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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250074, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886619

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescents and young people globally are highly vulnerable to poor mental health especially depression, and they account for 36% of new HIV infections in Eastern and Southern Africa. HIV services remain inadequate for this population and their adherence to ART is low. The Friendship Bench (FB), an evidence-based model developed in Zimbabwe to bridge the mental health gap, is a brief psychological intervention delivered on benches in primary care facilities by lay health workers ("grandmothers") trained in problem-solving therapy. This study explored the experience of young people living with HIV attending FB, and their perception of how problem-solving therapy impacted their adherence to ART. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in July 2019 with 10 young people living with HIV aged 18-24 years, who had recently completed FB counselling in Harare. Participants were purposively sampled and recruited from three primary care facilities. Interviews were conducted in Shona, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. Transcripts were analysed in NVivo12 using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Study findings revealed a clear emotional denial towards HIV, particularly for young people infected perinatally, and a resulting low adherence to ART. The study also unpacked the issues of internal stigma and how young people living with perinatally acquired HIV are informed of their HIV status. Participants reported that FB had a critical role in helping them accept their HIV status. Grandmothers' empathic attitude was key during counselling on adherence to ART, to demystify the disease and treatment, normalize the reality of living with HIV, encourage young people to socialize with peers and free them of guilt. Interviewees unanimously reported improved ART adherence following FB counselling, and many described enhanced health and wellbeing. CONCLUSION: Participants saw FB as a strong contributor to their general well-being, evident in decreased symptoms of depression and improved adherence to ART. FB problem-solving therapy should be rolled out to further support young people after post-test counselling or HIV serostatus disclosure for perinatally acquired HIV, for acceptance of HIV status and adherence to ART.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 216, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632144

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV-associated chronic lung disease (CLD) is common among children living with HIV (CLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa, including those on antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the pathogenesis of CLD and its possible association with microbial determinants remain poorly understood. We investigated the prevalence, and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), and Moraxella catarrhalis (MC) among CLWH (established on ART) who had CLD (CLD+), or not (CLD-) in Zimbabwe and Malawi. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) and sputa were collected from CLD+ CLWH (defined as forced-expiratory volume per second z-score < - 1 without reversibility post-bronchodilation with salbutamol), at enrolment as part of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin (BREATHE trial - NCT02426112 ), and from age- and sex-matched CLD- CLWH. Samples were cultured, and antibiotic susceptibility testing was conducted using disk diffusion. Risk factors for bacterial carriage were identified using questionnaires and analysed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 410 participants (336 CLD+, 74 CLD-) were enrolled (median age, 15 years [IQR = 13-18]). SP and MC carriage in NP were higher in CLD+ than in CLD- children: 46% (154/336) vs. 26% (19/74), p = 0.008; and 14% (49/336) vs. 3% (2/74), p = 0.012, respectively. SP isolates from the NP of CLD+ children were more likely to be non-susceptible to penicillin than those from CLD- children (36% [53/144] vs 11% [2/18], p = 0.036). Methicillin-resistant SA was uncommon [4% (7/195)]. In multivariate analysis, key factors associated with NP bacterial carriage included having CLD (SP: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2 [95% CI 1.1-3.9]), younger age (SP: aOR 3.2 [1.8-5.8]), viral load suppression (SP: aOR 0.6 [0.4-1.0], SA: 0.5 [0.3-0.9]), stunting (SP: aOR 1.6 [1.1-2.6]) and male sex (SA: aOR 1.7 [1.0-2.9]). Sputum bacterial carriage was similar in both groups (50%) and was associated with Zimbabwean site (SP: aOR 3.1 [1.4-7.3], SA: 2.1 [1.1-4.2]), being on ART for a longer period (SP: aOR 0.3 [0.1-0.8]), and hot compared to rainy season (SP: aOR 2.3 [1.2-4.4]). CONCLUSIONS: CLD+ CLWH were more likely to be colonised by MC and SP, including penicillin-non-susceptible SP strains, than CLD- CLWH. The role of these bacteria in CLD pathogenesis, including the risk of acute exacerbations, should be further studied.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones por VIH/microbiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares/microbiología , Adolescente , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Enfermedades Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Pulmonares/epidemiología , Malaui/epidemiología , Masculino , Microbiota , Nasofaringe/microbiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
3.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(2): 122-132, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417838

