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1.
Clin Case Rep ; 12(3): e8631, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38455863

RESUMEN

Key Clinical Message: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the female genital tract often involves the vagina and cervix. It usually occurs in infants and children. Such tumors are uncommon in the uterus, especially in adults. Treatment options are based on studies of younger individuals. Abstract: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm with a tendency to differentiate into skeletal muscle cells. RMS is an aggressive tumor that tends to develop in children and younger patients. A vast majority of genital tract RMSs occur in the vagina and cervix. Such tumors rarely occur in adults. Usually, these tumors either occur as a component of a biphasic uterine tumor (carcinosarcoma or adenosarcoma) or can be a pure heterologous tumor. Pure uterine RMSs are extremely rare in adult patients and difficult to diagnose. Accurate diagnosis of these tumors depends on precise histopathological evaluation. The present report describes a rare case of embryonal RMS of the uterus in a postmenopausal female and explores the most recent literature. The aim is to strengthen the existing literature and aid clinicians in the management of similar cases. A 64-year-old postmenopausal female presented with a history of abdominal pain associated with abdominal distension, per vaginal bleeding, and foul-smelling discharge for 6 months. A transabdominal ultrasound revealed a bulky uterus with a well-circumscribed heterogeneous lesion. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of high-grade embryonal RMS within the corpus region of the uterus. A total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy to prevent relapse of the disease. Six months after oncological care has passed, the patient remains symptoms-free without evidence of recurrence or metastasis.

2.
Clin Case Rep ; 12(2): e8510, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328491

RESUMEN

Key Message: Although non-traumatic SDHs are uncommon during and immediately following pregnancy, management of these cases should be carried out by a multidisciplinary team, including obstetricians, pediatricians, neurosurgeons, and anesthesiologists. Abstract: Intracranial hemorrhage represents an uncommon but serious complication of pregnancy. Non-traumatic subdural hematomas (SDH) are uncommon during the prenatal period with limited literature about etiology and management. In this case report, the authors report on a patient with non-traumatic SDH in the third trimester of pregnancy. The patient is a 40-year-old G6P5L5 female at gestational age of 34 weeks and 5 days presenting with frontal headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurry vision. CT scan revealed an acute on chronic right subdural hematoma with midline shift and multiple herniations. An emergency cesarean section and right burr hole SDH evacuation were performed. Etiology of the SDH remains unknown. Although non-traumatic SDHs are uncommon during and immediately following pregnancy, health care providers should always consider this possibility if a patient presents with typical symptoms and signs. Management of these cases should be carried out by a multidisciplinary team, including obstetricians, pediatricians, neurosurgeons, and anesthesiologists to optimize maternal and fetal outcomes.

3.
Can J Urol ; 31(1): 11777-11783, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401257

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Grant funding to Urology has decreased over the last decade. Documented lack of gender and race diversity at the faculty level raises concerns for funding disparities. This study sought to characterize disparities based upon race and gender in National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding data to Urologic faculty. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data from 145 ACGME accredited Urology residency programs incorporating faculty gender and underrepresented in medicine (URiM) status was utilized. The NIH Research Portfolio Online Report Tool was queried between 1985 and 2023 for grants related to current Urology faculty. URiM status, gender, years of practice, academic rank, and Doximity residency program rank were factors in multivariable analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2,131 faculty were included. Three hundred one Urologists received 793 urologic grants for a total of $993,919,052 in funding. By race, grants were awarded to: White 72.9%, Asian 21.8%, Hispanic 3.0%, Black 2.1%. Men received 708 grants (89.3%) worth $917,083,475 total. Women received 85 grants (10.7%) worth $76,835,577 total. Likelihood of being awarded a grant was significantly associated with non-URiM status (p < 0.001) and men (p < 0.0001). On multivariable analysis, Doximity rank (p < 0.001) and academic rank (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of receiving a grant; male gender, URiM status, and years of practice were not. Academic rank was also a significant predictor of number of grants received (p = 0.04) and total funding (p = 0.04); years of practice, Doximity rank, URiM status, and gender were not. CONCLUSIONS: NIH grants were more likely awarded to higher ranked faculty from higher Doximity ranked institutions with no differences based on URiM status or gender.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Urología , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Urólogos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
4.
Urol Pract ; 11(2): 385-393, 2024 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215014

