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1.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 210: 103157, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801071

RESUMEN

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - and autistic traits more generally - are associated with a heterogeneous pattern of differences in cognitive function. These include differences in associative learning, attention, and processing of social information. All three cognitive functions have importance in clinical, educational, and research contexts. The present study investigates the relationships between these functions in the context of autistic traits in the neurotypical population. In an online study, we asked a group of over 400 people to complete the Autism Spectrum Quotient questionnaire. We also asked participants to complete one of two standard attentional learning paradigms - either a Kamin blocking or an attentional highlighting task. To investigate the relation of attention and learning to social information processing, we incorporated social cues in one of each kind of paradigm. We found Kamin blocking increased with increasing number of autistic traits, in particular the sub-trait attention switching, but only for non-social cues. We found that highlighting decreased with increasing number of traits, in particular the sub-trait communication, but only for social cues. We interpret these findings as evidence of a crucial role for attention in other characteristics of the broader autistic phenotype, and discuss the relevance of these results for cognitive explanations of autistic traits and symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico , Aprendizaje , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Humanos , Cognición Social
2.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 80(4): 1023-1025, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29557035

RESUMEN

During copy-editing, the y-axes of Fig. 2 (top) and Fig. 3 (top) were erroneously labelled mean BCG (d') in the version of the paper published as Online First. The correct label is meanCE (d').

3.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 80(4): 999-1010, 2018 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473142

RESUMEN

Perception is fundamentally a multisensory experience. The principle of inverse effectiveness (PoIE) states how the multisensory gain is maximal when responses to the unisensory constituents of the stimuli are weak. It is one of the basic principles underlying multisensory processing of spatiotemporally corresponding crossmodal stimuli that are well established at behavioral as well as neural levels. It is not yet clear, however, how modality-specific stimulus features influence discrimination of subtle changes in a crossmodally corresponding feature belonging to another modality. Here, we tested the hypothesis that reliance on visual cues to pitch discrimination follow the PoIE at the interindividual level (i.e., varies with varying levels of auditory-only pitch discrimination abilities). Using an oddball pitch discrimination task, we measured the effect of varying visually perceived vertical position in participants exhibiting a wide range of pitch discrimination abilities (i.e., musicians and nonmusicians). Visual cues significantly enhanced pitch discrimination as measured by the sensitivity index d', and more so in the crossmodally congruent than incongruent condition. The magnitude of gain caused by compatible visual cues was associated with individual pitch discrimination thresholds, as predicted by the PoIE. This was not the case for the magnitude of the congruence effect, which was unrelated to individual pitch discrimination thresholds, indicating that the pitch-height association is robust to variations in auditory skills. Our findings shed light on individual differences in multisensory processing by suggesting that relevant multisensory information that crucially aids some perceivers' performance may be of less importance to others, depending on their unisensory abilities.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Discriminación de la Altura Tonal/fisiología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto , Cognición , Señales (Psicología) , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Masculino , Música , Adulto Joven
4.
Autism ; 22(6): 751-762, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28691518

RESUMEN

Difficulties in emotion perception are commonly observed in autism spectrum disorder. However, it is unclear whether these difficulties can be attributed to a general problem of relating to emotional states, or whether they specifically concern the perception of others' expressions. This study addressed this question in the context of pain, a sensory and emotional state with strong social relevance. We investigated pain evaluation in self and others in 16 male individuals with autism spectrum disorder and 16 age- and gender-matched individuals without autism spectrum disorder. Both groups had at least average intelligence and comparable levels of alexithymia and pain catastrophizing. We assessed pain reactivity by administering suprathreshold electrical pain stimulation at four intensity levels. Pain evaluation in others was investigated using dynamic facial expressions of shoulder patients experiencing pain at the same four intensity levels. Participants with autism spectrum disorder evaluated their own pain as being more intense than the pain of others, showing an underestimation bias for others' pain at all intensity levels. Conversely, in the control group, self- and other evaluations of pain intensity were comparable and positively associated. Results indicate that emotion perception difficulties in autism spectrum disorder concern the evaluation of others' emotional expressions, with no evidence for atypical experience of own emotional states.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/fisiopatología , Reconocimiento Facial , Dolor , Percepción Social , Adulto , Síntomas Afectivos/fisiopatología , Síntomas Afectivos/psicología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Catastrofización , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
5.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 46(7): 2539-47, 2016 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27011323

