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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 38(9): 1596, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479378
2.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400333

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epiaortic ultrasound detects and localizes ascending aortic atherosclerosis. In this analysis we investigated the association between epiaortic ultrasound-based atheroma grade during surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and perioperative adverse outcomes. METHODS: SAVR patients in a randomized trial of two embolic protection devices underwent a protocol-defined 5-view epiaortic ultrasound read at a core-laboratory. Aortic atherosclerosis was quantified with Katz atheroma grade and patients were categorized into mild (grade I-II) versus moderate/severe (grade III-V). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate associations between atheroma grade and adverse outcomes including death, clinically apparent stroke, cerebral infarction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI), delirium, and acute kidney injury (AKI) by 7 and 30 days. RESULTS: Of the 383 randomized patients, 326 (85.1%) had pre-cannulation epiaortic ultrasound data available. Of these, 106 (32.5%) had moderate/severe Katz atheroma grade at any segment of the ascending aorta. While there were no significant differences in the composite of death, stroke or cerebral infarction on DW-MRI by 7 days, moderate/severe atheroma grade was associated with a greater risk of AKI by 7 days (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-5.58; p=0.01). At 30 days, patients with moderate/severe atheroma grade had a greater risk of death, stroke or AKI (adjusted OR: 1.97; 95%CI: 1.04-3.71; p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate/severe aortic atherosclerosis was associated with an increased risk of adverse events following SAVR. Epiaortic ultrasound may serve as a useful adjunct for identifying patients who may benefit from strategies to reduce atheroembolic complications during SAVR.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375378

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network reported that left ventricular reverse remodeling at 2 years did not differ between patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation randomized to coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair (n = 150) or coronary artery bypass grafting alone (n = 151). To address health resource use implications, we compared costs and quality-adjusted survival. METHODS: We used individual patient data from the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network trial on survival, hospitalizations, quality of life, and US hospitalization costs to estimate cumulative costs and quality-adjusted life years. A microsimulation model was developed to extrapolate to 10 years. Bootstrap and deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed to address uncertainty. RESULTS: In-hospital costs were $59,745 for coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair versus $51,326 for coronary artery bypass grafting alone (difference $8419; 95% uncertainty interval, 2259-18,757). Two-year costs were $81,263 versus $67,341 (difference 13,922 [2370 to 28,888]), and quality-adjusted life years were 1.35 versus 1.30 (difference 0.05; -0.04 to 0.14), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $308,343/quality-adjusted life year for coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair. At 10 years, its costs remained higher ($107,733 vs $88,583, difference 19,150 [-3866 to 56,826]) and quality-adjusted life years showed no difference (-0.92 to 0.87), with 5.08 versus 5.08. The likelihood that coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair would be considered cost-effective at 10 years based on a cost-effectiveness threshold of $100K/quality-adjusted life year did not exceed 37%. Only when this procedure reduces the death rate by a relative 5% will the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio fall below $100K/quality-adjusted life year. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of mitral valve repair to coronary artery bypass grafting for patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation is unlikely to be cost-effective. Only if late mortality benefits can be demonstrated will it meet commonly used cost-effectiveness criteria.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(6): 912-919, 2019 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375245

RESUMEN

Fragmented care following elective surgery has been associated with poor outcomes. The association between fragmented care and outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. We examined patients who underwent TAVI from 2011 to 2015 at 374 sites in the STS/ACC TVT Registry, linked to Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services claims data. Fragmented care was defined as at least one readmission to a site other than the implanting TAVI center within 90 days after discharge, whereas continuous care was defined as readmission to the same implanting center. We compared adjusted 1-year outcomes, including stroke, bleeding, heart failure, mortality, and all-cause readmission in patients who received fragmented versus continuous care. Among 8,927 patients who received a TAVI between 2011 and 2015, 27.4% were readmitted within 90 days of discharge. Most patients received fragmented care (57.0%). Compared with the continuous care group, the fragmented care group was more likely to have severe chronic lung disease, cerebrovascular disease, and heart failure. States that had lower TAVI volume per Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services population had greater fragmentation. Patients living > 30 minutes from their TAVI center had an increased risk of fragmented care 1.07 (confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.09, p < 0.001). After adjustment for comorbidities and procedural complications, fragmented care was associated with increased 1-year mortality (hazards ratio 1.18, CI 1.04 to 1.35, p = 0.010) and all-cause readmission (hazards ratio 1.08, CI 1.00 to 1.16, p = 0.051. In conclusion, fragmented readmission following TAVI is common, and is associated with increased 1-year mortality and readmission. Efforts to improve coordination of care may improve these outcomes and optimize long-term benefits yielded from TAVI.

