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1.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4606, 2018 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389924

RESUMEN

The use of quantum resources can provide measurement precision beyond the shot-noise limit (SNL). The task of ab initio optical phase measurement-the estimation of a completely unknown phase-has been experimentally demonstrated with precision beyond the SNL, and even scaling like the ultimate bound, the Heisenberg limit (HL), but with an overhead factor. However, existing approaches have not been able-even in principle-to achieve the best possible precision, saturating the HL exactly. Here we demonstrate a scheme to achieve true HL phase measurement, using a combination of three techniques: entanglement, multiple samplings of the phase shift, and adaptive measurement. Our experimental demonstration of the scheme uses two photonic qubits, one double passed, so that, for a successful coincidence detection, the number of photon-passes is N = 3. We achieve a precision that is within 4% of the HL. This scheme can be extended to higher N and other physical systems.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(10): 100401, 2018 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240270

RESUMEN

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is a quantum phenomenon wherein one party influences, or steers, the state of a distant party's particle beyond what could be achieved with a separable state, by making measurements on one-half of an entangled state. This type of quantum nonlocality stands out through its asymmetric setting and even allows for cases where one party can steer the other but where the reverse is not true. A series of experiments have demonstrated one-way steering in the past, but all were based on significant limiting assumptions. These consisted either of restrictions on the type of allowed measurements or of assumptions about the quantum state at hand, by mapping to a specific family of states and analyzing the ideal target state rather than the real experimental state. Here, we present the first experimental demonstration of one-way steering free of such assumptions. We achieve this using a new sufficient condition for nonsteerability and, although not required by our analysis, using a novel source of extremely high-quality photonic Werner states.

3.
Sci Adv ; 4(1): e1701230, 2018 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29322093

RESUMEN

Entanglement is the key resource for many long-range quantum information tasks, including secure communication and fundamental tests of quantum physics. These tasks require robust verification of shared entanglement, but performing it over long distances is presently technologically intractable because the loss through an optical fiber or free-space channel opens up a detection loophole. We design and experimentally demonstrate a scheme that verifies entanglement in the presence of at least 14.8 ± 0.1 dB of added loss, equivalent to approximately 80 km of telecommunication fiber. Our protocol relies on entanglement swapping to herald the presence of a photon after the lossy channel, enabling event-ready implementation of quantum steering. This result overcomes the key barrier in device-independent communication under realistic high-loss scenarios and in the realization of a quantum repeater.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(25): 259901, 2017 Jun 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28696760

RESUMEN

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.030502.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(3): 030502, 2017 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28157368

RESUMEN

In the task of discriminating between nonorthogonal quantum states from multiple copies, the key parameters are the error probability and the resources (number of copies) used. Previous studies have considered the task of minimizing the average error probability for fixed resources. Here we introduce a new state discrimination task: minimizing the average resources for a fixed admissible error probability. We show that this new task is not performed optimally by previously known strategies, and derive and experimentally test a detection scheme that performs better.

6.
Opt Express ; 24(10): 10869-79, 2016 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27409907

RESUMEN

We present a source of polarization entangled photon pairs based on spontaneous parametric downconversion engineered for frequency uncorrelated telecom photon generation. Our source provides photon pairs that display, simultaneously, the key properties for high-performance quantum information and fundamental quantum science tasks. Specifically, the source provides for high heralding efficiency, high quantum state purity and high entangled state fidelity at the same time. Among different tests we apply to our source we observe almost perfect non-classical interference between photons from independent sources with a visibility of (100 ± 5)%.

7.
Sci Adv ; 1(2): e1500087, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26601157

RESUMEN

The "quantum walk" has emerged recently as a paradigmatic process for the dynamic simulation of complex quantum systems, entanglement production and quantum computation. Hitherto, photonic implementations of quantum walks have mainly been based on multipath interferometric schemes in real space. We report the experimental realization of a discrete quantum walk taking place in the orbital angular momentum space of light, both for a single photon and for two simultaneous photons. In contrast to previous implementations, the whole process develops in a single light beam, with no need of interferometers; it requires optical resources scaling linearly with the number of steps; and it allows flexible control of input and output superposition states. Exploiting the latter property, we explored the system band structure in momentum space and the associated spin-orbit topological features by simulating the quantum dynamics of Gaussian wavepackets. Our demonstration introduces a novel versatile photonic platform for quantum simulations.

