Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 11 de 11
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 28(2): e180-e187, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618586

RESUMEN

Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has cast a gloom spell on healthcare worldwide, infecting millions of people. Objective The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence and review the contributing comorbidities and the precipitating factors leading to the emergence of the fungal infections in COVID-19-affected patients. To assess the utility of different laboratory techniques for confirmation of fungal infections. To assess the strengths and limitations of the diagnostic methods. Methods We have studied 252 clinical samples obtained from 121 COVID-positive patients. Results Among the 121 patients clinically diagnosed with fungal infections, 88 had diabetes and were given steroids for treatment ( p -value = 0.001). Ninety-five patients (78.5%) had a positive laboratory diagnosis (either culture positive, potassium hydroxide [KOH]-positive or positive histopathology report). Fungal culture was positive in 75 (61.9%) patients and histopathology report was positive in 62 (51.2%). Histopathology was positive in 7 (5.8%) patients in whom culture and KOH were negative. Conclusion Aggressive treatment methods, administration of immune suppressants, and antibiotics, with an intention to salvage, have made patients susceptible to the benign fungus, causing it to evade the host immunity, thus leading to invasive infections. Applying different laboratory modalities would not only aid in providing fast and valuable information but also help in understanding the pathology which would assist the clinician in selecting the correct treatment for the patient.

2.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 76(1): 1371-1372, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440525

RESUMEN

Commercial drivers, including pilots, suffering from untreated sleep-related disorders endanger many lives. This puts them at risk of increased daytime somnolence. Through this brief communication, we urge the authorities to make the sleep study mandatory for these drivers to diagnose underlying sleep disorders like sleep apnea.

3.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 30(3): 368-374, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081413

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis (CAROM), ascertain factors associated with CAPM among patients with COVID-19, and identify factors associated with 12-week mortality in CAPM. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentre cohort study. All study participants had COVID-19. We enrolled CAPM, CAROM, and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis (controls; age-matched). We collected information on demography, predisposing factors, and details of COVID-19 illness. Univariable analysis was used to compare CAPM and CAROM. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with CAPM (with hypoxemia during COVID-19 as the primary exposure) and at 12-week mortality. RESULTS: We included 1724 cases (CAPM [n = 122], CAROM [n = 1602]) and 3911 controls. Male sex, renal transplantation, multimorbidity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, intensive care admission, and cumulative glucocorticoid dose for COVID-19 were significantly higher in CAPM than in CAROM. On multivariable analysis, COVID-19-related hypoxemia (aOR, 2.384; 95% CI, 1.209-4.700), male sex, rural residence, diabetes mellitus, serum C-reactive protein, glucocorticoid, and zinc use during COVID-19 were independently associated with CAPM. CAPM reported a higher 12-week mortality than CAROM (56 of the 107 [52.3%] vs. 413 of the 1356 [30.5%]; p = 0.0001). Hypoxemia during COVID-19 (aOR [95% CI], 3.70 [1.34-10.25]) and Aspergillus co-infection (aOR [95% CI], 5.40 [1.23-23.64]) were independently associated with mortality in CAPM, whereas surgery was associated with better survival. DISCUSSION: CAPM is a distinct entity with a higher mortality than CAROM. Hypoxemia during COVID-19 illness is associated with CAPM. COVID-19 hypoxemia and Aspergillus co-infection were associated with higher mortality in CAPM.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Masculino , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Glucocorticoides , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , India/epidemiología , Hipoxia/complicaciones
5.
J Clin Imaging Sci ; 13: 23, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37680251

RESUMEN

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) at presentation and on follow-up imaging when patients receive treatment with systemic antifungal therapy and surgical debridement. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of imaging data from a cohort of patients diagnosed with AIFRS during the second wave of COVID-19 in single tertiary referral hospital in South India between March 2021 and May 2021 (n = 68). Final diagnosis was made using a composite reference standard which included a combination of MRI findings, clinical presentation, nasal endoscopy and intraoperative findings, and laboratory proof of invasive fungal infection. Analysis included 62 patients with "Definite AIFRS" findings on MRI and another six patients with "Possible AIFRS" findings on MRI and laboratory proof of invasive fungal infection. Follow-up imaging was available in 41 patients. Results: The most frequent MRI finding was T2 hypointensity in the sinonasal mucosa (94%) followed by mucosal necrosis/loss of contrast-enhancement (92.6%). Extrasinosal inflammation with or without necrosis in the pre-antral fat, retroantral fat, pterygopalatine fossa, and masticator space was seen in 91.1% of the cases. Extrasinosal spread was identified on MRI even when the computed tomography (CT) showed intact bone with normal extrasinosal density. Orbital involvement (72%) was in the form of contiguous spread from either the ethmoid or maxillary sinuses; the most frequent presentation being orbital cellulitis and necrosis, with some cases showing extension to the orbital apex (41%) and inflammation of the optic nerve (32%). A total of 22 patients showed involvement of the cavernous sinuses out of which 10 had sinus thrombosis and five patients had cavernous internal carotid artery involvement. Intracranial extension was seen both in the form of contiguous spread to the pachymeninges over the frontal and temporal lobes (25%) and intra-axial involvement in the form of cerebritis, abscesses, and infarcts (8.8%). Areas of blooming on SWI were noted within the areas of cerebritis and infarcts. Perineural spread of inflammation was seen along the mandibular nerves across foramen ovale in five patients and from the cisternal segment of trigeminal nerve to the root exit zone in pons in three patients. During follow-up, patients with disease progression showed involvement of the bones of skull base, osteomyelitis of the palate, alveolar process of maxilla, and zygoma. Persistent hyperenhancement in the post-operative bed after surgical debridement and resection was noted even in patients with stable disease. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MRI must be performed in all patients with suspected AIFRS as non-contrast MRI fails to demonstrate tissue necrosis and CT fails to demonstrate extrasinosal disease across intact bony walls. Orbital apex, pterygopalatine fossa, and the cavernous sinuses form important pathways for disease spread to the skull base and intracranial compartment. While cerebritis, intracranial abscesses, and infarcts can be seen early in the disease due to the angioinvasive nature, perineural spread and skull base infiltration are seen 3-4 weeks after disease onset. Exaggerated soft-tissue enhancement in the post-operative bed after debridement can be a normal finding and must not be interpreted as disease progression.