5.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(6): 481-490, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146872

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated sex-based differences in outcomes after mitral valve (MV) surgery for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation (SIMR). BACKGROUND: Whether differences in outcomes exist between men and women after surgery for SIMR remains unknown. METHODS: Patients enrolled in a randomized trial comparing MV replacement versus MV repair for SIMR were included and followed for 2 years. Endpoints for this analysis included all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) (defined as the composite of death, stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, worsening New York Heart Association functional class or MV re-operation), quality of life (QOL), functional status, and percentage of change in left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) from baseline through 2 years. RESULTS: Of 251 patients enrolled in the trial, 96 (38.2%) were women. Compared with men, women had smaller LV volumes and effective regurgitant orifice areas (EROA) but greater EROA/left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume ratios. At 2 years, women had higher rates of all-cause mortality (27.1% vs. 17.4%, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR]: 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 3.26; p = 0.03) and of MACCE (49.0% vs. 38.1%, respectively; adjHR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.37; p = 0.02). Women also reported worse QOL and functional status at 2 years. There were no significant differences in the percentage of change over 2 years in LVESVI between women and men (adjß: -10.4; 95% CI: -23.4 to 2.6; p = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Women with SIMR displayed different echocardiographic features and experienced higher mortality and worse QOL after MV surgery than men. There were no significant differences in the degree of reverse LV remodeling between sexes. (Comparing the Effectiveness of Repairing Versus Replacing the Heart's Mitral Valve in People With Severe Chronic Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation [Severe Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation]; NCT00807040).

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121808

RESUMEN

Over recent decades, bullying, and the more recent version of cyberbullying, have come to be recognized as important social and public health issues, generating an increasing volume of publications [...].


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar/prevención & control , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos
7.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2019 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103387

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study describes the impact of organism and valve type on surgically managed infective endocarditis (IE) from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database. We developed a risk model for surgically managed endocarditis that includes the microbiological organism. METHODS: The STS database was queried for adult patients with surgically managed endocarditis from July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2016. Outcomes were compared based on (1) causative microbiological organism, (2) valve type (native vs prosthetic), and (3) endocarditis on the right (tricuspid) vs left (mitral, aortic) sides. Univariate and risk adjusted models were developed with odds ratios for mortality for each organism type referenced against Streptococcus. RESULTS: The study population included 21,388 operations (93%) for left-sided IE and 1698 (7%) for right-sided IE. Streptococcus (28%) and Staphylococcus (27%) were the most common infecting organisms, followed by Enterococcus (11%). After multivariate adjustment, microbiological organism type was significantly associated with operative mortality for patients with left-sided endocarditis, with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.9 for fungal, 1.4 for Staphylococcus, and 1.3 for culture-negative vs Streptococcus. For right-sided endocarditis, there were no differences in outcomes by organism type. Left-sided prosthetic valve endocarditis had a higher operative mortality than left-sided native valve endocarditis (12% vs 8%, P < .001). In contrast, surgery for right-sided endocarditis carried lower operative mortality, with no mortality difference between prosthetic valve endocarditis and native valve endocarditis (5% vs 4%, P = .6). CONCLUSIONS: Organism type influences the operative mortality for left-sided endocarditis. Surgery for left-sided and prosthetic valve endocarditis is associated with higher operative mortality. Risk adjustment for operative outcomes in endocarditis may need to account for microbiological organism type.