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among youth is high in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the uptake of testing for and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea) infections among youth in community-based settings in Zimbabwe, and explored the facilitators and barriers to testing. METHODS: This study was nested within a cluster randomised trial of community-based delivery of integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health services for youth aged 16-24 years. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing via urine samples using the Xpert CT/NG test was offered in the four intervention clusters in Harare, Zimbabwe. Factors associated with testing uptake were investigated in a subset of participants (n=257) using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression. In-depth interviews with a separate purposively selected sample (n=26) explored facilitators and barriers to STI testing and partner notification and were analysed using thematic analysis. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 2019, and Jan 31, 2020, there were 6200 attendances by 4440 participants (78·2% women, 21·8% men) median age 20·3 (IQR 17·9-22·8) years. 1478 participants had 1501 tests done, and 248 tests were positive and 1253 tests were negative for chlamydia or gonorrhoea, or both. STI test uptake was 33·3% (95% CI 31·9-34·7), increasing from 11·7% in June, 2019, to 37·1% in January, 2020. The prevalence of chlamydia or gonorrhoea, or both, was 16·5% (95% CI 14·7-18·5; 248 of 1501), with only seven participants (3%) showing symptoms. The overall yield of testing was 4·0% (95% CI 3·5-4·5; 248 of 6200). Uptake was associated with having symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 14·8, 95% CI 1·66-132·07) and negatively associated with being single (adjusted OR 0·33, 95% CI 0·13-0·84) or having a boyfriend or girlfriend (adjusted OR 0·19, 95% CI 0·087-0·43) compared with being married, and being a student compared with being employed (adjusted OR 0·26, 95% CI 0·10-0·68). Perceived risk and symptoms of STIs were motivators for testing whereas misinformation, anticipated stigma, and concern about confidentiality were barriers. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of chlamydia or gonorrhoea, or both, was high among youth but only a minority were symptomatic. Therefore most infections would remain untreated without access to STI testing. Provision of education, counselling, and confidentiality are essential to improve uptake and acceptability of STI testing. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo/psicología , Prevalencia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
4.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e039546, 2020 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268410

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Post-randomisation exclusions in randomised controlled trials are common and may include participants identified as not meeting trial eligibility criteria after randomisation. We report how a decision might be reached and reported on, to include or exclude these participants. We illustrate using a motivating scenario from the BREATHE trial (Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02426112) evaluating azithromycin for the treatment of chronic lung disease in people aged 6-19 years with HIV in Zimbabwe and Malawi. KEY POINTS: Including all enrolled and randomised participants in the primary analysis of a trial ensures an unbiased estimate of the intervention effect using intention-to-treat principles, and minimises the effects of confounding through balanced allocation to trial arm. Ineligible participants are sometimes enrolled, due to measurement or human error. Of 347 participants enrolled into the BREATHE trial, 11 (3.2%) were subsequently found to be ineligible based on lung function criteria. We assumed no safety risk of azithromycin treatment; their inclusion in the trial and subsequent analysis of the intervention effect therefore mirrors clinical practice. Senior trial investigators considered diurnal variations in the measurement of lung function, advantages of retaining a higher sample size and advice from the Data Safety and Monitoring Board and Trial Steering Committee, and decided to include these participants in primary analysis. We planned and reported analyses including and excluding these participants, and in our case the interpretation of treatment effect was consistent. CONCLUSION: The decision, by senior investigators, on whether to exclude enrolled participants, should reflect issues of safety, treatment efficacy, statistical power and measurement error. As long as decisions are made prior to finalising the statistical analysis plan for the trial, the risk of exclusions creating bias should be minimal. The decision taken should be transparently reported and a sensitivity analysis can present the opposite decision.

