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1.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 244, 2020 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443974

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Population prevalence estimates by the World Health Organisation suggest that 1 in 160 children worldwide has an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Accessing respite care services for children with an ASD can often be a daunting and exhaustive process, with parents sometimes forced to access acute hospital services as an initial point of contact for respite care or in a crisis situation. To gain an in-depth understanding of accessing respite care for children with an ASD, from the perspectives of parents, a systematic review of the evidence on parent's experiences and views of respite care for children with an ASD at the acute and primary interface was undertaken. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO were systematically searched. Studies identified as relevant based on predetermined eligibility criteria were selected for inclusion. The search strategy also targeted unpublished studies and grey literature. Qualitative data and qualitative components of mixed method studies that represented the experiences of parents accessing respite care for children with an ASD were eligible for inclusion. A meta-aggregative approach was used during data synthesis. RESULTS: Database searching elicited 430 records of which 291 studies remained after removal of duplicates. These 291 studies were screened for title and abstract by two reviewers resulting in 31 studies to be screened at full text and assessed for eligibility. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and a further additional study also met the inclusion criteria during a manual search. As a result, 7 studies were selected for the review as set out in Fig. 1. CONCLUSION: In the absence of appropriate services and defined pathways to support services such as respite care, overwhelmed parents and community providers of mental health resources may not be in a position to meet the specific needs of children with an ASD and their families which may be contributing to a direct increase in hospitalizations. This systematic review identified a number of barriers to respite care, of which the findings can be used to inform future service development and further research. Knowledge of parental experiences in caring for a child with an ASD is vital in addressing the need and type of respite care required for children with an ASD. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018106629.

2.
Med Care ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265355

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare health care utilization and costs among diabetes patients with physician, nurse practitioner (NP), or physician assistant (PA) primary care providers (PCPs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cohort study using Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic health record data to examine the relationship between PCP type and utilization and costs over 1 year in 368,481 adult, diabetes patients. Relationship between PCP type and utilization and costs in 2013 was examined with extensive adjustment for patient and facility characteristics. Emergency department and outpatient analyses used negative binomial models; hospitalizations used logistic regression. Costs were analyzed using generalized linear models. RESULTS: PCPs were physicians, NPs, and PAs for 74.9% (n=276,009), 18.2% (n=67,120), and 6.9% (n=25,352) of patients respectively. Patients of NPs and PAs have lower odds of inpatient admission [odds ratio for NP vs. physician 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.87-0.93; PA vs. physician 0.92, 95% CI=0.87-0.97], and lower emergency department use (0.67 visits on average for physicians, 95% CI=0.65-0.68; 0.60 for NPs, 95% CI=0.58-0.63; 0.59 for PAs, 95% CI=0.56-0.63). This translates into NPs and PAs having ~$500-$700 less health care costs per patient per year (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Expanded use of NPs and PAs in the PCP role for some patients may be associated with notable cost savings. In our cohort, substituting care patterns and creating similar clinical situations in which they practice, NPs and PAs may have reduced costs of care by up to 150-190 million dollars in 2013.

3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 143, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138712