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Iatrogenic injury during urethral catheterization is a common reason for inpatient urologic consultation and is associated with increased morbidity and resource utilization. Literature defining the patient population, interventions, or outcomes associated with traumatic catheterization is scarce. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of consults for adult urethral catheterization at a single tertiary care center (July 2017-December 2019), with focus on patient characteristics and complications. Traumatic urethral catheterization was defined as catheterization by the primary team with at least 1 of these conditions: gross hematuria, meatal blood, or cystoscopic evidence of urethral trauma. Characteristics collected included urologic history, catheterization circumstances, procedural intervention, and subsequent visits. RESULTS: Three hundred urology consults for urethral catheterization were identified, including 98 (33%) traumatic events (5.3 incidents/1000 catheters placed). All traumatic catheterization consults were in men (median age 69 years). Most (71%) patients sustaining injury had significant urologic history (eg, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urethral stricture). Sixty-three (64%) consults were determined to be uncomplicated (not requiring any procedural intervention for catheter placement). Gross hematuria was the most common sequela (50% of patients). The 30-day catheter-associated urinary tract infection rate was 13%, and 2 patients developed sepsis. Complications required a total of 52 additional hospital admission days, 19 of which were intensive-care level, as well 113 outpatient urology visits. CONCLUSIONS: Traumatic urethral catheterization is associated with increased need for procedural intervention, risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and additional resource utilization. Further studies on traumatic catheterization are needed to guide systemic efforts for minimizing injury and cost.


Asunto(s)
Cateterismo Urinario , Infecciones Urinarias , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Anciano , Cateterismo Urinario/efectos adversos , Hematuria/epidemiología , Catéteres Urinarios/efectos adversos , Infecciones Urinarias/epidemiología , Enfermedad Iatrogénica/epidemiología
6.
Urology ; 183: 85-92, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37984488

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively analyze the cumulative costs associated with Foley consultations throughout their event lifespan. Urologic consultation for Foley catheter (Foley) management is common. Such consultations are heterogeneous, with some requiring only simple catheter placement. Others (eg, traumatic Foley) necessitate more complex procedural intervention and may also result in downstream care and/or intervention needs. METHODS: This study analyzed a retrospective database of consecutive urologic Foley consultations at a single academic institution (2017-2019), collecting comprehensive data on patient characteristics, related procedures/materials, and downstream care (eg, hospitalization, laboratory/radiology testing, evaluation and management services). A process map and related modeling were used to assess categorical and cumulative event costs. Allocated costs and charges were utilized for materials/institutional resources and for services rendered, respectively. Statistical analysis performed using SAS and statistical inferences were based on significance level of 10%. RESULTS: A total of 244 patient encounters were included in the analysis. The mean overall cost of all care related to Foley consultation was $2389.23 (±$4045.89). A total of 62 (25.4%) patients required only consultation/Foley without additional intervention, with a total cost of $738.90 (±$94.10). The remaining 182 (75.6%) patients required additional intervention and related cost (total cost $3413.27 (±$4850.41)). Traumatic catheterization was associated with higher cost compared with atraumatic cases ($3201.50 (±$6158.4) vs $1926.40 (±$1776.20), respectively, P = .05). Downstream care comprised a significant portion of overall cost. In 61 (25%) cases no nurse attempt was performed prior to consultation. CONCLUSION: Urologic Foley consultation is associated with significant health system cost. Quality initiatives to optimizing Foley placement and management are critical to improving quality of care and associated downstream costs.


Asunto(s)
Cateterismo Urinario , Catéteres Urinarios , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Derivación y Consulta , Costos de la Atención en Salud
7.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 30(10): 6152-6158, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37505352