8.
Scand J Psychol ; 2019 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006893

RESUMEN

Empirical articles on school bullying need to give contextual details of the study, including on participants (number, age, gender), the country in which data was gathered, and the year in which it was gathered. We argue that these are important aspects of information, and that country and year of data collection cannot be inferred unambiguously unless they are explicitly stated. We report an analysis of contextual information on a sample of 201 articles, from 1976 to 2015, on school bullying. The great majority of studies gave information on number and age of participants, and most on gender balance. Most also gave explicit information on the country in which data was gathered. However only about one quarter of articles gave information on the date (year) in which data was gathered. For those that did, the average gap from data gathering to publication was 4 years, with a range of 1 to 11 years. We argue that the date of data collection is an important historical aspect, as many societal changes, even over a period of a few years, can impact on prevalence and nature of bullying. We recommend that besides participant and country information, year of data collection is routinely given in empirical articles on school bullying.

9.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 157(5): 1881-1888, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665758

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Our enhanced recovery after cardiac surgery (ERAS Cardiac) program is an evidence-based interdisciplinary process, which has not previously been systematically applied to cardiac surgery in the United States. METHODS: The Knowledge-to-Action Framework synthesized evidence-based enhanced recovery interventions and implementation of a designated ERAS Cardiac program. Standardized processes included (1) preoperative patient education, (2) carbohydrate loading 2 hours before general anesthesia, (3) multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia, (4) goal-directed perioperative insulin infusion, and (5) a rigorous bowel regimen. All cardiac anesthesiologists and surgeons agreed to follow the standardized pathway for adult cardiac surgery cases. The 1-year outcomes were compared between the 9 months pre- and post-ERAS Cardiac implementation using prospectively collected, retrospectively reviewed data. RESULTS: Comparing the pre- (N = 489) with the post- (N = 443) ERAS Cardiac groups, median postoperative length of stay was decreased from 7 to 6 days (P < .01). Total intensive care unit hours were decreased from a mean of 43 to 28 hours (P < .01). The incidence of gastrointestinal complications was 6.8% pre-ERAS versus 3.6% post-ERAS implementation (P < .05). Opioid use was reduced by a mean of 8 mg of morphine equivalents per patient in the first 24 hours postoperatively (P < .01). Reintubation rate and intensive care unit readmission rate were reduced by 1.2% and 1.5%, respectively (P = not significant). The incidence of hyperglycemic episodes was no different after ERAS Cardiac initiation. Patient satisfaction was 86.3% pre-ERAS versus 91.8% post-ERAS Cardiac implementation and work culture domain scores revealed increases in satisfaction across all measured indices, including patient focus, culture, and engagement. CONCLUSIONS: Initial clinical and survey data after the first year of a system-wide ERAS Cardiac program were associated with significantly improved perioperative outcomes. We believe this value-based approach to cardiac surgery can consistently result in earlier recovery, cost reductions, and increased patient/staff satisfaction.

10.
Nutrition ; 57: 268-274, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223233

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Guidance and evidence supporting routine use of partially hydrolyzed formula (pHF) versus intact cows' milk protein (CMP) formula are limited in non-exclusively breastfed infants. The aim of this review was to better clarify issues of routine use of pHF in non-exclusively breastfed infants who are not at risk for allergic disease by using a systematic review and Delphi Panel consensus. METHODS: A systematic review and Delphi consensus panel (consisting of eight8 international pediatric allergists and gastroenterologists) was conducted to evaluate evidence supporting growth, tolerability, and effectiveness of pHF in non-exclusively breastfed infants. RESULTS: None of the studies reviewed identified potential harm of pHF use compared with CMP in non-exclusively breastfed infants. There was an expert consensus that pHF use is likely as safe as intact CMP formula, given studies suggesting these have comparable nutritional parameters. No high-quality studies were identified evaluating the use of pHF to prevent allergic disease in non-exclusively breastfed infants who are not at risk for allergic disease (e.g., lacking a parental history of allergy). Limited data suggest that pHF use in non-exclusively breastfed infants may be associated with improved gastric emptying, decreased colic incidence, and other common functional gastrointestinal symptoms compared with CMP. However, because the data are of insufficient quality, the findings from these studies have to be taken with caution. No studies were identified that directly compared the different types of pHF, but there was an expert consensus that growth, allergenicity, tolerability, effectiveness, and clinical role among such pHF products may differ. CONCLUSIONS: Limited data exist evaluating routine use of pHFs in non-exclusively breastfed infants, with no contraindications identified in the systematic review. An expert consensus considers pHFs for which data were available to be as safe as CMP formula as growth is normal. The preventive effect on allergy of pHF in infants who are not at risk for allergic disease has been poorly studied. Cost of pHF versus starter formula with intact protein differs from country to country. However, further studies in larger populations are needed to clinically confirm the benefits of routine use of pHF in non-exclusively breastfed infants. These studies should also address potential consumer preference bias.