8.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8606, 2015 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26477715

RESUMEN

The standard method for experimentally determining the probability distribution of an observable in quantum mechanics is the measurement of the observable spectrum. However, for infinite-dimensional degrees of freedom, this approach would require ideally infinite or, more realistically, a very large number of measurements. Here we consider an alternative method which can yield the mean and variance of an observable of an infinite-dimensional system by measuring only a two-dimensional pointer weakly coupled with the system. In our demonstrative implementation, we determine both the mean and the variance of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam without acquiring the entire spectrum, but measuring the Stokes parameters of the optical polarization (acting as pointer), after the beam has suffered a suitable spin-orbit weak interaction. This example can provide a paradigm for a new class of useful weak quantum measurements.

9.
Sci Rep ; 5: 8424, 2015 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25672667

RESUMEN

Recent schemes to encode quantum information into the total angular momentum of light, defining rotation-invariant hybrid qubits composed of the polarization and orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom, present interesting applications for quantum information technology. However, there remains the question as to how detrimental effects such as random spatial perturbations affect these encodings. Here, we demonstrate that alignment-free quantum communication through a turbulent channel based on hybrid qubits can be achieved with unit transmission fidelity. In our experiment, alignment-free qubits are produced with q-plates and sent through a homemade turbulence chamber. The decoding procedure, also realized with q-plates, relies on both degrees of freedom and renders an intrinsic error-filtering mechanism that maps errors into losses.

10.
Sci Rep ; 5: 7840, 2015 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25598018

RESUMEN

Vectorial vortex light beams, also referred to as spirally polarized beams, are of particular interest since they can be exploited in several applications ranging from quantum communication to spectroscopy and microscopy. In particular, symmetric pairs of vector beams define two-dimensional spaces which are described as "hybrid Poincaré spheres" (HPS). While generation of vortex beams has been demonstrated by various techniques, their manipulation, in particular in order to obtain transformations describing curves entirely contained on a given HPS, is quite challenging, as it requires a simultaneous action on both polarization and orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom. Here, we demonstrate experimentally this kind of manipulation by exploiting electrically-tuned q-plates: an arbitrary transformation on the HPS can be obtained, by controlling two parameters of the q-plate, namely the initial optic axis orientation α0 and the uniform birefringent phase retardation δ. Upon varying such parameters, one can determine both the rotation axis and the rotation angle on the HPS, obtaining the desired state manipulation with high fidelity.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(6): 060503, 2014 Aug 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25148310

RESUMEN

"Twisted photons" are photons carrying a well-defined nonzero value of orbital angular momentum (OAM). The associated optical wave exhibits a helical shape of the wavefront (hence the name) and an optical vortex at the beam axis. The OAM of light is attracting a growing interest for its potential in photonic applications ranging from particle manipulation, microscopy, and nanotechnologies to fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, classical data multiplexing, and quantum communication. Hitherto, however, all results obtained with optical OAM were limited to laboratory scale. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of a link for free-space quantum communication with OAM operating over a distance of 210 m. Our method exploits OAM in combination with optical polarization to encode the information in rotation-invariant photonic states, so as to guarantee full independence of the communication from the local reference frames of the transmitting and receiving units. In particular, we implement quantum key distribution, a protocol exploiting the features of quantum mechanics to guarantee unconditional security in cryptographic communication, demonstrating error-rate performances that are fully compatible with real-world application requirements. Our results extend previous achievements of OAM-based quantum communication by over 2 orders of magnitude in the link scale, providing an important step forward in achieving the vision of a worldwide quantum network.

12.
Opt Lett ; 38(23): 5083-6, 2013 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24281515

RESUMEN

Spatially coherent multicolored optical vector vortex beams were created using a tunable liquid crystal q-plate and a supercontinuum light source. The feasibility of the q-plate as a tunable spectral filter (switch) was demonstrated, and the polarization topology of the resulting vector vortex beam was mapped. Potential applications include multiplexing for broadband high-speed optical communication, ultradense data networking, and super-resolution microscopy.

