange with a one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard lattice with attractive on-site interactions. We implement this in an array of three superconducting transmon qubits coupled to a single cavity mode; the transmons represent lattice sites and their excitation quanta embody bosonic particles. Our cooling protocol preserves the particle number-realizing a canonical ensemble-and also affords the efficient preparation of dark states which, due to symmetry, cannot be prepared via coherent drives on the cavity. Furthermore, by applying continuous microwave radiation, we also realize autonomous feedback to indefinitely stabilize particular eigenstates of the array.

*Science ; 350(6258): 307-10, 2015 Oct 16.*

##### RESUMEN

Detecting single-photon level signalscarriers of both classical and quantum informationis particularly challenging for low-energy microwave frequency excitations. Here we introduce a superconducting amplifier based on a Josephson junction transmission line. Unlike current standing-wave parametric amplifiers, this traveling wave architecture robustly achieves high gain over a bandwidth of several gigahertz with sufficient dynamic range to read out 20 superconducting qubits. To achieve this performance, we introduce a subwavelength resonant phase-matching technique that enables the creation of nonlinear microwave devices with unique dispersion relations. We benchmark the amplifier with weak measurements, obtaining a high quantum efficiency of 75% (70% including noise added by amplifiers following the Josephson amplifier). With a flexible design based on compact lumped elements, this Josephson amplifier has broad applicability to microwave metrology and quantum optics.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 114(9): 090403, 2015 Mar 06.*

##### RESUMEN

The quantum state of a superconducting transmon qubit inside a three-dimensional cavity is monitored by transmission of a microwave field through the cavity. The information inferred from the measurement record is incorporated in a density matrix ρ_{t}, which is conditioned on probe results until t, and in an auxiliary matrix E_{t}, which is conditioned on probe results obtained after t. Here, we obtain these matrices from experimental data and we illustrate their application to predict and retrodict the outcome of weak and strong qubit measurements.

*Nature ; 511(7511): 570-3, 2014 Jul 31.*

##### RESUMEN

A central feature of quantum mechanics is that a measurement result is intrinsically probabilistic. Consequently, continuously monitoring a quantum system will randomly perturb its natural unitary evolution. The ability to control a quantum system in the presence of these fluctuations is of increasing importance in quantum information processing and finds application in fields ranging from nuclear magnetic resonance to chemical synthesis. A detailed understanding of this stochastic evolution is essential for the development of optimized control methods. Here we reconstruct the individual quantum trajectories of a superconducting circuit that evolves under the competing influences of continuous weak measurement and Rabi drive. By tracking individual trajectories that evolve between any chosen initial and final states, we can deduce the most probable path through quantum state space. These pre- and post-selected quantum trajectories also reveal the optimal detector signal in the form of a smooth, time-continuous function that connects the desired boundary conditions. Our investigation reveals the rich interplay between measurement dynamics, typically associated with wavefunction collapse, and unitary evolution of the quantum state as described by the Schrödinger equation. These results and the underlying theory, based on a principle of least action, reveal the optimal route from initial to final states, and may inform new quantum control methods for state steering and information processing.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 112(17): 170501, 2014 May 02.*

##### RESUMEN

The creation of a quantum network requires the distribution of coherent information across macroscopic distances. We demonstrate the entanglement of two superconducting qubits, separated by more than a meter of coaxial cable, by designing a joint measurement that probabilistically projects onto an entangled state. By using a continuous measurement scheme, we are further able to observe single quantum trajectories of the joint two-qubit state, confirming the validity of the quantum Bayesian formalism for a cascaded system. Our results allow us to resolve the dynamics of continuous projection onto the entangled manifold, in quantitative agreement with theory.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 112(4): 047002, 2014 Jan 31.*

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We present microwave measurements of a high quality factor superconducting resonator incorporating two aluminum nanobridge Josephson junctions in a loop shunted by an on-chip capacitor. Trapped quasiparticles (QPs) shift the resonant frequency, allowing us to probe the trapped QP number and energy distribution and to quantify their lifetimes. We find that the trapped QP population obeys a Gibbs distribution above 75 mK, with non-Poissonian trapping statistics. Our results are in quantitative agreement with the Andreev bound state model of transport, and demonstrate a practical means to quantify on-chip QP populations and validate mitigation strategies in a cryogenic environment.