11.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 157(1): 234-243.e9, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557941

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To use novel statistical methods for analyzing the effect of lesion set on (long-standing) persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network trial of surgical ablation during mitral valve surgery (MVS). METHODS: Two hundred sixty such patients were randomized to MVS + surgical ablation or MVS alone. Ablation was randomized between pulmonary vein isolation and biatrial maze. During 12 months postsurgery, 228 patients (88%) submitted 7949 transtelephonic monitoring (TTM) recordings, analyzed for AF, atrial flutter (AFL), or atrial tachycardia (AT). As previously reported, more ablation than MVS-alone patients were free of AF or AF/AFL at 6 and 12 months (63% vs 29%; P < .001) by 72-hour Holter monitoring, without evident difference between lesion sets (for which the trial was underpowered). RESULTS: Estimated freedom from AF/AFL/AT on any transmission trended higher after biatrial maze than pulmonary vein isolation (odds ratio, 2.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-5.65; P = .07) 3 to 12 months postsurgery; estimated AF/AFL/AT load (ie, proportion of TTM strips recording AF/AFL/AT) was similar (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.43; P = .6). Within 12 months, estimated prevalence of AF/AFL/AT by TTM was 58% after MVS alone, and 36% versus 23% after pulmonary vein isolation versus biatrial maze (P < .02). CONCLUSIONS: Statistical modeling using TTM recordings after MVS in patients with (long-standing) persistent AF suggests that a biatrial maze is associated with lower AF/AFL/AT prevalence, but not a lower load, compared with pulmonary vein isolation. The discrepancy between AF/AFL/AT prevalence assessed at 2 time points by Holter monitoring versus weekly TTM suggests the need for a confirmatory trial, reassessment of definitions for failure after ablation, and validation of statistical methods for assessing atrial rhythms longitudinally.


Asunto(s)
Fibrilación Atrial/cirugía , Ablación por Catéter/métodos , Válvula Mitral/cirugía , Venas Pulmonares/cirugía , Anciano , Fibrilación Atrial/epidemiología , Fibrilación Atrial/etiología , Fibrilación Atrial/fisiopatología , Aleteo Atrial/etiología , Electrocardiografía Ambulatoria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Telemetría , Resultado del Tratamiento
12.
Circ Heart Fail ; 11(11): e005531, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571194

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The STICH trial (Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure) demonstrated a survival benefit of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular dysfunction. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) risk score and the EuroSCORE-2 (ES2) are used for risk assessment in cardiac surgery, with little information available about their accuracy in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. We assessed the ability of the STS score and ES2 to evaluate 30-day postoperative mortality risk in STICH and a contemporary cohort (CC) of patients with a left ventricle ejection fraction ≤35% undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting outside of a trial setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: The STS and ES2 scores were calculated for 814 STICH patients and 1246 consecutive patients in a CC. There were marked variations in 30-day postoperative mortality risk from 1 patient to another. The STS scores consistently calculated lower risk scores than ES2 (1.5 versus 2.9 for the CC and 0.9 versus 2.4 for the STICH cohort), and underestimated postoperative mortality risk. The STS and ES2 scores had moderately good C statistics: CC (0.727, 95% CI: 0.650-0.803 for STS, and 0.707, 95% CI: 0.620-0.795 for ES2); STICH (0.744, 95% CI: 0.677-0.812, for STS and 0.736, 95% CI: 0.665-0.808 for ES2). Despite the CC patients having higher STS and ES2 scores than STICH patients, mortality (3.5%) was lower than that of STICH (4.8%), suggesting a possible decrease in postoperative mortality over the past decade. CONCLUSIONS: The 30-day postoperative mortality risk of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with left ventricular dysfunction varies markedly. Both the STS and ES2 score are effective in evaluating risk, although the STS score tend to underestimate risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00023595.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca/mortalidad , Periodo Posoperatorio , Cirujanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Disfunción Ventricular Izquierda/mortalidad , Anciano , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Cardíacos/efectos adversos , Puente de Arteria Coronaria/mortalidad , Femenino , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/fisiopatología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidad , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatología , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Función Ventricular Izquierda/fisiología
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(23): e010139, 2018 12 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571598