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite evidence supporting the safety of vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC), rates are low in many countries. METHODS: OptiBIRTH investigated the effects of a woman-centred intervention designed to increase VBAC rates through an unblinded cluster randomised trial in 15 maternity units with VBAC rates < 35% in Germany, Ireland and Italy. Sites were matched in pairs or triplets based on annual birth numbers and VBAC rate, and randomised, 1:1 or 2:1, intervention versus control, following trial registration. The intervention involved evidence-based education of clinicians and women with one previous caesarean section (CS), appointment of opinion leaders, audit/peer review, and joint discussions by women and clinicians. Control sites provided usual care. Primary outcome was annual hospital-level VBAC rates before the trial (2012) versus final year of the trial (2016). Between April 2014 and October 2015, 2002 women were recruited (intervention 1195, control 807), with mode-of-birth data available for 1940 women. RESULTS: The OptiBIRTH intervention was feasible and safe across hospital settings in three countries. There was no statistically significant difference in the change in the proportion of women having a VBAC between intervention sites (25.6% in 2012 to 25.1% in 2016) and control sites (18.3 to 22.3%) (odds ratio adjusted for differences between intervention and control groups (2012) and for homogeneity in VBAC rates at sites in the countries: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.14, p = 0.32 based on 5674 women (2012) and 5284 (2016) with outcome data. Among recruited women with birth data, 4/1147 perinatal deaths > 24 weeks gestation occurred in the intervention group (0.34%) and 4/782 in the control group (0.51%), and two uterine ruptures (one per group), a rate of 1:1000. CONCLUSIONS: Changing clinical practice takes time. As elective repeat CS is the most common reason for CS in multiparous women, interventions that are feasible and safe and that have been shown to lead to decreasing repeat CS, should be promoted. Continued research to refine the best way of promoting VBAC is essential. This may best be done using an implementation science approach that can modify evidence-based interventions in response to changing clinical circumstances. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The OptiBIRTH trial was registered on 3/4/2013. Trial registration number ISRCTN10612254.

4.
J Appl Gerontol ; : 733464820903908, 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028815

RESUMEN

Consideration of place of care is the first step in long-term care (LTC) planning and is critical for patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease; yet, drivers of consideration of place of care are unknown. We apply machine learning algorithms to cross-sectional data from the CARE-IDEAS (Caregivers' Reactions and Experience: Imaging Dementia-Evidence for Amyloid Scanning) study (n = 869 dyads) to identify drivers of patient consideration of institutional, in-home paid, and family care. Although decisions about LTC are complex, important drivers included whether patients consulted with a financial planner about LTC, patient demographics, loneliness, and geographical proximity of family members. Findings about consulting with a financial planner match literature showing that perceived financial constraints limit the range of choices in LTC planning. Well-documented drivers of institutionalization, such as care partner burden, were not identified as important variables. By understanding which factors drive patients to consider each type of care, clinicians can guide patients and their families in LTC planning.

5.
Palliat Med ; 34(5): 605-618, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020829

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthcare providers working in hospitals are frequently exposed to patients with palliative care needs. For most patients, these reflect non-specialist rather than specialist palliative care needs. Embedding palliative care principles early in patients' disease trajectories within acute care delivery in hospitals, however, is a challenge. How to best understand the experiences of those providing non-specialist palliative care in hospitals has not been systematically assessed. AIM: To synthesise the evidence on healthcare providers' views and experiences of non-specialist palliative care in hospitals. DESIGN: A qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis using Thomas and Harden's thematic synthesis framework. DATA SOURCES: Databases of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and EMBASE were searched from date of inception to March 2018. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported on healthcare providers' views and experiences of non-specialist palliative care in hospitals. Studies were appraised for quality but not excluded on that basis. The review was prospectively registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. RESULTS: Thirty-nine papers of 37 studies were included, representing 985 hospital healthcare providers' views and experiences. Four major analytical themes emerged; 'Understanding of Palliative Care', 'Complexities of Communication', 'Hospital Ecosystem' and 'Doctors and Nurses - a Different Lens'. CONCLUSIONS: Non-specialist palliative care in hospitals is operationalised as care in the last weeks and days of life. The organisation of acute care, inter-disciplinary working practices, clinician attitudes, poor communication structures and lack of education and training in palliative care principles exacerbates poor implementation of this care earlier for patients in hospitals.

