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1.
Indian Pediatr ; 61(3): 209-218, 2024 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469835

RESUMEN

JUSTIFICATION: Osteoarticular infections are fairly common in children but often these are associated with underdiagnosis, delayed diagnosis and improper management. This leads to an increased incidence of complications and poor outcomes. Given the paucity of standard protocols for the management of these children in the Indian context, Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) has taken the initiative to formulate guidelines for the early diagnosis and rational management of bone and joint infections (BJIs). OBJECTIVES: To critically evaluate the current evidence and formulate consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and management of BJIs in children. PROCESS: A committee comprising of eminent national faculty from different parts of the country who are experts in the field of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Pediatric Orthopedics and Musculoskeletal Radiology was constituted and duly approved by the IAP. On Jan 16, 2021, a virtual meeting was held and a detailed discussions were carried out regarding the need to formulate these guidelines. Subsequently, the expert group defined the key questions in the first stage followed by collection and review of scientific evidences including available national and international recommendations or guidelines. This was followed by detailed deliberation among group members and presentation of their recommendations. The same were finalized in an online meeting on Aug 01, 2021, and a consensus statement was developed and adopted by the group. STATEMENT: BJIs are medical emergencies that need early diagnosis and appropriate therapy to prevent long term sequelae like limb deformities. Bacterial infections like Staphylococcus aureus is the most common etiological agent. Nonspecific and subtle clinical manifestations make the diagnosis of pediatric BJIs more challenging. Diagnosis of BJIs is primarily clinical, supplemented by laboratory and radiological investigations. The choice of antibiotic(s), mode of administration and duration of therapy requires individualization depending upon the severity of infection, causative organism, regional sensitivity patterns, time elapsed between onset of symptoms and the child's presentation, age, risk factors and the clinical and laboratory response to treatment. There is paucity of appropriate guidelines regarding the diagnosis and management of BJIs in children in Indian context. Hence, the need for this expert consensus guidelines in Indian settings.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Staphylococcus aureus , Niño , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Consenso , Progresión de la Enfermedad
2.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2024 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163830

RESUMEN

The fact that almost half of the 1 million cases of childhood tuberculosis (TB) globally remain undiagnosed jeopardizes the TB elimination goal. Fortunately, there are new advances in this field which have the potential to bridge this diagnostic gap. Advances in imaging include computer assisted interpretation of chest X-rays (CXRs), point of care ultrasound (POCUS) and faster and superior computed tomography/ magnetic resonance imaging (CT/ MRI) protocols. The urine lipoarabinomannan test has proved to be a good point of care test for diagnosing TB in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children. Stool and nasopharyngeal aspirates are emerging as acceptable alternatives for gastric lavage and induced sputum for diagnosing intrathoracic tuberculosis. Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra has improved sensitivity compared to Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosing both pulmonary/ extrapulmonary TB. Xpert XDR is another commercially available accurate point of care test for detecting resistance to drugs other than rifampicin in smear positive samples. Other molecular methods including new line probe assays, pyrosequencing, whole genome sequencing, and targeted next generation sequencing are extremely promising but not available commercially at present. The C-Tb skin test is an acceptable alternative to the tuberculin skin test and interferon gamma release assays for diagnosis of latent infection. There is an urgent need to incorporate some of these advances in the existing diagnostic algorithms of childhood TB.

3.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2024 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38221597
4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 30(3): 368-374, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081413

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis (CAROM), ascertain factors associated with CAPM among patients with COVID-19, and identify factors associated with 12-week mortality in CAPM. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentre cohort study. All study participants had COVID-19. We enrolled CAPM, CAROM, and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis (controls; age-matched). We collected information on demography, predisposing factors, and details of COVID-19 illness. Univariable analysis was used to compare CAPM and CAROM. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with CAPM (with hypoxemia during COVID-19 as the primary exposure) and at 12-week mortality. RESULTS: We included 1724 cases (CAPM [n = 122], CAROM [n = 1602]) and 3911 controls. Male sex, renal transplantation, multimorbidity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, intensive care admission, and cumulative glucocorticoid dose for COVID-19 were significantly higher in CAPM than in CAROM. On multivariable analysis, COVID-19-related hypoxemia (aOR, 2.384; 95% CI, 1.209-4.700), male sex, rural residence, diabetes mellitus, serum C-reactive protein, glucocorticoid, and zinc use during COVID-19 were independently associated with CAPM. CAPM reported a higher 12-week mortality than CAROM (56 of the 107 [52.3%] vs. 413 of the 1356 [30.5%]; p = 0.0001). Hypoxemia during COVID-19 (aOR [95% CI], 3.70 [1.34-10.25]) and Aspergillus co-infection (aOR [95% CI], 5.40 [1.23-23.64]) were independently associated with mortality in CAPM, whereas surgery was associated with better survival. DISCUSSION: CAPM is a distinct entity with a higher mortality than CAROM. Hypoxemia during COVID-19 illness is associated with CAPM. COVID-19 hypoxemia and Aspergillus co-infection were associated with higher mortality in CAPM.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Masculino , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Glucocorticoides , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , India/epidemiología , Hipoxia/complicaciones
5.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 46: 100422, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945116