5.
Implement Sci Commun ; 1(1): 99, 2020 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292817

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Index-linked HIV testing, targeted at sexual contacts or children of individuals with HIV, may improve yield and efficiency. The B-GAP study evaluated index-linked testing approaches in health facility and community-based settings. This paper reports on a qualitative study to understand factors that affect uptake of index-linked HIV testing for children and adolescents. METHODS: We conducted four focus group discussions (FGDs) with caregivers who had their children tested through B-GAP and one FGD with providers who offered index-linked HIV testing to indexes. We aimed to understand enabling and inhibiting factors in the decision-making process. Translated and transcribed transcripts were read for familiarisation. Following initial coding, analytical memos were written to identify emerging key themes across the data. RESULTS: Our findings showed there was inadequate emphasis on paediatric HIV in routine care which had a negative impact on subsequent uptake of testing for children. Once the decision to test had been made, access to facilities was sometimes challenging and alleviated by community-based testing. A key finding was that HIV testing is not a discrete event but a process that was influenced by relationships with other family members and children themselves. These relationships raised complex issues that could prevent or delay the testing process. CONCLUSION: There is a need to improve messaging on the importance of HIV testing for children and adolescents and to provide support to caregivers and their families in order to improve testing uptake. Addressing access barriers through the provision of community-based testing and implementing a family-centred approach can optimise index-linked testing.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2028484, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331916

RESUMEN

Importance: HIV-associated chronic lung disease (HCLD) in children is associated with small airways disease, is common despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), and is associated with substantial morbidity. Azithromycin has antibiotic and immunomodulatory activity and may be effective in treating HCLD through reducing respiratory tract infections and inflammation. Objective: To determine whether prophylactic azithromycin is effective in preventing worsening of lung function and in reducing acute respiratory exacerbations (AREs) in children with HCLD taking ART. Design, Setting, and Participants: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (BREATHE) was conducted between 2016 and 2019, including 12 months of follow-up, at outpatient HIV clinics in 2 public sector hospitals in Malawi and Zimbabwe. Participants were randomized 1:1 to intervention or placebo, and participants and study personnel were blinded to treatment allocation. Participants included children aged 6 to 19 years with perinatally acquired HIV and HCLD (defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] z score < -1) who were taking ART for 6 months or longer. Data analysis was performed from September 2019 to April 2020. Intervention: Once-weekly oral azithromycin with weight-based dosing, for 48 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: All outcomes were prespecified. The primary outcome was the mean difference in FEV1 z score using intention-to-treat analysis for participants seen at end line. Secondary outcomes included AREs, all-cause hospitalizations, mortality, and weight-for-age z score. Results: A total of 347 individuals (median [interquartile range] age, 15.3 [12.7-17.7] years; 177 boys [51.0%]) were randomized, 174 to the azithromycin group and 173 to the placebo group; 162 participants in the azithromycin group and 146 placebo group participants had a primary outcome available and were analyzed. The mean difference in FEV1 z score was 0.06 (95% CI, -0.10 to 0.21; P = .48) higher in the azithromycin group than in the placebo group, a nonsignificant difference. The rate of AREs was 12.1 events per 100 person-years in the azithromycin group and 24.7 events per 100 person-years in the placebo groups (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.93; P = .03). The hospitalization rate was 1.3 events per 100 person-years in the azithromycin group and 7.1 events per 100 person-years in the placebo groups, but the difference was not significant (hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.06 to 1.07; P = .06). Three deaths occurred, all in the placebo group. The mean weight-for-age z score was 0.03 (95% CI, -0.08 to 0.14; P = .56) higher in the azithromycin group than in the placebo group, although the difference was not significant. There were no drug-related severe adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial specifically addressing childhood HCLD, once-weekly azithromycin did not improve lung function or growth but was associated with reduced AREs; the number of hospitalizations was also lower in the azithromycin group but the difference was not significant. Future research should identify patient groups who would benefit most from this intervention and optimum treatment length, to maximize benefits while reducing the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02426112.