6.
Trials ; 21(1): 189, 2020 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059687

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Informal caregivers report substantial burden and depressive symptoms which predict higher rates of patient institutionalization. While caregiver education interventions may reduce caregiver distress and decrease the use of long-term institutional care, evidence is mixed. Inconsistent findings across studies may be the result of reporting average treatment effects which do not account for how effects differ by participant characteristics. We apply a machine-learning approach to randomized clinical trial (RCT) data of the Helping Invested Family Members Improve Veteran's Experiences Study (HI-FIVES) intervention to explore how intervention effects vary by caregiver and patient characteristics. METHODS: We used model-based recursive partitioning models. Caregivers of community-residing older adult US veterans with functional or cognitive impairment at a single VA Medical Center site were randomized to receive HI-FIVES (n = 118) vs. usual care (n = 123). The outcomes included cumulative days not in the community and caregiver depressive symptoms assessed at 12 months post intervention. Potential moderating characteristics were: veteran age, caregiver age, caregiver ethnicity and race, relationship satisfaction, caregiver burden, perceived financial strain, caregiver depressive symptoms, and patient risk score. RESULTS: The effect of HI-FIVES on days not at home was moderated by caregiver burden (p < 0.001); treatment effects were higher for caregivers with a Zarit Burden Scale score ≤ 28. Caregivers with lower baseline Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) scores (≤ 8) had slightly lower CESD-10 scores at follow-up (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Family caregiver education interventions may be less beneficial for highly burdened and distressed caregivers; these caregivers may require a more tailored approach that involves assessing caregiver needs and developing personalized approaches. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID:NCT01777490. Registered on 28 January 2013.

8.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 243: 72-82, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677496

RESUMEN

Maternal perception of reduced fetal movements (RFM) is an important clinical marker to identify women at higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Preventing and reducing stillbirths can only be achieved through better detection and management of women with RFM, however the characteristics of women who present with RFM in pregnancy vary. A systematic review was conducted to explore the risk factors associated with reduced fetal movements (RFM) in pregnancy. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Maternity and Infant Care, PsycINFO and Science Citation Index were searched, from their inception date, for studies published up to 16th May 2019. Non-randomised observational studies reporting risk factors in pregnant women presenting with a primary complaint of RFM during pregnancy were included. The quality of the included studies was assessed with the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan 5.3 software for each identified risk factor where two or more studies reported on the same risk factor. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Twenty-seven studies reporting on risk factors for RFM during pregnancy were included. Women presenting with RFM during pregnancy are more likely to be Caucasian, smokers, and have an anterior placenta, oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios. No difference was found in parity or the mean age of women presenting with RFM and women who did not present with RFM. Previous caesarean section, postdates >42 weeks', and other medical conditions, including diabetes and hypertensive disorders were not predictive for RFM during pregnancy. Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with RFM in pregnancy were identified. These results can be used to raise awareness of factors associated with RFM, and prompt women to attend their maternity care provider should concerns arise.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224313, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648289

RESUMEN

Concern has been expressed globally over rising caesarean birth rates. Recently, the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) called for help from governmental bodies, professional organisations, women's groups, and other stakeholders to reduce unnecessary caesareans. As part of a wider research initiative, we conducted an overview of systematic reviews of antenatal and intrapartum interventions, and reports of evidence based recommendations, to identify and highlight those that have been shown to be effective for reducing caesarean birth, promoting vaginal birth and reducing fear of childbirth. Following registration of the review protocol, (PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018090681), we searched The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE (Jan 2000-Jan 2018) and searched for grey literature in PROSPERO, and on websites of health professional and other relevant bodies. Screening and selection of reviews, quality appraisal using AMSTAR-2, and data extraction were performed independently by pairs of at least two reviewers. Excluding reviews assessed as 'critically low' on AMSTAR-2 (n = 54), 101 systematic reviews, and 10 reports of evidence based recommendations were included in the overview. Narrative synthesis was performed, due to heterogeneity of review methodology and topics. The results highlight twenty-five interventions, across 17 reviews, that reduced the risk of caesarean, nine interventions across eight reviews that increased the risk of caesarean, eight interventions that reduced instrumental vaginal birth, four interventions that increased spontaneous vaginal birth, and two interventions that reduced fear of childbirth. This overview of reviews identifies and highlights interventions that have been shown to be effective for reducing caesarean birth, promoting vaginal births and reducing fear of childbirth. In recognising that clinical practices change over time, this overview includes reviews published from 2000 onwards only, thus providing contemporary evidence, and a valuable resource for clinicians when making decisions on practices that should be implemented for reducing unnecessary caesarean births safely. Protocol Registration: PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018090681. Available from: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?ID=CRD42018090681.

