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1.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2024 Feb 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432647

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Antipsychotics have been the focus of reforms for improving the appropriateness of psychotropic medicine use in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Comprehensive evaluation of antidepressant use in RACFs is required to inform policy and practice initiatives targeting psychotropic medicines. This study examined national trends in antidepressant use among older people living in RACFs from 2006 to 2019. DESIGN: National repeated cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 to 105 years who were permanent, long-term (≥100 days) residents of Australian RACFs between January 2006 and December 2019 were included. METHODS: Annual age- and sex-adjusted antidepressant prevalence rates and defined daily doses (DDDs) supplied per 1000 resident-days from 2006 to 2019 were determined. Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence rate ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Poisson and negative binomial regression models. RESULTS: A total of 779,659 residents of 3371 RACFs were included (786,227,380 resident-days). Overall, antidepressant use increased from 46.1% (95% CI, 45.9-46.4) in 2006 to 58.5% (95% CI, 58.3-58.8) of residents in 2019 (aRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.02-1.02). Mirtazapine use increased from 8.4% (95% CI, 8.2-8.5) to 20.9% (95% CI, 20.7-21.1) from 2006 to 2019 (aRR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.07-1.07). Antidepressant use increased from 350.3 (95% CI, 347.6-353.1) to 506.0 (95% CI, 502.8-509.3) DDDs/1000 resident-days (aRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.03-1.03), with mirtazapine utilization increasing by 6% annually (aRR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.06-1.06). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This nationwide study identified a substantial increase in antidepressant use among residents of Australian RACFs, largely driven by mirtazapine. With nearly 3 in every 5 residents treated with an antidepressant in 2019, findings highlight potential off-label use and suggest that interventions to optimize care are urgently needed.

2.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 36(1): 83, 2024 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551712

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in primary, allied health, selected specialists, and mental health service utilisation by older people in the year before and after accessing home care package (HCP) services. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using the Registry of Senior Australians Historical National Cohort (≥ 65 years old), including individuals accessing HCP services between 2017 and 2019 (N = 109,558), was conducted. The utilisation of general practice (GP) attendances, health assessments, chronic disease management plans, allied health services, geriatric, pain, palliative, and mental health services, subsidised by the Australian Government Medicare Benefits Schedule, was assessed in the 12 months before and after HCP access, stratified by HCP level (1-2 vs. 3-4, i.e., lower vs. higher care needs). Relative changes in service utilisation 12 months before and after HCP access were estimated using adjusted risk ratios (aRR) from Generalised Estimating Equation Poisson models. RESULTS: Utilisation of health assessments (7-10.2%), chronic disease management plans (19.7-28.2%), and geriatric, pain, palliative, and mental health services (all ≤ 2.5%) remained low, before and after HCP access. Compared to 12 months prior to HCP access, 12 months after, GP after-hours attendances increased (HCP 1-2 from 6.95 to 7.5%, aRR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.11; HCP 3-4 from 7.76 to 9.32%, aRR = 1.20, 95%CI 1.13-1.28) and allied health services decreased (HCP 1-2 from 34.8 to 30.7%, aRR = 0.88, 95%CI 0.87-0.90; HCP levels 3-4 from 30.5 to 24.3%, aRR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.77-0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Most MBS subsidised preventive, management and specialist services are underutilised by older people, both before and after HCP access and small changes are observed after they access HCP.


Asunto(s)
Pueblos de Australasia , Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio , Servicios de Salud Mental , Humanos , Anciano , Australia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Dolor
3.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 117: 105210, 2024 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37812974