RESUMEN

Background In older adults undergoing cardiac surgery, prediction of downstream risk is critical. Our objective was to determine the association of 5-m gait speed with 1-year mortality and repeat hospitalization following cardiac surgery. Methods and Results In this prospective cohort of patients undergoing cardiac surgery at centers participating in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database with gait speed recorded, we examined all-cause mortality using a landmark analysis at 0 to 30, 30 to 365, and >365 days, as well as repeat hospitalization. The cohort consisted of 8287 patients (median age, 74 years; 32% females). At 1 year, survival was 90% in the slow (<0.83 m/s), 95% in the middle (0.83-1.00 m/s), and 97% in the fast (>1.00 m/s) gait speed tertiles, and risk of hospitalization was 45%, 33%, and 27%, respectively (both P<0.0001). After adjustment, gait speed remained predictive of mortality (hazard ratio, 2.16 per 0.1-m/s decrease in gait speed; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.93) and rehospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.71 per 0.1-m/s decrease in gait speed; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-2.0). In a landmark analysis, the effect of slow gait speed on mortality was most marked from 30 to 365 days after surgery, where each decline in 0.1 m/s of gait speed conferred a 2-fold increased risk of mortality. Conclusions Gait speed is a simple tool to screen for frailty and identify older adults at risk for adverse events in the early and midterm postoperative periods.

14.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 106(5): 1388-1393, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966592

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: National outcomes of robotic mitral valve repair (rMVr) compared with sternotomy (sMVr) in older patients are currently unknown. METHODS: From 2011 to 2014, all patients aged 65 years and older undergoing MVr in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database linked to Medicare claims data were identified. Patients who underwent rMVr were propensity matched to patients who underwent sMVr. Standard differences and falsification outcome of baseline characteristics were tested to ensure a balanced match. Cox models were used to calculate 3-year mortality, heart failure readmission, and mitral valve reintervention, adjusting for competing risks where appropriate. RESULTS: After matching, 503 rMVr patients from 65 centers and 503 sMVr from 251 centers were included. There were no significant differences in comorbidities or falsification outcome. Cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times were longer with rMVr versus sMVr at 125 versus 102 minutes (p < 0.0001) and 85 versus 75 minutes (p < 0.0001), respectively. The rMVr patients had shorter intensive care unit (27 vs 47 hours, p < 0.0001) and hospital stay (5 vs 6 days, p < 0.0001), less frequent transfusion (21% vs 35%, p < 0.0001), and less atrial fibrillation (28% vs 40%, p < 0.0001). Three-year mortality (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.68 to 2.16; p = 0.52), heart failure readmission (hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.80 to 2.52, p = 0.10), and mitral valve reintervention (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 1.18; p = 0.22) did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The rMVr procedure was associated with less atrial fibrillation, less frequent transfusion requirement, and shorter intensive care unit and hospital stay, without a significant difference in 3-year mortality, heart failure readmission, or mitral valve reintervention. In older patients, rMVr confers short-term advantages without a detriment to midterm outcomes.