Asunto(s)
Azitromicina , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Azitromicina/administración & dosificación , Azitromicina/efectos adversos , Método Doble Ciego , Cálculo de Dosificación de Drogas , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/etiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/fisiopatología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/inmunología , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
Lancet HIV ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197393

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Index-linked HIV testing, whereby children of individuals with HIV are targeted for testing, increases HIV yield but relies on uptake. Community-based testing might address barriers to testing access. In the Bridging the Gap in HIV testing and care for children in Zimbabwe (B-GAP) study, we investigated the uptake and yield of index-linked testing in children and the uptake of community-based vs facility-based HIV testing in Zimbabwe. METHODS: B-GAP was an interventional study done in the city of Bulawayo and the province of Matabeleland South between Jan 29 and Dec 12, 2018. All HIV-positive attendees (index patients) at six urban and three rural primary health-care clinics were offered facility-based or community-based HIV testing for children (age 2-18 years) living in their households who had never been tested or had tested as HIV-negative more than 6 months ago. Community-based options involved testing in the home by either a trained lay worker with a blood-based rapid diagnostic test (used in facility-based testing), or by the child's caregiver with an oral HIV test. Among consenting individuals, the primary outcome was testing uptake in terms of the proportion of eligible children tested. Secondary outcomes were uptake of the different HIV testing methods, HIV yield (proportion of eligible children who tested positive), and HIV prevalence (proportion of HIV-positive children among those tested). Logistic regression adjusting for within-index clustering was used to investigate index patient and child characteristics associated with testing uptake, and the uptake of community-based versus facility-based testing. FINDINGS: Overall, 2870 index patients were linked with 6062 eligible children (3115 [51·4%] girls [sex unknown in seven], median age 8 years [IQR 5-13]). Testing was accepted by index patients for 5326 (87·9%) children, and 3638 were tested with a known test outcome, giving an overall testing uptake among 6062 eligible children of 60·0%. 39 children tested positive for HIV, giving an HIV prevalence among the 3638 children of 1·1% and an HIV yield among 6062 eligible children of 0·6%. Uptake was positively associated with female sex in the index patient (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1·56 [95% CI 1·38-1·77], p<0·0001) and child (aOR 1·10 [1·03-1·19], p=0·0080), and negatively associated with any financial cost of travel to a clinic (aOR 0·86 [0·83-0·88], p<0·0001), increased child age (6-9 years: aOR 0·99 (0·89-1·09); 10-15 years: aOR 0·91 [0·83-1·00]; and 16-18 years: aOR 0·75 [0·66-0·85]; p=0·0001 vs 2-5 years), and unknown HIV status of the mother (aOR 0·81 [0·68-0·98], p=0·027 vs HIV-positive status). Additionally, children had increased odds of being tested if community-based testing was chosen over facility-based testing at screening (1320 [73·9%] children tested of 1787 vs 2318 [65·5%] of 3539; aOR 1·49 [1·22-1·81], p=0·0001). INTERPRETATION: The HIV yield of index-linked testing was low compared with blanket testing approaches in similar settings. Index-linked HIV testing can improve testing uptake among children, although strategies that improve testing uptake in older children are needed. Community based testing by lay workers is a feasible strategy that can be used to improve uptake of HTS among children and adolescents. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, Wellcome Trust.

8.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156137

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether adolescents born very preterm (VP; <32 weeks' gestation) have an excess of mathematics anxiety compared with their classmates born at term. METHODS: This cohort study included 127 adolescents born VP (51% male, mean age 13.9 years, SD 0.7) and 95 term-born classmates (56% male, mean age 13.7 years, SD 0.7) who completed the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Second UK Edition and the Mathematics Anxiety Scale-UK at the age of 11 to 15 years. Self-reported trait anxiety was assessed using a composite of 3 items from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. RESULTS: Adolescents born VP had significantly poorer mathematics attainment than adolescents born at term (difference in means: -0.64 SD; 95% confidence interval -0.95 to -0.34). However, there were no between-group differences in self-reported mathematics anxiety or trait anxiety. There were significant moderate associations between mathematics anxiety and mathematics attainment for adolescents born VP (rho: -0.45) and at term (rho: -0.54), after controlling for trait anxiety. CONCLUSION: Adolescents born VP do not have heightened mathematics anxiety compared with their term-born classmates, despite poorer attainment in mathematics. Improving domain-general cognitive skills and scaffolding learning in the classroom may be more promising avenues for intervention than attempting to reduce mathematics anxiety.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963795