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine utilisation of primary health care services (subsidised by the Australian Government, Medicare Benefits Schedule, MBS) before and after entry into long-term care (LTC) in Australia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of older people (aged ≥65 years) who entered LTC in Australia between 2012 and 2016 using the Historical Cohort of the Registry of Senior Australians. MBS-subsidised general attendances (general practitioner (GP), medical and nurse practitioners), health assessment and management plans, allied health, mental health services and selected specialist attendances accessed in 91-day periods 12 months before and after LTC entry were examined. Adjusted relative changes in utilisation 0-3 months before and after LTC entry were estimated using risk ratios (RR) calculated using Generalised Estimating Equation Poisson models. RESULTS: 235,217 residents were included in the study with a median age of 84 years (interquartile range 79-89) and 61.1% female. In the first 3 months following LTC entry, GP / medical practitioner attendances increased from 86.6% to 95.6% (aRR 1.10 95%CI 1.10-1.11), GP / medical practitioner urgent after hours (from 12.3% to 21.1%; aRR 1.72, 95%CI 1.70-1.74) and after-hours attendances (from 18.5% to 33.8%; aRR 1.83, 95%CI 1.81-1.84) increased almost two-fold. Pain, palliative and geriatric specialist medicine attendances were low in the 3 months prior (<3%) and decreased further following LTC admission. CONCLUSION: There is an opportunity to improve the utilisation of primary health care services following LTC entry to ensure that residents' increasingly complex care needs are adequately met.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Anciano , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Masculino , Australia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Atención Primaria de Salud
5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 96(4): 1747-1758, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007661

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a need for clinical quality indicators (CQIs) that can be applied to dementia quality registries to monitor care outcomes for people with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. OBJECTIVE: To develop tertiary and primary care-based dementia CQIs for application to clinical registries for individuals with dementia accessing aged care services and determine 1) annual trends in CQI incidence between 2011-2012 and 2015-2016, 2) associated factors, and 3) geographic and facility variation in CQI incidence. METHODS: This retrospective repeated cross-sectional study included non-Indigenous individuals aged 65-105 years who lived with dementia between July 2008-June 2016, were assessed for government-funded aged care services, and resided in New South Wales or Victoria (n = 180,675). Poisson or negative binomial regression models estimated trends in annual CQI incidence and associated factors. Funnel plots examined CQI variation. RESULTS: Between 2011-2012 and 2015-2016, CQI incidence increased for falls (11.0% to 13.9%, adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.06)) and delirium (4.7% to 6.7%, aIRR 1.09 (95% CI 1.07-1.10)), decreased for unplanned hospitalizations (28.7% to 27.9%, aIRR 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99)) and remained steady for fracture (6.2% to 6.5%, aIRR 1.01 (95% CI 0.99-1.01)) and pressure injuries (0.5% to 0.4%, aIRR 0.99 (95% CI 0.96-1.02)). Being male, older, having more comorbidities and living in a major city were associated with higher CQI incidence. Considerable geographical and facility variation was observed for unplanned hospitalizations and delirium CQIs. CONCLUSIONS: The CQI results highlighted considerable morbidity. The CQIs tested should be considered for application in clinical quality registries to monitor dementia care quality.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Delirio , Humanos , Masculino , Anciano , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Transversales , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Hospitalización , Delirio/epidemiología
6.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2160, 2023 11 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37924023

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infection surveillance is a vital part of infection prevention and control activities for the aged care sector. In Australia there are two currently available infection and antimicrobial use surveillance programs for residential aged care facilities. These programs are not mandated nor available to all facilities. Development of a new surveillance program will provide standardised surveillance for all facilities in Australia. METHODS: This study aimed to assess barriers and enablers to participation in the two existing infection and antimicrobial use surveillance programs, to improve development and implementation of a new program. A mixed-methods study was performed. Aged Care staff involved in infection surveillance were invited to participate in focus groups and complete an online survey comprising 17 items. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using the COM-B framework. RESULTS: Twenty-nine staff took part in the focus groups and two hundred took part in the survey. Barriers to participating in aged care infection surveillance programs were the time needed to collect and enter data, competing priority tasks, limited understanding of surveillance from some staff, difficulty engaging clinicians, and staff fatigue after the COVID-19 pandemic. Factors that enabled participation were previous experience with surveillance, and sharing responsibilities, educational materials and using data for benchmarking and to improve practice. CONCLUSION: Streamlined and simple data entry methods will reduce the burden of surveillance on staff. Education materials will be vital for the implementation of a new surveillance program. These materials must be tailored to different aged care workers, specific to the aged care context and provide guidance on how to use surveillance results to improve practice.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Pandemias , Anciano , Humanos , Australia/epidemiología , Hogares para Ancianos , Control de Infecciones
7.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 43(4): 333-338, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37104657