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of using a patient decision aid (DA) for women with elevated breast cancer risk who are considering MRI screening. METHODS: This pilot study employed a mixed methods design to develop, modify, and test an interactive DA. The DA was administered among a consecutive patient sample with an estimated Tyrer-Cuzick v.8 lifetime breast cancer risk of 20% or greater and without a pathologic genetic mutation. The decisional conflict scale was used to measure decisional conflict. Post-intervention provider and patient feedback evaluated shared decision-making, feasibility, and acceptability. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients participated, with a median age of 44 years. Prior to DA use, sixteen patients (67%) were unsure whether to add MRI to their screening, six patients elected MRI (25%), and two patients declined MRI (8%). Following DA use, thirteen of sixteen of the initially undecided participants (81%) established a preference, with eleven electing to add MRI screening. Of participants with an initial preference, all maintained the same decision following use of the DA. Prior to the DA, the median decisional conflict score among participants was 25% (range 0-60%) compared with 0% (range 0-25%) after the DA. Healthcare providers reported that the DA was useful and easily incorporated into clinical workflow. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study shows that there may be a benefit to DA utilization in the high-risk breast cancer clinic to guide shared decision-making in establishing a screening preference. The findings warrant further research to test the use of the DA in a larger, multi-site trial.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Toma de Decisiones , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Proyectos Piloto , Persona de Mediana Edad
8.
Urology ; 178: 9-16, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37149061

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To characterize academic productivity for underrepresented minorities (URMs) vs non-URMs and by gender in Urology. METHODS: A database was created from 145 Urology residency programs. URM status was determined by origin of name, photo, biography, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Doximity. A PubMed query was performed for publication output. URM status, gender, post-graduate year/years of practice, and Doximity residency rank were factors in multivariable analysis. RESULTS: For residents, the median total publications was 2 [1,5] for URMs and 2 [1,5] for non-URMs (P=.54). The median first/last author publications was 1 [0,2] for URMs and 1 [0,2] for non-URMs (P=.79). The median total publications was 2 [0,4] for women and 2 [1,6] for men (P=.003). The median first/last author publications was 1 [0,2] for women and 1 [0,2] for men (P=.14). For faculty, the median total publications was 12 [3,32] for URMs and 19 [6,45] for non-URMs (P=.0002). The median first/last author publications was 4.5 [1,12] for URMs and 7 [2,20] for non-URM faculty (P=.0002). The median total publications was 11 [5,25] for women and 20 [6,49] for men (P<.0001). The median first/last author publications was 4 [1,11] for women and 8 [2,22] for men (P<.0001). On multivariable analysis, there was no difference in total publications and first/last author publications for URMs vs non-URMs. There remained a difference between genders for residents and faculty with total publications but not first/last author publications (P=.002/P=.10 residents, P=.004/P=.07 faculty). CONCLUSION: Academic productivity was not different in URMs and non-URMs for both residents and faculty. Men residents and faculty had more total publications compared to women.


Asunto(s)
Internado y Residencia , Urología , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estados Unidos , Urólogos , Grupos Minoritarios , Instituciones Académicas , Urología/educación , Docentes Médicos
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36285251

RESUMEN

Hypertension (HTN) is the leading modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor in low and middle-income countries, and accurate and accessible blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential for identifying persons at risk. Given the convenience and increased use of community BP screening programs in low-income settings, we compared community and clinic BP measurements for participants in the Haiti CVD Cohort Study to determine the concordance of these two measurements. Participants were recruited using multistage random sampling from March 2019 to August 2021. HTN was defined as systolic BP (SBP) ≥ 140mmHg, diastolic BP (DBP) ≥ 90mmHg or taking antihypertensives according to WHO guidelines. Factors associated with concordance versus discordance of community and clinic BP measurements were assessed with multivariable Poisson regressions. Among 2,123 participants, median age was 41 years and 62% were female. Pearson correlation coefficients for clinic versus community SBP and DBP were 0.78 and 0.77, respectively. Using community BP measurements, 36% of participants screened positive for HTN compared with 30% using clinic BPs. The majority of participants had concordant measurements of normotension (59%) or HTN (26%) across both settings, with 4% having isolated elevated clinic BP (≥140/90 in clinic with normal community BP) and 10% with isolated elevated community BP (≥140/90 in community with normal clinic BP). These results underscore community BP measurements as a feasible and accurate way to increase HTN screening and estimate HTN prevalence for vulnerable populations with barriers to clinic access.