RESUMEN

Background: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) experience a high burden of mental health disorder which is a barrier to antiretroviral therapy adherence. In Zimbabwe, trained, mentored peer supporters living with HIV (Community Adolescent Treatment Supporters - CATS) have been found to improve adherence, viral suppression and psychosocial well-being among ALHIV. The Friendship Bench is the largest integrated mental health programme in Africa. We hypothesise that combining the CATS programme and Friendship Bench will improve mental health and virological suppression among ALHIV compared with the CATS programme alone. Methods: We will conduct a cluster-randomised controlled trial in 60 clinics randomised 1:1 in five provinces. ALHIV attending the control arm clinics will receive standard CATS support and clinic support following the Ministry of Health guidelines. Those attending the intervention arm clinics will receive Friendship Bench problem-solving therapy, delivered by trained CATS. Participants with the signs of psychological distress will be referred to the clinic for further assessment and management. The primary outcome is HIV virological failure (≥1000 copies/ml) or death at 48 weeks. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of adolescents with common mental disorder symptoms (defined as Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ-14) score ≥8), proportion with depression symptoms (defined as Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥11), symptom severity (mean SSQ-14 and PHQ-9 scores) and EQ-5D score for health-related quality of life. Conclusions: This trial evaluates the effectiveness of peer-delivery of mental health care on mental health and HIV viral load among ALHIV. If effective this intervention has the potential to be scaled-up to improve these outcomes.Trial registration: PACTR201810756862405. 08 October 2018.

10.
Platelets ; : 1-12, 2020 Sep 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981398

RESUMEN

An organized and dynamic cytoskeleton is required for platelet formation and function. Formins are a large family of actin regulatory proteins which are also able to regulate microtubule dynamics. There are four formin family members expressed in human and mouse megakaryocytes and platelets. We have previously shown that the actin polymerization activity of formin proteins is required for cytoskeletal dynamics and platelet spreading using a small molecule inhibitor. In the current study, we analyze transgenic mouse models deficient in two of these proteins, mDia1 and Fhod1, along with a model lacking both proteins. We demonstrate that double knockout mice display macrothrombocytopenia which is due to aberrant megakaryocyte function and a small decrease in platelet lifespan. Platelet function is unaffected by the loss of these proteins. This data indicates a critical role for formins in platelet and megakaryocyte function.

11.
EClinicalMedicine ; 23: 100333, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637890

RESUMEN

Background: There is a lack of data from low- and middle-income countries on whether anxiety independently predicts a more chronic course for depression. Methods: We undertook secondary data analysis of a cluster randomised controlled trial in Zimbabwe which had tested the effectiveness of the Friendship Bench intervention for common mental disorders compared to enhanced usual care. Inclusion for the current study was participants from the trial who had probable major depression at baseline, defined as scoring => 11 on the locally validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9). This emerged to be 354 of the original 573 (61.78%) of the original trial sample. Anxiety was measured using the locally validated cut-point on the Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). Persistent depression was defined as scoring => 11 on the PHQ-9 at six-months follow-up. Analysis in Stata 15 used random-effects logistic regression to adjust for clustering by clinic. Outcomes: Of the 354 participants who were eligible for treatment, 329 (92·9%) completed 6-month follow-up assessment. 37% of the trial sample had persistent depression at 6-months follow-up; 59% in the control arm and 17% in the intervention arm. Co-morbid anxiety present at trial baseline was independently associated with persistent depression after adjusting for age, gender and baseline depression severity (adjusted OR = 2·83, 95% CI 1·32-6·07). There was no evidence of effect modification by trial arm. Baseline depression severity also predicted persistent depression. Interpretation Treatment for depression in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) should be directed towards those with greatest need. This includes people with co-morbid anxiety and greater depression severity at initial assessment who are less likely to remit at six months. Advice on coping with anxiety, psychological treatments which target common anxiety symptoms such as fear, avoidance, excessive worry and intrusive thoughts, and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) should be made more widely available in LMIC and offered to those with persistent mixed depression and anxiety.