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recent observational study evidence suggests that clozapine, unlike other antipsychotics, may be associated with a small increased risk of hematological malignancy. This study described characteristics of hematological and other cancers in those taking clozapine reported to the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. METHODS: We analyzed public case reports for "clozapine," "Clozaril," or "Clopine" from January 1995 to December 2020 classified as "neoplasm benign, malignant and unspecified" by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. Data on age, sex, dose, clozapine start and cessation dates, Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities reaction terms, and date of cancer were extracted. RESULTS: Overall, 384 spontaneous reports of cancers in people taking clozapine were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 53.9 years (SD, 11.4 years), and 224 (58.3%) were male. The most frequent cancers were hematological (n = 104 [27.1%]), lung (n = 50 [13.0%]), breast (n = 37 [9.6%]), and colorectal (n = 28 [7.3%]). The outcome was fatal for 33.9% of cancer reports. Lymphoma comprised 72.1% of all hematological cancers (mean patient age, 52.1 years; SD, 11.6 years). The median daily dose of clozapine at the time of hematological cancer report was 400 mg (interquartile range, 300-543.8 mg), and the median duration of clozapine use before hematological cancer diagnosis was 7.0 years (interquartile range, 2.8-13.2 years). CONCLUSIONS: Lymphoma and other hematological cancers are overrepresented in spontaneous adverse event reports compared with other cancer types. Clinicians should be aware of the possible association with hematological cancers and monitor for and report any hematological cancers identified. Future studies should examine histology of lymphomas in people using clozapine and corresponding blood level of clozapine.


Asunto(s)
Antipsicóticos , Clozapina , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Femenino , Clozapina/uso terapéutico , Australia/epidemiología , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias/inducido químicamente , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias Hematológicas/inducido químicamente , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamiento farmacológico
8.
Australas J Ageing ; 42(3): 564-576, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37070244

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine the incidence and trends in primary care, allied health, geriatric, pain and palliative care service use by permanent residential aged care (PRAC) residents and the older Australian population. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional analyses on PRAC residents (N = 318,484) and the older (≥65 years) Australian population (N ~ 3.5 million). Outcomes were Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) subsidised primary care, allied health, geriatric, pain and palliative services between 2012-13 and 2016-17. GEE Poisson models estimated incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS: In 2016-17, PRAC residents had a median of 13 (interquartile range [IQR] 5-19) regular general medical practitioner (GP) attendances, 3 (IQR 1-6) after-hours attendances and 5% saw a geriatrician. Highlights of utilisation changes from 2012-13 to 2016-17 include the following: GP attendances increased by 5%/year (IRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.05) for residents compared to 1%/year (IRR = 1.01, 95%CI 1.01-1.01) for the general population. GP after-hours attendances increased by 15%/year (IRR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.14-1.15) for residents and 9%/year (IRR = 1.08, 95%CI 1.07-1.20) for the general population. GP management plans increased by 12%/year (IRR = 1.12, 95%CI 1.11-1.12) for residents and 10%/year (IRR = 1.10, 95%CI 1.09-1.11) for the general population. Geriatrician consultations increased by 28%/year (IRR = 1.28, 95%CI 1.27-1.29) for residents compared to 14%/year (IRR = 1.14, 95%CI 1.14-1.15) in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The utilisation of most examined services increased in both cohorts over time. Preventive and management care, by primary care and allied health care providers, was low and likely influences the utilisation of other attendances. PRAC residents' access to pain, palliative and geriatric medicine services is low and may not address the residents' needs.


Asunto(s)
Programas Nacionales de Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Anciano , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Australia/epidemiología , Dolor/diagnóstico , Dolor/epidemiología
9.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 24(3): 299-306.e9, 2023 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603825