10.
Hypertension ; 79(1): 283-290, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878898

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in lower-income countries including Haiti. Environmental lead exposure is associated with high blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality in high-income countries but has not been systematically measured and evaluated as a potential modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in lower-income countries where 6.5 billion people reside. We hypothesized lead exposure is high in urban Haiti and associated with higher blood pressure levels. Blood lead levels were measured in 2504 participants ≥18 years enrolled in a longitudinal population-based cohort study in Port-au-Prince. Lead screening was conducted using LeadCare II (detection limit ≥3.3 µg/dL). Levels below detection were imputed by dividing the level of detection by √2. Associations between lead (quartiles) and systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were assessed, adjusting for age, sex, obesity, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, income, and antihypertensive medication use. The median age of participants was 40 years and 60.1% were female. The geometric mean blood lead level was 4.73µg/dL, 71.1% had a detectable lead level and 42.3% had a blood lead level ≥5 µg/dL. After multivariable adjustment, lead levels in quartile four (≥6.5 µg/dL) compared with quartile 1 (<3.4 µg/dL) were associated with 2.42 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.36-4.49) higher systolic blood pressure and 1.96 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.56-3.37) higher diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, widespread environmental lead exposure is evident in urban Haiti, with higher lead levels associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Lead is a current and potentially modifiable pollutant in lower-income countries that warrants urgent public health remediation. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03892265.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Hipertensión/etiología , Plomo/sangre , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Haití , Humanos , Hipertensión/sangre , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza , Adulto Joven
11.
Epilepsy Behav ; 114(Pt B): 107294, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763023

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disorder in the world and imposes a large economic burden on global healthcare systems, especially in low-income settings and rural areas as is found in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Despite the high epilepsy prevalence, there are no systematic descriptions of healthcare provider (HCP) perceptions and needs in managing people with epilepsy (PWE) in Uganda. Identifying these perceptions and needs is crucial for understanding community priorities, thereby enhancing the development of culturally sensitive communications, interventions, and research approaches. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we used semistructured interview guides to conduct focus group discussions that explored the perspectives of 32 providers of epilepsy care from health facilities around Mbarara, Uganda. Our sample included nonspecialized general physicians (n = 3), medical residents (n = 8), medical clinical officers (n = 3), psychiatric clinical nurses (n = 6), medical nurses and nursing assistants (n = 9), and other providers (n = 3), who were loosely grouped into discussion groups based on level or type of training. Self-assessed proficiency ratings were also administered to gain a better understanding of participants' confidence in their training, preparedness, and capabilities regarding epilepsy care. Thematic analysis of the focus group transcripts was conducted to ascertain commonly occurring themes about perceptions and challenges in epilepsy care. RESULTS: Our analyses identified nine major themes that dominated the perspectives of the study participants: care management, medications, diagnostics, HCP training, human resources, location, patient education, social support, and community knowledge and beliefs. Proficiency ratings prioritized areas of confidence as knowledge related to referrals, psychosocial impacts, and seizure neurophysiology. Areas of need were revealed as knowledge of diagnostic tools and antiepileptic drug (AED) regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings delineate the perspectives of providers caring for PWE, with consistent recognition of challenges centering around resource augmentation, infrastructure strengthening, and education. Participants emphasized the urgent need to augment these resources to address limitations in medication types and access, trained human resources, and diagnostic tools. They overwhelmingly recognized the need for infrastructure strengthening to address human, diagnostic, medicinal, and capital resource limitations that place undue burden on patients with epilepsy and physicians. Providers indicated a clear desire to learn more about different diagnostic tools and medical management practices, potentially through continuing education, specialized training, or more intentional in-school diagnostic preparation. They also advocated for the powerful influence of patient and family education and clearly articulated the need for community sensitization and support. This article is part of the Special Issue "The Intersection of Culture, Resources, and Disease: Epilepsy Care in Uganda".


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , Personal de Salud , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/terapia , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Uganda/epidemiología
12.
Epilepsy Behav ; 114(Pt B): 107349, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962922