12.
Br J Psychol ; 111(4): 603-629, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683689

RESUMEN

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents the greatest international biopsychosocial emergency the world has faced for a century, and psychological science has an integral role to offer in helping societies recover. The aim of this paper is to set out the shorter- and longer-term priorities for research in psychological science that will (a) frame the breadth and scope of potential contributions from across the discipline; (b) enable researchers to focus their resources on gaps in knowledge; and (c) help funders and policymakers make informed decisions about future research priorities in order to best meet the needs of societies as they emerge from the acute phase of the pandemic. The research priorities were informed by an expert panel convened by the British Psychological Society that reflects the breadth of the discipline; a wider advisory panel with international input; and a survey of 539 psychological scientists conducted early in May 2020. The most pressing need is to research the negative biopsychosocial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic to facilitate immediate and longer-term recovery, not only in relation to mental health, but also in relation to behaviour change and adherence, work, education, children and families, physical health and the brain, and social cohesion and connectedness. We call on psychological scientists to work collaboratively with other scientists and stakeholders, establish consortia, and develop innovative research methods while maintaining high-quality, open, and rigorous research standards.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Psicología/tendencias , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Proyectos de Investigación
13.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 33(5): 1080-1089, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307875

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies in Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) have suggested that mathematical abilities are impaired. However, it is unclear which domain-general or domain-specific abilities impact on mathematical development in these developmental disorders. METHOD: The current study examined the foundations of mathematical development across participants with WS (n = 24) and DS (n = 26) compared to typically developing (TD) children (n = 26) in relation to domain-general (i.e., general intelligence and visuospatial abilities) and domain-specific abilities (non-symbolic and symbolic number abilities). RESULTS: Developmental trajectories showed that mathematical abilities were delayed in line with overall mental age in DS and WS. Whilst visuospatial abilities predicted performance for DS and TD participants, this was not the case for the WS group, instead Approximate Number Sense abilities predicted mathematical development. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that those with DS and WS may benefit from different mathematical intervention programmes.

14.
Platelets ; : 1-5, 2020 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321340

RESUMEN

The assessment of platelet spreading through light microscopy, and the subsequent quantification of parameters such as surface area and circularity, is a key assay for many platelet biologists. Here we present an analysis workflow which robustly segments individual platelets to facilitate the analysis of large numbers of cells while minimizing user bias. Image segmentation is performed by interactive learning and touching platelets are separated with an efficient semi-automated protocol. We also use machine learning methods to robustly automate the classification of platelets into different subtypes. These adaptable and reproducible workflows are made freely available and are implemented using the open-source software KNIME and ilastik.

15.
Cogn Behav Pract ; 27(1): 84-92, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153343

RESUMEN

HIV is prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, and depression frequently co-occurs. Depression is one of the most important predictors of poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Little has been done to develop integrated interventions that are feasible and appropriate for task-shifting to nonspecialists that seek to address both depression and barriers to ART adherence in Sub-Saharan Africa. This case series describes an integrated intervention for depression and ART adherence delivered by a lay adherence counselor and supervised by a local psychologist. The 6-session intervention was based on problem-solving therapy for depression and for barriers to adherence (PST-AD), with stepped care for those whose depression did not recover with PST-AD. Primary outcomes were acceptability and depression. Acceptability was measured by participant attendance to the 6 sessions. Three case studies illustrate the structured intervention, solutions identified to adherence barriers and to problems underlying low mood, and changes seen in the clients' psychological symptoms. Acceptability of the intervention was high and common mental disorder symptoms scores measured using the SRQ-8 decreased overall. An integrated intervention for depression and adherence to ART appeared feasible in this low-income setting. An RCT of the intervention versus an appropriate comparison condition is needed to evaluate clinical and cost-effectiveness.