10.
JAMA Surg ; : e193732, 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664427

RESUMEN

Importance: Bariatric surgery has been associated with improvements in health in patients with severe obesity; however, it is unclear whether these health benefits translate into lower health care expenditures. Objective: To examine 10-year health care expenditures in a large, multisite retrospective cohort study of veterans with severe obesity who did and did not undergo bariatric surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 9954 veterans with severe obesity between January 1, 2000, and September 30, 2011, were identified from veterans affairs (VA) electronic health records. Of those, 2498 veterans who underwent bariatric surgery were allocated to the surgery cohort. Sequential stratification was used to match each patient in the surgery cohort with up to 3 patients who had not undergone bariatric surgery but were of the same sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes status, and VA regional network and were closest in age, body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and comorbidities. A total of 7456 patients were identified and allocated to the nonsurgery (control) cohort. The VA health care expenditures among the surgery and nonsurgery cohorts were estimated using regression models. Data were analyzed from July to August 2018 and in April 2019. Interventions: The bariatric surgical procedures (n = 2498) included in this study were Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (1842 [73.7%]), sleeve gastrectomy (381 [15.3%]), adjustable gastric banding (249 [10.0%]), and other procedures (26 [1.0%]). Main Outcomes and Measures: The study measured total, outpatient, inpatient, and outpatient pharmacy expenditures from 3 years before surgery to 10 years after surgery, excluding expenditures associated with the initial bariatric surgical procedure. Results: Among 9954 veterans with severe obesity, 7387 (74.2%) were men; the mean (SD) age was 52.3 (8.8) years for the surgery cohort and 52.5 (8.7) years for the nonsurgery cohort. Mean total expenditures for the surgery cohort were $5093 (95% CI, $4811-$5391) at 7 to 12 months before surgery, which increased to $7448 (95% CI, $6989-$7936) at 6 months after surgery. Postsurgical expenditures decreased to $6692 (95% CI, $6197-$7226) at 5 years after surgery, followed by a gradual increase to $8495 (95% CI, $7609-$9484) at 10 years after surgery. Total expenditures were higher in the surgery cohort than in the nonsurgery cohort during the 3 years before surgery and in the first 2 years after surgery. The expenditures of the 2 cohorts converged 5 to 10 years after surgery. Outpatient pharmacy expenditures were significantly lower among the surgery cohort in all years of follow-up ($509 lower at 3 years before surgery and $461 lower at 7 to 12 months before surgery), but these cost reductions were offset by higher inpatient and outpatient (nonpharmacy) expenditures. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of 9954 predominantly older male veterans with severe obesity, total health care expenditures increased immediately after patients underwent bariatric surgery but converged with those of patients who had not undergone surgery at 10 years after surgery. This finding suggests that the value of bariatric surgery lies primarily in its associations with improvements in health and not in its potential to decrease health care costs.

11.
SAGE Open Med ; 7: 2050312119871418, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489191

RESUMEN

Objectives: This study aims to assess (1) the difference in the prevalence of headaches, pain, and other associated symptoms between Gulf War I (1990-1991) and Post-Gulf War I (1992-2015) veterans who served as active military personnel in the Persian Gulf and (2) how the durations of deployment may affect the prevalence of those symptoms. Methods: With institutional human subject committee approval, veterans who were accepted to the Gulf War Registry at the VA San Diego Healthcare System between July 2013 and June 2015 (N = 367) were included in this retrospective chart review study and grouped according to the Gulf War period they served under or how long they were deployed to the Persian Gulf. Chi-square was used for categorical data analyses and analysis of variance was conducted for continuous outcomes. All analyses were two-tailed, where applicable, with α = 0.05 and Bonferroni for pairwise group comparisons. Results: Veterans who served during Post-Gulf War I or both Gulf War I and Post-Gulf War I exhibited more pain and neurological symptoms than Gulf War I veterans (p = 0.005, p = 0.003). In addition, veterans who served ⩾12 months reported more overall pain symptoms and analgesic use than those who served less time (p < 0.001, p = 0.024). Conclusion: The findings suggest that the length of deployment and Persian Gulf deployment period may play a role in acquiring headaches, pain, and other associated symptoms with increased analgesic consumption.