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy, a neurological disorder with effective biomedical treatment, remains largely untreated in Uganda. Potential reasons for this treatment gap (TG) include limited access to trained providers and clinics, social stigmata of seizures, cultural beliefs, or lack of public understanding of epilepsy as a treatable condition. The current study aimed to formally evaluate barriers faced by people with epilepsy (PWE) in Uganda when seeking biomedical care. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 435 participants drawn from a community prevalence study were enrolled. We included participants reporting a history of recurrent seizures suggestive of epilepsy, who completed a survey about barriers to obtaining care for their symptoms. Principal axis factor analysis (PFA) using a promax rotation was conducted for data reduction. Frequencies of barrier factors were compared across those who did not seek care for epilepsy (n = 228), those who sought care from biomedical facilities (n = 166), and those who sought care from a traditional or pastoral healer (n = 41). RESULTS: The PFA yielded a five-factor solution: 1) logistical and actual costs; 2) treatment effectiveness; 3) influence of the opinion of others; 4) doctors' care; and 5) contextual factors impacting decision-making. Variables related to logistical and actual costs were most endorsed. Comparison of groups by care sought did not reveal a difference in endorsement of factors, with the exception that those who sought biomedical care were more likely to endorse factors related to doctors' care compared with those that sought care from traditional or pastoral healers (P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: People with repetitive seizures in Uganda report several barriers to obtaining biomedical care in Uganda, with those related to practical and actual costs endorsed the most. It is imperative that interventions developed to reduce the TG in Uganda consider these practical issues to improve access to effective epilepsy care. This article is part of the Special Issue "The Intersection of Culture, Resources, and Disease: Epilepsy Care in Uganda.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , Estudios Transversales , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/terapia , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Uganda/epidemiología
13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 114(Pt B): 107334, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839144

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In Uganda, causal attributions for epilepsy reflect a variety of beliefs and impact care-seeking behavior, perpetuate stigma, and undermine the effectiveness of interventions to narrow the epilepsy treatment gap. The objective of this study was to characterize beliefs about seizure etiology to gain a better understanding of how epilepsy is conceptualized in the community in order to inform culturally appropriate educational policies and interventions. METHODS: In a community-based study, 15,383 participants were surveyed about beliefs related to 15 potential causes for epilepsy. Principal axis factor analysis (PFA) was performed to identify causative factors and then utilized to classify singular versus pluralistic belief systems related to epilepsy etiology. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney U-tests were conducted to examine the differences in background characteristics across the etiology belief groups. RESULTS: Three main causative factors emerged from the PFA: biological, sociospiritual, and biospiritual. Among those endorsing at least one factor (n = 13,036), the biological factor was endorsed most frequently as a potential cause for epilepsy (88.0%), followed by the sociospiritual (63.4%), then biospiritual (47.6%). Review of the patterns of endorsement found that only 22.2% endorsed the biological factor alone, 6.7% the sociospiritual factor alone, and 2.8% the biospiritual factor alone (total 31.7%). The remainder endorsed a combination of two or all three factors as being potentially causal, and most (65.7%) endorsed a pluralistic combination inclusive of a biological etiology. Group comparisons showed that endorsing only the biological factor was associated with the highest levels of education (p < 0.01), the pluralistic group had the highest ratio of people in the household who needed assistance to those that could provide aid (p < 0.01), and there were significant differences in income across specific groups (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Pluralistic attributions for epilepsy are common in Uganda, with the majority of community members drawing from biomedical and traditional concepts to construct complex explanations for seizures that transcend discrete belief categories traditionally depicted in the literature. These findings emphasize the need to understand cultural beliefs about epilepsy in order to design contextually specific interventions and education programs, which respect the fundamental beliefs and values of the community. This article is part of the Special Issue "The Intersection of Culture, Resources, and Disease: Epilepsy Care in Uganda".


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Causalidad , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/etiología , Humanos , Estigma Social , Uganda/epidemiología
14.
Epilepsy Behav ; 114(Pt B): 107304, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768344