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Although largely preventable, pressure injury is a major concern in individuals in permanent residential aged care (PRAC). Our study aimed to identify predictors and develop a prognostic model for risk of hospitalization with pressure injury (PI) using integrated Australian aged and health care data. DESIGN: National retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Individuals ≥65 years old (N = 206,540) who entered 1797 PRAC facilities between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2016. METHODS: PI, ascertained from hospitalization records, within 365 days of PRAC entry was the outcome of interest. Individual, medication, facility, system, and health care-related factors were examined as predictors. Prognostic models were developed using elastic nets penalized regression and Fine and Gray models. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) assessed model discrimination out-of-sample. RESULTS: Within 365 days of PRAC entry, 4.3% (n = 8802) of individuals had a hospitalization with PI. The strongest predictors for PI risk include history of PIs [sub-distribution hazard ratio (sHR) 2.41; 95% CI 1.77-3.29]; numbers of prior hospitalizations (having ≥5 hospitalizations, sHR 1.95; 95% CI 1.74-2.19); history of traumatic amputation of toe, ankle, foot and leg (sHR 1.72; 95% CI 1.44-2.05); and history of skin disease (sHR 1.54; 95% CI 1.45-1.65). Lower care needs at PRAC entry with respect to mobility, complex health care, and medication assistance were associated with lower risk of PI. The risk prediction model had an AUC of 0.74 (95% CI 0.72-0.75). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our prognostic model for risk of hospitalization with PI performed moderately well and can be used by health and aged care providers to implement risk-based prevention plans at PRAC entry.


Asunto(s)
Úlcera por Presión , Anciano , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Australia , Hospitalización , Hogares para Ancianos
10.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 78(3): 470-478, 2023 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36165226

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulants (OACs) are high-risk medications often used in older people with complex medication regimens. This study was the first to assess the association between overall regimen complexity and bleeding in people with atrial fibrillation (AF) initiating OACs. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with AF who initiated an OAC (warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban) between 2010 and 2016 were identified from the Hong Kong Clinical Database and Reporting System. Each patient's Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) score was computed. Baseline characteristics were balanced using inverse probability of treatment weighting. People were followed until a first hospitalization for bleeding (intracranial hemorrhage, gastrointestinal bleeding, or other bleeding) and censored at discontinuation of the index OAC, death, or end of the follow-up period, whichever occurred first. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) between MRCI quartiles and bleeding during initiation and all follow-up. RESULTS: There were 19 292 OAC initiators (n = 9 092 warfarin, n = 10 200 direct oral anticoagulants) with a mean (standard deviation) age at initiation of 73.9 (11.0) years. More complex medication regimens were associated with an increased risk of bleeding (MRCI > 14.0-22.00: aHR 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-1.49; MRCI > 22.0-32.5: aHR 1.32, 95%CI 1.06-1.66; MRCI > 32.5: aHR 1.45, 95%CI 1.13-1.87, compared to MRCI ≤ 14). No significant association between MRCI and bleeding risk was observed during the initial 30, 60, or 90 days of treatment. CONCLUSION: In this cohort study of people with AF initiating an OAC, a more complex medication regimen was associated with higher bleeding risk over periods longer than 90 days. Further prospective studies are needed to assess whether MRCI should be considered in OAC prescribing.


Asunto(s)
Fibrilación Atrial , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Anciano , Fibrilación Atrial/inducido químicamente , Fibrilación Atrial/complicaciones , Fibrilación Atrial/tratamiento farmacológico , Warfarina/efectos adversos , Estudios de Cohortes , Anticoagulantes/efectos adversos , Hemorragia/inducido químicamente , Hemorragia/complicaciones , Hemorragia/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Administración Oral , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 91(3): 933-960, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36530085

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Historically, research questions have been posed by the pharmaceutical industry or researchers, with little involvement of consumers and healthcare professionals. OBJECTIVE: To determine what questions about medicine use are important to people living with dementia and their care team and whether they have been previously answered by research. METHODS: The James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership process was followed. A national Australian qualitative survey on medicine use in people living with dementia was conducted with consumers (people living with dementia and their carers including family, and friends) and healthcare professionals. Survey findings were supplemented with key informant interviews and relevant published documents (identified by the research team). Conventional content analysis was used to generate summary questions. Finally, evidence checking was conducted to determine if the summary questions were 'unanswered'. RESULTS: A total of 545 questions were submitted by 228 survey participants (151 consumers and 77 healthcare professionals). Eight interviews were conducted with key informants and four relevant published documents were identified and reviewed. Overall, analysis resulted in 68 research questions, grouped into 13 themes. Themes with the greatest number of questions were related to co-morbidities, adverse drug reactions, treatment of dementia, and polypharmacy. Evidence checking resulted in 67 unanswered questions. CONCLUSION: A wide variety of unanswered research questions were identified. Addressing unanswered research questions identified by consumers and healthcare professionals through this process will ensure that areas of priority are targeted in future research to achieve optimal health outcomes through quality use of medicines.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Demencia , Humanos , Prioridades en Salud , Australia , Personal de Salud , Cuidadores , Demencia/tratamiento farmacológico
13.
Age Ageing ; 51(7)2022 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794851