*Nature ; 502(7470): 211-4, 2013 Oct 10.*

##### RESUMEN

The length of time that a quantum system can exist in a superposition state is determined by how strongly it interacts with its environment. This interaction entangles the quantum state with the inherent fluctuations of the environment. If these fluctuations are not measured, the environment can be viewed as a source of noise, causing random evolution of the quantum system from an initially pure state into a statistical mixture--a process known as decoherence. However, by accurately measuring the environment in real time, the quantum system can be maintained in a pure state and its time evolution described by a 'quantum trajectory' determined by the measurement outcome. Here we use weak measurements to monitor a microwave cavity containing a superconducting quantum bit (qubit), and track the individual quantum trajectories of the system. In this set-up, the environment is dominated by the fluctuations of a single electromagnetic mode of the cavity. Using a near-quantum-limited parametric amplifier, we selectively measure either the phase or the amplitude of the cavity field, and thereby confine trajectories to either the equator or a meridian of the Bloch sphere. We perform quantum state tomography at discrete times along the trajectory to verify that we have faithfully tracked the state of the quantum system as it diffuses on the surface of the Bloch sphere. Our results demonstrate that decoherence can be mitigated by environmental monitoring, and validate the foundation of quantum feedback approaches based on Bayesian statistics. Moreover, our experiments suggest a new means of implementing 'quantum steering'--the harnessing of action at a distance to manipulate quantum states through measurement.

*Nature ; 499(7456): 62-5, 2013 Jul 04.*

##### RESUMEN

Quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic vacuum are responsible for physical effects such as the Casimir force and the radiative decay of atoms, and set fundamental limits on the sensitivity of measurements. Entanglement between photons can produce correlations that result in a reduction of these fluctuations below the ordinary vacuum level, allowing measurements that surpass the standard quantum limit in sensitivity. The effects of such 'squeezed states' of light on matter were first considered in a prediction of the radiative decay rates of atoms in squeezed vacuum. Despite efforts to demonstrate such effects in experiments with natural atoms, a direct quantitative observation of this prediction has remained elusive. Here we report a twofold reduction of the transverse radiative decay rate of a superconducting artificial atom coupled to continuum squeezed vacuum. The artificial atom is effectively a two-level system formed by the strong interaction between a superconducting circuit and a microwave-frequency cavity. A Josephson parametric amplifier is used to generate quadrature-squeezed electromagnetic vacuum. The observed twofold reduction in the decay rate of the atom allows the transverse coherence time, T2, to exceed the ordinary vacuum decay limit, 2T1. We demonstrate that the measured radiative decay dynamics can be used to reconstruct the Wigner distribution of the itinerant squeezed state. Our results confirm a canonical prediction of quantum optics and should enable new studies of the quantum light-matter interaction.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 109(18): 183602, 2012 Nov 02.*

##### RESUMEN

We demonstrate quantum bath engineering for a superconducting artificial atom coupled to a microwave cavity. By tailoring the spectrum of microwave photon shot noise in the cavity, we create a dissipative environment that autonomously relaxes the atom to an arbitrarily specified coherent superposition of the ground and excited states. In the presence of background thermal excitations, this mechanism increases state purity and effectively cools the dressed atom state to a low temperature.

*Nature ; 490(7418): 77-80, 2012 Oct 04.*

##### RESUMEN

The act of measurement bridges the quantum and classical worlds by projecting a superposition of possible states into a single (probabilistic) outcome. The timescale of this 'instantaneous' process can be stretched using weak measurements, such that it takes the form of a gradual random walk towards a final state. Remarkably, the interim measurement record is sufficient to continuously track and steer the quantum state using feedback. Here we implement quantum feedback control in a solid-state system, namely a superconducting quantum bit (qubit) coupled to a microwave cavity. A weak measurement of the qubit is implemented by probing the cavity with microwave photons, maintaining its average occupation at less than one photon. These photons are then directed to a high-bandwidth, quantum-noise-limited amplifier, which allows real-time monitoring of the state of the cavity (and, hence, that of the qubit) with high fidelity. We demonstrate quantum feedback control by inhibiting the decay of Rabi oscillations, allowing them to persist indefinitely. Such an ability permits the active suppression of decoherence and enables a method of quantum error correction based on weak continuous measurements. Other applications include quantum state stabilization, entanglement generation using measurement, state purification and adaptive measurements.