RESUMEN

Convergent research suggests that people with ASD have difficulties localizing sounds in space. These difficulties have implications for communication, the development of social behavior, and quality of life. Recently, a theory has emerged which treats perceptual symptoms in ASD as the product of impairments in implicit Bayesian inference; as suboptimalities in the integration of sensory evidence with prior perceptual knowledge. We present the results of an experiment that applies this new theory to understanding difficulties in auditory localization, and we find that adults with ASD integrate prior information less optimally when making perceptual judgments about the spatial sources of sounds. We discuss these results in terms of their implications for formal models of symptoms in ASD.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Estimulación Acústica/psicología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Localización de Sonidos/fisiología , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Femenino , Humanos , Juicio/fisiología , Masculino , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología
6.
Exp Brain Res ; 233(2): 551-65, 2015 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25362518

RESUMEN

Many forms of social interaction require that behaviour be coordinated in the here and now. Much research has been conducted on how people coordinate their actions in real time to achieve a joint goal, showing that people use both synchronised (i.e., symmetric) and complementary (i.e., asymmetric) strategies. These two mechanisms have been mostly studied independently, the former in the context of rhythmic tasks, and the latter in non-rhythmic tasks. However, people often balance these two strategies in real-life social interactions, in order to achieve a joint goal more effectively. Here, our aim was to investigate how people may implicitly balance synchronisation and complementarity in a continuous joint aiming task. We asked dyads to synchronise the timing of their clicks between targets, while changing task constraints for one member of the dyad (i.e., different task difficulties) to asymmetrically perturb the continuous interaction. This allowed us to investigate how individuals implicitly negotiate complementary leader-follower dynamics to achieve synchronisation. We found that dyads flexibly switch from mutual to asymmetric adaptation given variations in task constraints. Specifically, our results show that both members adapt equally up to a certain level of difficulty; after this point, the partner with the difficult task becomes less adaptive, and hence more of a leader, while the adaptability of the member with the easier task remains unchanged. This proves to be an effective strategy in this asymmetric task, as people synchronise better with an irregular, but adaptive partner, than with a completely predictable, but non-responsive metronome. These results show that given asymmetric task constraints, adaptability, rather than predictability, facilitates coordination.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Relaciones Interpersonales , Articulaciones/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Periodicidad , Estimulación Acústica , Adulto , Análisis de Varianza , Atención , Femenino , Humanos , Articulaciones/inervación , Masculino , Estimulación Luminosa , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Estadística como Asunto , Adulto Joven
7.
Autism ; 19(3): 301-7, 2015 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24523412

RESUMEN

Autistic people are better at perceiving details. Major theories explain this in terms of bottom-up sensory mechanisms or in terms of top-down cognitive biases. Recently, it has become possible to link these theories within a common framework. This framework assumes that perception is implicit neural inference, combining sensory evidence with prior perceptual knowledge. Within this framework, perceptual differences may occur because of enhanced precision in how sensory evidence is represented or because sensory evidence is weighted much higher than prior perceptual knowledge. In this preliminary study, we compared these models using groups with high and low autistic trait scores (Autism-Spectrum Quotient). We found evidence supporting the cognitive bias model and no evidence for the enhanced sensory precision model.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Cognición , Percepción , Adulto , Análisis de Varianza , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenotipo , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Adulto Joven
8.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 39(5): 1291-303, 2013 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23398254

RESUMEN

The effects of other people's opinions on conscious perceptual judgments are pervasive and well studied. Although existing research is suggestive, less is known about how others' opinions affect nonconscious sensorimotor behavior. In the experiment, participants were shown figures containing a visual illusion, along with judgments made by experimental confederates, which conflicted with participants' previous perceptual reports. In this context, participants were asked to perform a simple motor behavior, for which the same illusion provided the target. We found that participants' precision while performing this behavior was affected by the group decision, even though conscious perceptual reports and movement efficiency were not. We discuss the consequences of these findings for cooperative behavior and for personal autonomy.