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: no studies have examined the impact of residential medication management review (RMMR, a 24-year government subsidised comprehensive medicines review program) in Australian residential aged care facilities (RACFs) on hospitalisation or mortality. OBJECTIVE: to examine associations between RMMR provision in the 6-12 months after RACF entry and the 12-month risk of hospitalisation and mortality among older Australians in RACFs. DESIGN: retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: individuals aged 65-105 years taking at least one medicine, who entered an RACF in three Australian states between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2015 and spent at least 6 months in the RACF (n = 57,719). METHODS: Cox regression models estimated adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between RMMR provision and mortality. Adjusted subdistribution hazard ratios were estimated for associations between RMMR provision and next (i) emergency department (ED) presentation or unplanned hospitalisation or (ii) fall-related ED presentation or hospitalisation. RESULTS: there were 12,603 (21.8%) individuals who received an RMMR within 6-12 months of RACF entry, of whom 22.2% (95%CI 21.4-22.9) died during follow-up, compared with 23.3% (95%CI 22.9-23.7) of unexposed individuals. RMMR provision was associated with a lower risk of death due to any cause over 12-months (aHR 0.96, 95%CI 0.91-0.99), but was not associated with ED presentations or hospitalisations for unplanned events or falls. CONCLUSIONS: provision of an RMMR in the 6-12 months after RACF entry is associated with a 4.4% lower mortality risk over 12-months but was not associated with changes in hospitalisations for unplanned events or falls.


Asunto(s)
Hogares para Ancianos , Hospitalización , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 88(4): 1511-1522, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35811530

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies related to clinical quality indicators (CQIs) in dementia have focused on hospitalizations, medication management, and safety. Less attention has been paid to indicators related to primary and secondary care. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of primary and secondary care CQIs for Australians with dementia using government-subsidized aged care. The examined CQIs were: comprehensive medication reviews, 75+ health assessments, comprehensive geriatric assessments, chronic disease management plans, general practitioner (GP) mental health treatment plans, and psychiatrist attendances. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study (2011-2016) of 255,458 individuals. National trend analyses estimated incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Poisson or negative binomial regression. Associations were assessed using backward stepwise multivariate Poisson or negative binomial regression model, as appropriate. Funnel plots examined geographic and permanent residential aged care (PRAC) facility variation. RESULTS: CQI incidence increased in all CQIs but medication reviews. For the overall cohort, 75+ health assessments increased from 1.07/1000 person-days to 1.16/1000 person-days (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.03).Comprehensive geriatric assessments increased from 0.24 to 0.37/1000 person-days (aIRR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.10-1.14). GP mental health treatment plans increased from 0.04 to 0.07/1000 person-days (aIRR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.12-1.15). Psychiatric attendances increased from 0.09 to 0.11/1000 person-days (aIRR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07). Being female, older, having fewer comorbidities, and living outside a major city were associated with lower likelihood of using the services. Large geographical and PRAC facility variation was observed (0-92%). CONCLUSION: Better use of primary and secondary care services to address needs of individuals with dementia is urgently needed.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Atención Secundaria de Salud , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Demencia/epidemiología , Demencia/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 493, 2022 06 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676644