RESUMEN

Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) is a well-recognized cause of nosocomial infections. We describe here a young healthy male who presented with fever and chest pain with ECG changes of acute pericarditis. Two sets of blood cultures at separate timings grew gram negative bacilli identified as BCC by molecular methods. The patient responded to intravenous ceftazidime despite high ceftazidime MIC's. The source of infection was probably contaminated nasal spray/nasal saline wash which he used after a balloon sinoplasty procedure one month ago. Issues related to accurate identification and susceptibility testing of BCC are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia , Infecciones por Burkholderia , Complejo Burkholderia cepacia , Burkholderia cepacia , Infección Hospitalaria , Humanos , Masculino , Ceftazidima , Infecciones por Burkholderia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Burkholderia/tratamiento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/tratamiento farmacológico
9.
Indian J Med Res ; 157(5): 395-402, 2023 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37322632

RESUMEN

Background & objectives: Sepsis, including neonatal sepsis, remains a prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries such as India, representing 85 per cent of all sepsis-related deaths globally. Early diagnosis and timely initiation of treatment is challenging due to non-specific clinical manifestations and non-availability of rapid diagnostic tests. There is an urgent need for affordable diagnostics with fast turnaround time catering to the needs of end-users. Target product profiles (TPPs) have been found instrumental in developing 'fit-for-use' diagnostics, thus reducing the time taken to facilitate development and improving diagnosis. Hitherto, no such guidance or criteria has been defined for rapid diagnostics for sepsis/neonatal sepsis. We propose an innovative approach for developing the diagnostics for sepsis screening and diagnosis which can be utilized by diagnostic developers in the country. Methods: Thr@ee-round Delphi method, including two online surveys and one virtual consultation, was adopted to define criteria for minimum and optimum attributes of TPPs and build consensus on characteristics. Expert panel (n=23) included infectious disease physicians, public health specialists, clinical microbiologists, virologists, researchers/scientists and technology experts/innovators. Results: We present a three-component product profile for sepsis diagnosis, (i) screening with high sensitivity, (ii) detection of aetiological agent, and (iii) profiling of antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance, in adults and neonates with an option of testing different considerations. An agreement of >75 per cent was achieved for all TPP characteristics by Delphi. These TPPs are tailored to the Indian healthcare settings and can also be extrapolated to other resource-constraint and high-disease burden settings. Interpretation & conclusions: Diagnostics developed using these TPPs will facilitate utilization of invested resources leading to development of the products that have potential to ease the economic burden on patient and save lives.


Asunto(s)
Sepsis Neonatal , Sepsis , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Sepsis Neonatal/diagnóstico , Sepsis/diagnóstico , Prueba de Diagnóstico Rápido , India
13.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 42: 89-91, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36175197

RESUMEN

64 years old male presented fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, COVID-19 infection with bioprosthetic mitral in situ, cardio embolic stroke 2 years ago. The 2 D ECHO showed a vegetation indicating infective endocarditis. Three paired blood cultures grew Kytococcus schroeteri. The organism was sensitive to Vancomycin, Teicoplanin, Gentamycin and Linezolid. Patient had multiorgan dysfunction which further deteriorated into failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation resulting into death of the patient.