16.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e036723, 2020 03 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213527

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In April 2019, 14 children were diagnosed with HIV infection by a private healthcare provider in Larkana district, Sindh province, Pakistan. Over the next 3 months, 930 individuals were diagnosed with HIV, >80% below 16 years, the largest ever outbreak of HIV in children in Pakistan. In this protocol paper, we describe research methods for assessing likely modes of HIV transmission in this outbreak and investigate spatial and molecular epidemiology. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A matched case-control study will be conducted with 406 cases recruited. Cases will be children aged below 16 years registered for care at the HIV treatment centre at Shaikh Zayed Children Hospital in Larkana City. Controls will be children who are HIV-uninfected (confirmed by a rapid HIV test) matched 1:1 by age (within 1 year), sex and neighbourhood. Following written informed consent from the guardian, a structured questionnaire will be administered to collect data on sociodemographic indices and exposure to risk factors for parenteral, vertical and sexual (only among those aged above 10 years) HIV transmission. A blood sample will be collected for hepatitis B and C serology (cases and controls) and HIV lineage studies (cases only). Mothers of participants will be tested for HIV to investigate the possibility of mother-to-child transmission. Conditional logistic regression will be used to investigate the association of a priori defined risk factors with HIV infection. Phylogenetic analyses will be conducted. Global positioning system coordinates of participants' addresses will be collected to investigate concordance between the genetic and spatial epidemiology. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics Review Committee of the Aga Khan University, Karachi. Study results will be shared with Sindh and National AIDS Control Programs, relevant governmental and non-governmental organisations, presented at national and international research conferences and published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.

17.
AIDS Care ; 32(sup2): 198-205, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172592

RESUMEN

This paper aimed to assess the impact of maternal common mental disorders (CMD) among caregivers living with HIV on the cognitive functioning of their child. Data were collected at baseline and 12 months follow-up from mother-child dyads recruited as part of an ongoing trial in Zimbabwe. Symptoms of CMD were assessed using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to assess child cognitive scores at follow-up (using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning) in relation to caregiver CMD prevalence over 12 months. At baseline, caregivers reporting CMD (n = 230; 40.1%) were less likely to have completed higher education (46.9% vs. 56.9%; p = 0.02), more likely to be unmarried (27.8% vs. 16.0%; p < 0.01), and experience food insecurity (50.0% vs. 29.4%; p < 0.01) compared to the group without CMD (n = 344). There were 4 CMD patterns over time: (i) Emerging CMD (n = 101; 19.7% of caregivers) defined as those who were below the cut-off at baseline, and above it at 12 months; (ii) Improving CMD (n = 76; 14.8%) defined as those who reported CMD at baseline, and were below the cut-off by follow-up; (iii) No CMD (n = 206; 40.1%) defined as those who did not report CMD symptoms at either time point; and (iv) Chronic CMD (n = 131; 25.5%) defined as those who reported CMD above the cut-off at both time points. Children of caregivers with chronic CMD (n = 131, 25.5%) had lower receptive language scores (aMD:-2.81, 95%CI -5.1 to -0.6; p = 0.05) compared to the reference group with no CMD (n = 206, 40.1%). Exposure to caregiver CMD over a prolonged period may affect child receptive vocabulary skills.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Trastornos del Conocimiento/diagnóstico , Cognición/fisiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Madres/psicología , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH , Niño , Trastornos del Conocimiento/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/fisiopatología , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
18.
Res Dev Disabil ; 100: 103609, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087508

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current systematic review is the first to systematically explore and synthesis research to date on mathematical abilities in Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetic disorder that results in an uneven cognitive profile. As mathematical development is complex and relies on both domain-specific and domain-general abilities, it is currently not clear what mathematical abilities have been examined in WS and also what the current gaps in this research area are. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A total of 27 studies across 22 publications were identified through a systematic review search process. RESULTS: Overall, all mathematical abilities, except for simple counting and subitizing abilities, were reported to be impaired but in line with overall mental-age abilities. However, the literature to date has not established the underlying causes of these mathematical difficulties in WS. Some studies suggested that mathematical abilities in WS follow an atypical developmental pathway with a greater reliance on verbal abilities than in typical development but coupled with impaired understanding of counting and knowledge of the number system more broadly. However, most included studies used different assessments of mathematical skills and there is a lack of studies that have examined more than one particular aspect of mathematical development within the same study. In addition, studies have often included large age ranges and small participant samples, despite the known large individual variability in WS. CONCLUSION: Although we know mathematical abilities in WS are impaired, this area is under-researched and there is a lack of longitudinal studies that provide insight into the cognitive mechanisms that underpin mathematical development in WS. Therefore, there is a lack of an evidence-base to inform interventions or educational practice.