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Residential Medication Management Review (RMMR) is a subsidized comprehensive medicines review program for individuals in Australian residential aged care facilities (RACFs). This study examined weekly trends in medicines use in the four months before and after an RMMR and among a comparison group of residents who did not receive an RMMR. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included individuals aged 65 to 105 years who first entered permanent care between 1/1/2012 and 31/12/2016 in South Australia, Victoria, or New South Wales, and were taking at least one medicine. Individuals with an RMMR within 12 months of RACF entry were classified into one of three groups: (i) RMMR within 0 to 3 months, (ii) 3 to 6 months, or (iii) within 6 to 12 months of RACF entry. Individuals without RMMRs were included in the comparison group. Weekly trends in the number of defined daily doses per 1000 days were determined in the four months before and after the RMMR (or assigned index date in the comparison group) for 14 medicine classes. RESULTS: 113909 individuals from 1979 RACFs were included, of whom 55021 received an RMMR. Across all three periods examined, decreased use of statins and proton pump inhibitors was observed post-RMMR in comparison to those without RMMRs. Decreases in calcium channel blockers, benzodiazepines/zopiclone, and antidepressants were observed following RMMR provision in the 3-6 and 6-12 months after RACF entry. Negligible changes in antipsychotic use were also observed following an RMMR in the 6-12 months after RACF entry by comparison to those without RMMRs. No changes in use of opioids, ACE inhibitors/sartans, beta blockers, loop diuretics, oral anticoagulants, or medicines for osteoporosis, diabetes or the cognitive symptoms of dementia were observed post-RMMR. CONCLUSIONS: For six of the 14 medicine classes investigated, modest changes in weekly trends in use were observed after the provision of an RMMR in the 6-12 months after RACF entry compared to those without RMMRs. Findings suggest that activities such as medicines reconciliation may be prioritized when an RMMR is provided on RACF entry, with deprescribing more likely after an RMMR the longer a resident has been in the RACF.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Vida Asistida , Hogares para Ancianos , Anciano , Humanos , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Victoria
17.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 56(1): 50-58, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736477

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Concerns about intentional and unintentional poisoning present a barrier to wider use of clozapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to investigate decedent demographics and trends in fatal poisonings in Australia involving clozapine. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of all fatal drug toxicity reported to an Australian coroner between 1 May 2000 and 31 December 2016 where toxicological analysis detected clozapine. Cases were identified using the National Coronial Information System. Demographics extracted included age and gender of the decedent, year and location of death, cause and manner of death and drugs detected in post-mortem samples. RESULTS: There were 278 poisoning deaths where clozapine was detected in toxicological analyses. Three-quarters of all cases (n = 207) involved men and the median age at death was 38.5 years (interquartile range: 16 years). Three-quarters of the deaths occurred in the home. Overall, 15.8% of deaths were deemed intentional, 57.5% unintentional and 24.5% of unknown intent. While the annual number of intentional self-poisonings remained constant with <5 per year, the overall number of fatalities increased due to an increase in unintentional poisonings. Multiple drug toxicity was reported in 55.0% of cases and clozapine alone in 45.0% of cases. The most common co-reported medications were antidepressants, benzodiazepines and opioids detected in 47.1%, 44.4% and 41.2% of multiple drug toxicities, respectively. CONCLUSION: This was the first Australia-wide review of all fatal drug poisonings reported to a coroner involving clozapine. Fatalities were most common in men and occurred at home. Multiple drug toxicity generally involved psychotropic, sedative or opioid analgesic medications. Despite increasing clozapine use, rates of intentional poisoning have remained constant and low. Developing a better knowledge of unintentional fatalities presents an opportunity to minimise harm.


Asunto(s)
Clozapina , Australia/epidemiología , Benzodiazepinas , Clozapina/efectos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia Resistente al Tratamiento
18.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 686, 2021 12 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876037

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Entering permanent residential aged care (PRAC) is a vulnerable time for individuals. While falls risk assessment tools exist, these have not leveraged routinely collected and integrated information from the Australian aged and health care sectors. Our study examined individual, system, medication, and health care related factors at PRAC entry that are predictors of fall-related hospitalisations and developed a risk assessment tool using integrated aged and health care data. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on N = 32,316 individuals ≥65 years old who entered a PRAC facility (01/01/2009-31/12/2016). Fall-related hospitalisations within 90 or 365 days were the outcomes of interest. Individual, system, medication, and health care-related factors were examined as predictors. Risk prediction models were developed using elastic nets penalised regression and Fine and Gray models. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) assessed model discrimination. RESULTS: 64.2% (N = 20,757) of the cohort were women and the median age was 85 years old (interquartile range 80-89). After PRAC entry, 3.7% (N = 1209) had a fall-related hospitalisation within 90 days and 9.8% (N = 3156) within 365 days. Twenty variables contributed to fall-related hospitalisation prediction within 90 days and the strongest predictors included fracture history (sub-distribution hazard ratio (sHR) = 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.63-2.15), falls history (sHR = 1.41, 95%CI 1.21-2.15), and dementia (sHR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.22-1.57). Twenty-seven predictors of fall-related hospitalisation within 365 days were identified, the strongest predictors included dementia (sHR = 1.36, 95%CI 1.24-1.50), history of falls (sHR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.20-1.42) and fractures (sHR = 1.28, 95%CI 1.15-1.41). The risk prediction models had an AUC of 0.71 (95%CI 0.68-0.74) for fall-related hospitalisations within 90 days and 0.64 (95%CI 0.62-0.67) for within 365 days. CONCLUSION: Routinely collected aged and health care data, when integrated at a clear point of action such as entry into PRAC, can identify residents at risk of fall-related hospitalisations, providing an opportunity for better targeting risk mitigation strategies.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Hospitalización , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Australia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Instituciones Residenciales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e057247, 2021 11 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789497