Asunto(s)
Procesos de Grupo , Psicología Social , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Adulto , Conducta Cooperativa , Femenino , Humanos , Ilusiones/fisiología , Juicio/fisiología , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Autonomía Personal , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto Joven
9.
Front Neurosci ; 6: 58, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22529772

RESUMEN

Deception is an essentially social act, yet little is known about how social consequences affect the decision to deceive. In this study, participants played a computerized game of deception without constraints on whether or when to attempt to deceive their opponent. Participants were questioned by an opponent outside the scanner about their knowledge of the content of a display. Importantly, questions were posed so that, in some conditions, it was possible to be deceptive, while in other conditions it was not. To simulate a realistic interaction, participants could be confronted about their claims by the opponent. This design, therefore, creates a context in which a deceptive participant runs the risk of being punished if their deception is detected. Our results show that participants were slower to give honest than to give deceptive responses when they knew more about the display and could use this knowledge for their own benefit. The condition in which confrontation was not possible was associated with increased activity in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. The processing of a question which allows a deceptive response was associated with activation in right caudate and inferior frontal gyrus. Our findings suggest the decision to deceive is affected by the potential risk of social confrontation rather than the claim itself.

10.
J Vis ; 11(2)2011 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21346001

RESUMEN

Liberal acceptance, overconfidence, and increased activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine have been proposed to account for abnormal sensory experiences, for instance, hallucinations in schizophrenia. In normal subjects, increased sensory experience in Yoga Nidra meditation is linked to striatal dopamine release. We therefore hypothesize that the neurotransmitter dopamine may function as a regulator of subjective confidence of visual perception in the normal brain. Although much is known about the effect of stimulation by neurotransmitters on cognitive functions, their effect on subjective confidence of perception has never been recorded experimentally before. In a controlled study of 24 normal, healthy female university students with the dopamine agonist pergolide given orally, we show that dopaminergic activation increases confidence in seeing rapidly presented words. It also improves performance in a forced-choice word recognition task. These results demonstrate neurotransmitter regulation of subjective conscious experience of perception and provide evidence for a crucial role of dopamine.


Asunto(s)
Agonistas de Dopamina/administración & dosificación , Dopamina/metabolismo , Pergolida/administración & dosificación , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Administración Oral , Adulto , Análisis de Varianza , Tipificación del Cuerpo , Estado de Conciencia/fisiología , Discriminación en Psicología , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Estudios Prospectivos , Valores de Referencia , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
11.
Exp Brain Res ; 209(2): 247-55, 2011 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21267551

RESUMEN

Recent research shows that visual processing influences the speed/accuracy trade-off people use when performing goal-directed movement. This raises the question of how this influence is produced in visual cognition. Visual influences on speed/accuracy trade-off could be produced in conscious visual perception, in non-conscious visuomotor transformation, or by some interaction of conscious perceptual and non-conscious visuomotor processes. There is independent evidence showing that both perceptual and visuomotor processes are involved in trading off speed and accuracy; however, the interaction between these processes has yet to be investigated. We present an experiment in which we show that a change in visual consciousness induced by a perceptual illusion affects the speed and accuracy of goal-directed movements, suggesting that perceptual and visuomotor processes do interact in speed/accuracy trade-off. We discuss the consequences of these results for theories of visual function more generally.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento/fisiología , Ilusiones Ópticas/fisiología , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Análisis de Varianza , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulación Luminosa , Adulto Joven
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