Asunto(s)
Actinomycetales , COVID-19 , Endocarditis Bacteriana , Endocarditis , Prótesis Valvulares Cardíacas , Masculino , Humanos , Endocarditis Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocarditis Bacteriana/tratamiento farmacológico , Prótesis Valvulares Cardíacas/efectos adversos , COVID-19/complicaciones
14.
Indian J Pediatr ; 90(2): 114-115, 2023 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542266

Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Niño , Humanos , Pandemias
16.
Indian J Pediatr ; 89(10): 955-960, 2022 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947269

RESUMEN

Monkeypox is caused by a pox virus closely related to smallpox virus and spreads from animals to humans, and humans to humans following close contact. Prior smallpox vaccination gives partial protection against monkeypox. The steady increase in monkeypox cases in Africa over the past few decades were ignored by the global scientific community till this year, when more than 16,000 cases have been reported from nonendemic countries. Monkeypox has recently been labelled as a public health emergency of international concern by the WHO. While most of the current cases are in men who have sex with men, there is the larger threat of the disease spilling into the general population. The disease is characterized by a short febrile illness with lymphadenopathy followed by a rash which spreads centrifugally and passes through phases of macules, papules, vesicles, and pustules. Recovery occurs in most patients within 2-4 wk. Complications are more likely in children, pregnant women, and the immunocompromised. Specific diagnosis is by detection of viral DNA by PCR. Treatment is largely symptomatic. Tecorivimat is a promising antiviral drug. Vaccination with the currently available smallpox vaccines is recommended for high-risk groups, health care workers, and close contacts. Control of the monkeypox outbreak needs a multipronged effort comprising enhanced surveillance, quick diagnosis, isolation of affected people, ring immunization, and adoption of "one health" approach.


Asunto(s)
Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Vacuna contra Viruela , Viruela , Animales , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Niño , ADN Viral , Femenino , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , /epidemiología , Embarazo , Viruela/diagnóstico , Viruela/epidemiología , Viruela/prevención & control
17.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(4): 596-598, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008195

RESUMEN

This case is of a 23 year old diabetic male who presented with fever and splenic lesions. He continued to have fever off and on over the next 3 years despite empirical antibiotics and anti-tubercular therapy. No definitive diagnosis could be made despite exhaustive investigations. Finally, a splenectomy resulted in sustained defervescence. The splenic histopathology showed caseating granulomas but aerobic cultures, Xpert MTB/Rif ULTRA, TB and fungal cultures were negative. A final diagnosis of splenic melioidosis was made based on the clinical features, radiology, histopathology, literature review and absence of an alternative diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Adulto Joven
19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(9): e240-e253, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390293

RESUMEN

COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) remains an underdiagnosed entity. Using a modified Delphi method, we have formulated a consensus statement for the diagnosis and management of CAPM. We selected 26 experts from various disciplines who are involved in managing CAPM. Three rounds of the Delphi process were held to reach consensus (≥70% agreement or disagreement) or dissensus. A consensus was achieved for 84 of the 89 statements. Pulmonary mucormycosis occurring within 3 months of COVID-19 diagnosis was labelled CAPM and classified further as proven, probable, and possible. We recommend flexible bronchoscopy to enable early diagnosis. The experts proposed definitions to categorise dual infections with aspergillosis and mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. We recommend liposomal amphotericin B (5 mg/kg per day) and early surgery as central to the management of mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. We recommend response assessment at 4-6 weeks using clinical and imaging parameters. Posaconazole or isavuconazole was recommended as maintenance therapy following initial response, but no consensus was reached for the duration of treatment. In patients with stable or progressive disease, the experts recommended salvage therapy with posaconazole or isavuconazole. CAPM is a rare but under-reported complication of COVID-19. Although we have proposed recommendations for defining, diagnosing, and managing CAPM, more extensive research is required.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Antifúngicos , Prueba de COVID-19 , Técnica Delfos , Humanos
20.
Indian J Pediatr ; 89(6): 600-606, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064528

RESUMEN

Antimicrobial resistance is projected to kill 10 million people by 2050. The biggest driver of antimicrobial resistance is excessive/unrestricted use of antimicrobials in humans and animals. Antimicrobial resistance is a problem in all types of pathogens including bacteria, mycobacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites both globally and India and in both adults and children. The areas of greatest concern for India is the epidemic of MDR and XDR tuberculosis and resistance in gram-negative pathogens. The alarming rate of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production in Enterobacteriales in both community and health care-associated infections is driving carbapenem use. Rates of carbapenem resistance are now significantly high in health care-associated gram negative pathogens with associated high mortality rates. The key solution to this antimicrobial resistance crisis needs participation of all stakeholders and lies in promoting rational antimicrobial therapy.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Distinciones y Premios , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Carbapenémicos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Pandemias , Pediatras
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