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To: (1) examine the 90-day incidence of unplanned hospitalisation and emergency department (ED) presentations after residential aged care facility (RACF) entry, (2) examine individual-related, facility-related, medication-related, system-related and healthcare-related predictors of these outcomes and (3) create individual risk profiles. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using the Registry of Senior Australians. Fine-Gray models estimated subdistribution HRs and 95% CIs. Harrell's C-index assessed risk models' predictive ability. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged ≥65 years old entering a RACF as permanent residents in three Australian states between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2016 (N=116 192 individuals in 1967 RACFs). PREDICTORS EXAMINED: Individual-related, facility-related, medication-related, system and healthcare-related predictors ascertained at assessments or within 90 days, 6 months or 1 year prior to RACF entry. OUTCOME MEASURES: 90-day unplanned hospitalisation and ED presentation post-RACF entry. RESULTS: The cohort median age was 85 years old (IQR 80-89), 62% (N=71 861) were women, and 50.5% (N=58 714) had dementia. The 90-day incidence of unplanned hospitalisations was 18.0% (N=20 919) and 22.6% (N=26 242) had ED presentations. There were 34 predictors of unplanned hospitalisations and 34 predictors of ED presentations identified, 27 common to both outcomes and 7 were unique to each. The hospitalisation and ED presentation models out-of-sample Harrell's C-index was 0.664 (95% CI 0.657 to 0.672) and 0.655 (95% CI 0.648 to 0.662), respectively. Some common predictors of high risk of unplanned hospitalisation and ED presentations included: being a man, age, delirium history, higher activity of daily living, behavioural and complex care needs, as well as history, number and recency of healthcare use (including hospital, general practitioners attendances), experience of a high sedative load and several medications. CONCLUSIONS: Within 90 days of RACF entry, 18.0% of individuals had unplanned hospitalisations and 22.6% had ED presentations. Several predictors, including modifiable factors, were identified at the time of care entry. This is an actionable period for targeting individuals at risk of hospitalisations.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Hospitalización , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574821

RESUMEN

Comprehensive medicines reviews such as Home Medicines Review (HMR) and Residential Medication Management Review (RMMR) can resolve medicines-related problems. Changes to Australia's longstanding HMR and RMMR programs were implemented between 2011 and 2014. This study examined trends in HMR and RMMR provision among older Australians during 2009-2019 and determined the impact of program changes on service provision. Monthly rates of general medical practitioner (GP) HMR claims per 1000 people aged ≥65 years and RMMR claims per 1000 older residents of aged care facilities were determined using publicly available data. Interrupted time series analysis was conducted to examine changes coinciding with dates of program changes. In January 2009, monthly HMR and RMMR rates were 0.80/1000 older people and 20.17/1000 older residents, respectively. Small monthly increases occurred thereafter, with 1.89 HMRs/1000 and 34.73 RMMRs/1000 provided in February 2014. In March 2014, immediate decreases of -0.32 (95%CI -0.52 to -0.11) HMRs/1000 and -12.80 (95%CI -15.22 to -10.37) RMMRs/1000 were observed. There were 1.07 HMRs/1000 and 35.36 RMMRs/1000 provided in December 2019. In conclusion, HMR and RMMR program changes in March 2014 restricted access to subsidized medicines reviews and were associated with marked decreases in service provision. The low levels of HMR and RMMR provision observed do not represent a proactive approach to medicines safety and effectiveness among older Australians.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Administración del Tratamiento Farmacológico , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Farmacéuticos , Políticas
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