15.
J Altern Complement Med ; 24(8): 833-840, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29782182

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Probiotics are purported to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis. This study sought to determine the proportion of participants with an improvement in the mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (mRQLQ) in response to a multispecies probiotic supplement with a Simon Two-Stage design. METHODS: This study was based on a Simon Two-Stage Design for p1-p0 = 0.18 to account for seasonal variation in symptoms. Under this design, ≥10 patients are required to exhibit an improvement in quality-of-life scores to determine that there was sufficient activity for the supplement to be considered effective. Participants consumed a probiotic supplement (Ecologic® AllergyCare; probiotik®pur) twice daily for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure was based on a change in mRQLQ scores following supplementation. Secondary outcomes include assessment of change in symptoms and medication usage with a twice-weekly symptom and medication diary, nasal congestion by rhinomanometry, and total serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE for Bermuda grass. RESULTS: A total of 40 participants completed the study. A total of 25 participants (63%, 49-76%, p < 0.001; mean, 95% confidence interval, p-value) out of 40 participants had a clinically meaningful response to treatment based on assessment of mRQLQ. On average, mRQLQ scores changed from 2.83 ± 1.51 at baseline to 1.66 ± 1.36 at week 4 and 1. 38 ± 1.13 at week 8 (p < 0.01) (mean ± SD, p-value). Sum of individual symptom scores and overall symptom scores over the course of treatment was significantly reduced (p = 0.036 and p = 0.039, respectively). A moderate reduction in frequency of allergy-related medication use in the final 4 weeks of supplementation period was observed (52.5% weeks 0-4 to 41.4% weeks 4-8; average proportion of total diary responses, p = 0.085). The supplement was largely well tolerated by participants at the dose provided. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of participants exhibiting improvement in quality-of-life metrics warrants continued investigation in the form of a phase III placebo-controlled trial.


Asunto(s)
Probióticos/uso terapéutico , Rinitis Alérgica Estacional/dietoterapia , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Probióticos/administración & dosificación , Calidad de Vida , Rinitis Alérgica Estacional/fisiopatología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 25(6): 2191-2192, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748874

RESUMEN

To more clearly reflect the relationship between iFR (instantaneous wave-free ratio) and FFR (fractional flow reserve), this Correction document highlights the following changes to the original document published in the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology; the version available at JACC [1] has been updated to reflect the changes, with JACC's Correction document available at [2].

17.
Am Heart J ; 199: 150-155, 2018 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754654

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has been associated with adverse outcome. Whether perioperative MI should be treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is unknown. We compared the effect of DAPT versus aspirin alone on short-term outcomes among patients with perioperative MI following CABG. METHODS: We used data from 3 clinical trials that enrolled patients undergoing isolated CABG: PREVENT IV (2002-2003), MEND-CABG II (2004-2005), and RED-CABG (2009-2010) (n = 9117). Perioperative MI was defined as CK-MB >5 times the upper limit of normal within 24 h of surgery (n = 2052). DAPT was defined as DAPT given after surgery and prior to discharge. A Cox regression model was used to assess the association between DAPT and 30-day nonfatal MI, stroke, or mortality after adjustment for baseline covariates. RESULTS: DAPT (n = 527) and aspirin alone (n = 1525) cohorts were similar in baseline comorbidities. Off pump bypass was used in 5.2% (n = 106) of patients. There was no difference in the 30-day composite of death, MI or stroke between patients receiving DAPT versus aspirin alone, nor in any of the individual components. There were fewer all-cause re-hospitalizations at 30 days following surgery among patients in the DAPT group (adjusted HR 0.71, CI 0.52-0.97, P = .033). CONCLUSION: One-quarter of CABG patients who had perioperative MI were treated with DAPT. DAPT was not associated with a difference in MI, stroke, or mortality at 30 days, but was associated with fewer re-hospitalizations. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal antiplatelet regimen following perioperative MI. What is already known about this subject? Perioperative myocardial infarction portends poor outcome but optimal management is currently unclear. While dual antiplatelet therapy is standard of care for acute coronary syndrome, its role in perioperative myocardial infarction is unknown. What does this study add? Dual antiplatelet therapy use during perioperative myocardial infarction was not associated with a difference in myocardial infarction, stroke or mortality at 30 days. It was, however, associated with fewer re-hospitalizations at 30 days. How might this impact on clinical practice? Dual antiplatelet therapy may be a potential treatment option for perioperative myocardial infarction after CABG surgery. Further studies are needed to better understand treatment for this disease process.