13.
Nat Commun ; 4: 2432, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24045270

RESUMEN

Quantum metrology bears a great promise in enhancing measurement precision, but is unlikely to become practical in the near future. Its concepts can nevertheless inspire classical or hybrid methods of immediate value. Here we demonstrate NOON-like photonic states of m quanta of angular momentum up to m=100, in a setup that acts as a 'photonic gear', converting, for each photon, a mechanical rotation of an angle θ into an amplified rotation of the optical polarization by mθ, corresponding to a 'super-resolving' Malus' law. We show that this effect leads to single-photon angular measurements with the same precision of polarization-only quantum strategies with m photons, but robust to photon losses. Moreover, we combine the gear effect with the quantum enhancement due to entanglement, thus exploiting the advantages of both approaches. The high 'gear ratio' m boosts the current state of the art of optical non-contact angular measurements by almost two orders of magnitude.

14.
Opt Lett ; 38(6): 887-9, 2013 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23503249

RESUMEN

An approach based on the two-channel moiré deflectometry has been used to measure both wavefront and transverse component of the Poynting vector of an optical vortex beam. Generated vortex beam by the q-plate, an inhomogeneous liquid crystal cell, has been analyzed with such technique. The measured topological charge of generated beams are in an excellent agreement with theoretical prediction.

15.
Opt Lett ; 37(2): 172-4, 2012 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22854457

RESUMEN

In this work we experimentally implement a deterministic transfer of a generic qubit initially encoded in the orbital angular momentum of a single-photon to its polarization. Such a transfer of quantum information, which is completely reversible, has been implemented adopting an electrically tunable q-plate device and a Sagnac interferometer with a Dove prism. The adopted scheme exhibits high fidelity and low losses.

16.
Nat Commun ; 3: 961, 2012 Jul 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22805568

RESUMEN

Quantum communication employs the counter-intuitive features of quantum physics for tasks that are impossible in the classical world. It is crucial for testing the foundations of quantum theory and promises to revolutionize information and communication technologies. However, to execute even the simplest quantum transmission, one must establish, and maintain, a shared reference frame. This introduces a considerable overhead in resources, particularly if the parties are in motion or rotating relative to each other. Here we experimentally show how to circumvent this problem with the transmission of quantum information encoded in rotationally invariant states of single photons. By developing a complete toolbox for the efficient encoding and decoding of quantum information in such photonic qubits, we demonstrate the feasibility of alignment-free quantum key-distribution, and perform proof-of-principle demonstrations of alignment-free entanglement distribution and Bell-inequality violation. The scheme should find applications in fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and satellite-based quantum communication.

17.
Appl Opt ; 51(10): C1-6, 2012 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22505084

RESUMEN

We describe the polarization topology of the vector beams emerging from a patterned birefringent liquid crystal plate with a topological charge q at its center (q-plate). The polarization topological structures for different q-plates and different input polarization states have been studied experimentally by measuring the Stokes parameters point-by-point in the beam transverse plane. Furthermore, we used a tuned q=1/2-plate to generate cylindrical vector beams with radial or azimuthal polarizations, with the possibility of switching dynamically between these two cases by simply changing the linear polarization of the input beam.

18.
Opt Express ; 19(5): 4085-90, 2011 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21369237

RESUMEN

Using a photoalignment technique with a sulphonic azo-dye as the surfactant aligning material, we fabricated electrically tunable liquid crystal q-plates with topological charge 0.5, 1.5 and 3 for generating optical vortex beams with definite orbital angular momentum (OAM) 1,3 and 6 per photon (in units of ¯h), respectively. We carried out several tests on our q-plates, including OAM tomography, finding excellent performances. These devices can have useful applications in general and quantum optics.


Asunto(s)
Cristales Líquidos/química , Cristales Líquidos/efectos de la radiación , Refractometría/instrumentación , Campos Electromagnéticos , Diseño de Equipo , Análisis de Falla de Equipo , Luz , Ensayo de Materiales , Dispersión de Radiación
19.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis ; 28(1): 61-5, 2011 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21200412

RESUMEN

We present an optical scheme to encode and decode 2 bits of information into different orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of a paraxial optical beam. Our device generates the four light angular momentum states of order ±2 and ±4 by spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in a triangular optical loop arrangement. The switching among the four OAM states is obtained by changing the polarization state of the circulating beam by two quarter-wave plates, and the 2 bit information is transferred to the beam OAM exploiting a single q plate. The polarization of the exit beam is left free for an additional 1 bit of information. The switching among the different OAM states can be as fast as a few nanoseconds, if suitable electro-optical cells are used. This may be particularly useful in communication systems based on light OAM.

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