8.
IJID Reg ; 2: 99-106, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721429

RESUMEN

Background: Opportunistic cases of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) have increased in India during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Aim: To study laboratory parameters, histopathological features of sinus mucosal biopsies and exenterated orbit specimens, and clinical aspects of patients with ROCM. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of nasal and sinus debridement biopsies and orbital exenteration specimens of 30 patients was undertaken, along with analysis of laboratory parameters, clinical history of predisposing conditions, and medication history during COVID-19. Results: All patients were either in recovery following COVID-19 or had ongoing infection. Most patients were diabetic with increased glycosylated haemoglobin, and most patients received steroids and antibiotics for COVID-19. Thirty sinonasal mucosal debridement specimens from various sites, nine orbital exenteration specimens and one frontal decompression craniectomy specimen were examined. Mucor spp. were observed in necrotic tissue, and the presence of vessel and nerve invasion was documented. There were four deaths. Conclusion: ROCM is a life-threatening disease. A high index of suspicion with prompt aggressive surgical and medical management by a multi-disciplinary team can be life saving. Efforts to maintain an optimal glycaemic index is likely to be helpful in preventing ROCM. Judicious use of steroids is mandatory to control the collateral epidemic of ROCM in India.

9.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 74(Suppl 3): 6406-6413, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36742702

RESUMEN

Aims to evaluate quality of life in paediatric SDB due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy and efficacy of treatment modalities (medical and surgical) by using OSA-18 questionnaire. Prospective study, conducted from April 2019 to June 2019, including 42 patients with clinical features suggestive of SDB due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, in age group of 3-15 years. Nasopharyngoscopy was done to grade adenoid hypertrophy. OSA-18 QOL questionnaire was recorded in all patients and depending upon the severity of impact of QOL and grades of adenoid hypertrophy, patients were categorized into two groups. Group 1 received medical treatment and group 2 underwent adenotonsillectomy. Questionnaire was again recorded after 4 weeks. Pretreatment and post-treatment total mean and individual domain scores were compared. Paired t tests was used to evaluate results. Group 1 included 16 children with mild to moderate impact and received medical management. Pretreatment mean OSA-18 score of 70.31 was improved to 33.5. Group 2 enrolled 26 patients with severe impact, were subjected to adenotonsillectomy. Pretreatment and post-treatment mean score were 95.88 and 24.92 respectively. Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in all individual domains and total mean OSA-18 scores indicating improvement in QOL after treatment and efficacy of medical management for mild-moderate SDB and surgery for severe cases. OSA-18 questionnaire is self-administered and disease specific screening tool for early diagnosis and evaluation of QOL before and after treatment. It also helps to categorize patients for advocating appropriate treatment and to evaluate efficacy of treatment modalities.

10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(7): 1915-1927, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146057

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease-associated mucormycosis (CAM) is an established clinical entity in India. In the past 4 months, there has been a sharp upsurge in the number of CAM cases in most parts of the country. Early diagnosis can be lifesaving. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging remains the corner stone of management in patients with ROCM. This review discussed the utility of MRI imaging in ROCM with an emphasis on the ideal MRI protocol in a suspected case of ROCM, the pathways of spread of infection, the classic diagnostic features, MRI for staging of the disease, MRI for prognostication, MRI for follow up, and imaging features of common differentials in ROCM. The pit falls of MRI imaging and a comparison of CT and MRI imaging in ROCM are discussed. The clinical interpretation of areas of contrast uptake and those of necrosis and its relevance to treatment are discussed. This review aims to familiarize every member of the multidisciplinary team involved in managing these patients to be able to interpret the findings on MRI in ROCM.


Asunto(s)
Mucormicosis , Enfermedades Nasales , Enfermedades Orbitales , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , India , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Nasales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Orbitales/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Orbitales/tratamiento farmacológico
11.
Sleep Med Clin ; 14(1): 21-31, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709530

RESUMEN

Evaluation of the upper airway is key for a successful surgical management. Proper evaluation can be done only with a good understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of the upper airway. The authors discuss surgical anatomy from a soft tissue and bony perspective in detail along with its clinical implications. The complex interaction among pharyngeal dilator tone, arousal threshold, respiratory control instability, and changes in lung volume during sleep play an important role in obstructive sleep apnea. Because all the anatomic and physiologic characteristics discussed have genetic predisposition, gene therapy may play a pivotal role in the future.


Asunto(s)
Faringe/cirugía , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/cirugía , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Humanos , Faringe/patología , Sueño/fisiología , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/patología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...