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a global public health concern, with the majority of cases occurring in lower- and middle-income countries where the treatment gap remains formidable. In this study, we simultaneously explore how beliefs about epilepsy causation, perceived barriers to care, seizure disorder characteristics, and demographics influence the initial choice of healthcare for epilepsy and its impact on attaining biomedical care (BMC). METHODS: This study utilized the baseline sample (n = 626) from a prospective cohort study of people with epilepsy (PWE) attending three public hospitals in Uganda (Mulago National Referral Hospital, Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital, and Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital) for epilepsy care. Patient and household demographics, clinical seizure disorder characteristics, and sociocultural questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression and principal component analyses (PCA) were conducted to examine associations with the choice of primary seizure treatment. RESULTS: The sample was 49% female, and 24% lived in rural settings. A biomedical health facility was the first point of care for 355 (56.7%) participants, while 229 (36.6%) first sought care from a traditional healer and 42 (6.7%) from a pastoral healer. Preliminary inspection of candidate predictors using relaxed criteria for significance (p < 0.20) identified several factors potentially associated with a greater odds of seeking BMC first. Demographic predictors included older caredriver (decision-maker for the participant) age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.99, 1.02], p-value: 0.09), greater caredriver education level (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: [1.07, 1.37], p-value = 0.003), and lower ratio of sick to healthy family members (OR = 0.77 [0.56, 1.05], P = 0.097). For clinical predictors, none of the proposed predictors associated significantly with seeking BMC first. Self-report causation predictors associated with a greater odds of seeking BMC first included higher belief in biological causes of epilepsy (OR = 1.31 [0.92, 1.88], P = 0.133) and lower belief in socio-spiritual causes of epilepsy (OR = 0.68 [0.56, 0.84], P < 0.001). In the multivariate model, only higher caredriver education (OR = 1.19 [1.04, 1.36], P = 0.009) and lower belief in socio-spiritual causes of epilepsy (OR = 0.69 [0.56, 0.86], P < 0.01) remained as predictors of seeking BMC first. Additionally, PCA revealed a pattern which included high income with low beliefs in nonbiological causes of epilepsy as being associated with seeking BMC first (OR = 1.32 [1.12, 1.55], p = 0.001). Despite reaching some form of care faster, individuals seeking care from traditional or pastoral healers experienced a significant delay to eventual BMC (P < 0.001), with an average delay of more than two years (traditional healer: 2.53 years [1.98, 3.24]; pastoral care: 2.18 [1.21, 3.91]). CONCLUSIONS: Coupled with low economic and educational status, belief in spiritual causation of epilepsy is a dominant determinant of opting for traditional or pastoral healing over BMC, regardless of concurrent belief in biological etiologies. There is a prolonged delay to eventual BMC for PWE who begin their treatment seeking with nonallopathic providers, and although nonallopathic healers provide PWE with benefits not provided by BMC, this notable delay likely prevents earlier administration of evidence-based care with known efficacy. Based on these findings, initiatives to increase public awareness of neurobiological causes of epilepsy and effectiveness of biomedical drug treatments may be effective in preventing delays to care, as would programs designed to facilitate cooperation and referral among traditional, faith-based, and biomedical providers. This article is part of the Special Issue "The Intersection of Culture, Resources, and Disease: Epilepsy Care in Uganda".


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Atención a la Salud , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Uganda/epidemiología
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1633, 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131500

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality among Haitians, having surpassed HIV in the last decade. Understanding the natural history of CVD in Haitians, including the age of onset, prevalence, incidence, and role of major risk factors and social determinants, is urgently needed to develop prevention and treatment interventions. Aim 1: Establish a population-based cohort of 3000 adults from Port-au-Prince and assess the prevalence of CVD risk factors and diseases and their association with social and environmental determinants. Aim 2: Determine the incidence of CVD risk factors and CVD during 2-3.5 years of follow-up and their association with social and environmental determinants. METHODS: The Haiti CVD Cohort is a longitudinal observational study of 3000 adults > 18 years in Port-au-Prince (PAP), Haiti. The study population is recruited using multistage random sampling from census blocks. Adults receive blood pressure (BP) measurements in the community and those with elevated BP are referred to the Groupe Haitien d'Etude Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes Clinic for care. After informed consent, participants undergo a clinical exam with medical history. BP, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, a study questionnaire on health behaviors, and laboratory specimens. Every 6 months, BP is remeasured. At 12 and 24 months, clinical exams and questionnaires are repeated. Labs are repeated at 24 months. Adjudicated study outcomes include the prevalence and incidence of CVD risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, kidney disease, inflammation, poor diet, smoking, and physical inactivity) and events (myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and CVD mortality). We also measure social determinants including poverty. Depression, stress, social isolation, food insecurity, and lead exposure. Blood, urine, and stool samples are biobanked at study enrollment. DISCUSSION: The Haiti CVD Cohort is the largest population-based cohort study evaluating CVD risk factors and CVD among adults in urban Haiti with the goal of understanding the drivers of the CVD epidemic in Haiti. Study outcomes are comparable with existing international cohorts, and the biobank will provide important data for future research. Our goal is to translate findings from this study into pragmatic prevention and treatment interventions to fight the CVD epidemic in Haiti.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Haití/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo
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