18.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 59(4): 422-423, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574738

RESUMEN

Arseneault's review is a timely reminder of the strong evidence for the negative impact of school bullying, especially although not only on the victims of it. It is particularly important in dealing with the evidence for causal links, mechanisms and possible moderating factors. In this Commentary, I raise some issues about the definition of bullying; the importance of separating out the bully/victim category; differing impacts of types of victimisation, and notably cyber victimization, perhaps interacting with gender; and evidence on school antibullying policies and impact of interventions.

19.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 155(4): 1555-1562.e1, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29221750

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze patient risk factors and processes of care associated with secondary surgical-site infection (SSI) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: Data were collected prospectively between February and October 2010 for consenting adult patients undergoing CABG with saphenous vein graft (SVG) conduits. Patients who developed a deep or superficial SSI of the leg or groin within 65 days of CABG were compared with those who did not develop a secondary SSI. RESULTS: Among 2174 patients identified, 65 (3.0%) developed a secondary SSI. Median time to diagnosis was 16 days (interquartile range 11-29) with the majority (86%) diagnosed after discharge. Gram-positive bacteria were most common. Readmission was more common in patients with a secondary SSI (34% vs 17%, P < .01). After adjustment, an open SVG harvest approach was associated with an increased risk of secondary SSI (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.48). Increased body mass index (adjusted HR, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.04-1.12) and packed red blood cell transfusions (adjusted HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.22) were associated with a greater risk of secondary SSI. Antibiotic type, antibiotic duration, and postoperative hyperglycemia were not associated with risk of secondary SSI. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary SSI after CABG continues to be an important source of morbidity. This serious complication often occurs after discharge and is associated with open SVG harvesting, larger body mass, and blood transfusions. Patients with a secondary SSI have longer lengths of stay and are readmitted more frequently.

20.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 11(11): e004466, 2018 11 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785252

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The CTSN (Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network) recently reported no difference in left ventricular end-systolic volume index or in survival at 2 years between patients with severe ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) randomized to mitral valve repair or replacement. However, replacement provided more durable correction of MR and fewer cardiovascular readmissions. Yet, costeffectiveness outcomes have not been addressed. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of the surgical treatment of ischemic MR based on the CTSN trial (n=126 for repair; n=125 for replacement). Patient-level data on readmissions, survival, qualityof- life, and US hospital costs were used to estimate costs and quality-adjusted life years per patient over the trial duration and a 10-year time horizon. We performed microsimulation for extrapolation of outcomes beyond the 2 years of trial data. Bootstrap and deterministic sensitivity analyses were done to address parameter uncertainty. In-hospital cost estimates were $78 216 for replacement versus $72 761 for repair (difference: $5455; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: −7784­21 193) while 2-year costs were $97 427 versus $96 261 (difference: $1166; 95% UI: −16 253­17 172), respectively. Quality-adjusted life years at 2 years were 1.18 for replacement versus 1.23 for repair (difference: −0.05; 95% UI: −0.17 to 0.07). Over 5 and 10 years, the benefits of reduction in cardiovascular readmission rates with replacement increased, and survival minimally improved compared with repair. At 5 years, cumulative costs and quality-adjusted life years showed no difference on average, but by 10 years, there was a small, uncertain benefit for replacement: $118 023 versus $119 837 (difference: −$1814; 95% UI: −27 144 to 22 602) and qualityadjusted life years: 4.06 versus 3.97 (difference: 0.09; 95% UI: −0.87 to 1.08). After 10 years, the incremental cost-effectiveness of replacement continued to improve. CONCLUSIONS: Our cost-effectiveness analysis predicts potential savings in cost and gains in quality-adjusted survival at 10 years when mitral valve replacement is compared with repair for severe ischemic MR. These projected benefits, however, were small and subject to variability. Efforts to further delineate predictors of long-term outcomes in patients with severe ischemic MR are needed to optimize surgical decisions for individual patients, which should yield more cost-effective care. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00807040.

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