19.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(5): 590-599, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989731

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the features of HIV-associated chronic lung disease (CLD) in older children and adolescents living with HIV and to examine the clinical factors associated with CLD. This is a post hoc analysis of baseline data from the BREATHE clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02426112). METHODS: Children and adolescents aged 6-19 years were screened for CLD (defined as a FEV1 z-score <-1 with no reversibility post-bronchodilation with salbutamol) at two HIV clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe, and Blantyre, Malawi. Eligible participants with CLD (cases) were enrolled, together with a control group without CLD [frequency-matched by age group and duration on antiretroviral therapy (ART)] in a 4:1 allocation ratio. A clinical history and examination were undertaken. The association between CLD and a priori-defined demographic and clinical covariates was investigated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 1585 participants screened, 419 (32%) had a FEV1 z-score <-1, of whom 347 were enrolled as cases [median age 15.3 years (IQR 12.7-17.7); 48.9% female] and 74 with FEV1 z-score >0 as controls [median age 15.6 years (IQR 12.1-18.2); 62.2% female]. Among cases, current respiratory symptoms including cough and shortness of breath were reported infrequently (9.3% and 1.8%, respectively). However, 152 (43.8%) of cases had a respiratory rate above the 90th centile for their age. Wasting and taking second-line ART were independently associated with CLD. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CLD indicates the need to address additional treatment support for youth living with HIV, alongside ART provision, to ensure a healthier adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , VIH-1 , Enfermedades Pulmonares/epidemiología , Adolescente , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Servicios de Salud del Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermedades Pulmonares/complicaciones , Malaui/epidemiología , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Sobrevivientes , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
20.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(3): 362-370, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866326

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In April 2019, an HIV screening camp for all ages was established in response to a report of an unusually large number of paediatric HIV diagnoses in Larkana, Pakistan. We aimed to understand the clinical profile of the children who registered for HIV care. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we review the outbreak response from the government, academia, and UN agencies in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan. We report age-stratified and sex-stratified HIV prevalence estimated among individuals screened. For children who registered for HIV care, clinical history of previous injections and blood transfusions, HIV disease stage, hepatitis B and hepatitis C status, and CD4 count was abstracted from clinical records from Sindh AIDS Control Program HIV Clinic (Shaikh Zayed Childrens Hospital, Larkana, Pakistan) and analysed using percentages, χ2 tests, and weight-for-age Z scores. We also analysed data for parents who were tested for HIV. FINDINGS: Between April 24, and July 15, 2019, 31 239 individuals underwent HIV testing, of whom 930 (3%) tested positive for HIV. Of these, 763 (82%) were younger than 16 years and 604 (79%) of these were aged 5 years and below. Estimated HIV prevalence was 3% overall; 7% (283 of 3803) in children aged 0-2 years, 6% (321 of 5412) in children aged 3-5 years, and 1% (148 of 11 251) in adults aged 16-49 years. Of the 591 children who registered for HIV care, 478 (81%) were 5 years or younger, 379 (64%) were boys, and 315 (53%) of 590 had a weight-for-age Z score of -3·2. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was 8% (48 of 574) and hepatitis C antibody positivity was 3% (15 of 574). Of children whose mothers tested for HIV, only 39 (11%) of 371 had HIV-positive mothers. Most children (404 [89%] of 453) reported multiple previous injections and 40 (9%) of 453 reported blood transfusions. INTERPRETATION: This HIV outbreak is unprecedented among children in Pakistan: a 54% increase in paediatric HIV diagnoses over the past 13 years. The outbreak was heavily skewed towards young children younger than 5 years, with a predominance of boys. Epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to understand the full extent of the outbreak and its drivers to guide HIV control strategies. FUNDING: None.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Coinfección/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
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