12.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 357, 2019 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521124

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often under-recognized and poorly documented via diagnoses, but the extent of under-recognition is not well understood among Medicare beneficiaries. The current study used claims-based diagnosis and lab data to examine patient factors associated with clinically recognized CKD and CKD stage concordance between claims- and lab-based sources in a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries. METHODS: In a cohort of fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries with CKD based on 2011 labs, we examined the proportion with clinically recognized CKD via diagnoses and factors associated with clinical recognition in logistic regression. In the subset of beneficiaries with CKD stage identified from both labs and diagnoses, we examined concordance in CKD stage from both sources, and factors independently associated with CKD stage concordance in logistic regression. RESULTS: Among the subset of 206,036 beneficiaries with lab-based CKD, only 11.8% (n = 24,286) had clinically recognized CKD via diagnoses. Clinical recognition was more likely for beneficiaries who had higher CKD stages, were non-elderly, were Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black, lived in core metropolitan areas, had multiple chronic conditions or outpatient visits in 2010, or saw a nephrologist. In the subset of 18,749 beneficiaries with CKD stage identified from both labs and diagnoses, 70.0% had concordant CKD stage, which was more likely if beneficiaries were older adults, male, lived in micropolitan areas instead of non-core areas, or saw a nephrologist. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant under-diagnosis of CKD in Medicare FFS beneficiaries, which can be addressed with the availability of lab results.

13.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e025736, 2019 09 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542732

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To review systematically the evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of deinstitutionalisation for adults with intellectual disabilities. DESIGN: Systematic review. POPULATION: Adults (aged 18 years and over) with intellectual disabilities. INTERVENTION: Deinstitutionalisation, that is, the move from institutional to community settings. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Studies were eligible if evaluating within any cost-consequence framework (eg, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis) or resource use typically considered to fall within the societal viewpoint (eg, cost to payers, service-users, families and informal care costs). SEARCH: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EconLit, Embase and Scopus to September 2017 and supplemented this with grey literature searches and handsearching of the references of the eligible studies. We assessed study quality using the Critical Appraisals Skills Programme suite of tools, excluding those judged to be of poor methodological quality. RESULTS: Two studies were included; both were cohort studies from the payer perspective of people leaving long-stay National Health Service hospitals in the UK between 1984 and 1992. One study found that deinstitutionalisation reduced costs, one study found an increase in costs. CONCLUSION: A wide-ranging literature review found limited evidence on costs associated with deinstitutionalisation for people with intellectual disabilities. From two studies included in the review, the results were conflicting. Significant gaps in the evidence base were observable, particularly with respect to priority populations in contemporary policy: older people with intellectual disabilities and serious medical illness, and younger people with very complex needs and challenging behaviours. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018077406.

14.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 6793-6802, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413631

RESUMEN

Purpose: The growing number of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors often have multiple chronic conditions. Comparing nonmetastatic CRC survivors and matched noncancer controls, our objectives were to determine the odds of CRC survivors being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related chronic conditions and their likelihood of control during the year after CRC diagnosis. Patients and methods: We retrospectively identified patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic CRC in the Veterans Affairs health care system from fiscal years 2009 to 2012 and matched each with up to 3 noncancer control patients. We used logistic regression to assess differences in the likelihood of being diagnosed with CVD-related chronic conditions and control between nonmetastatic CRC survivors and noncancer controls. Results: We identified 9,758 nonmetastatic CRC patients and matched them to 29,066 noncancer controls. At baseline, 69.4% of CRC survivors and their matched controls were diagnosed with hypertension, 52.4% with hyperlipidemia, and 36.7% with diabetes. Compared to matched noncancer controls, CRC survivors had 57% higher odds of being diagnosed with hypertension (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.49-1.64) and 7% higher odds of controlled blood pressure (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.02, 1.13) in the subsequent year. Compared to matched noncancer control patients, CRC survivors had half the odds of being diagnosed with hyperlipidemia (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.48-0.52) and lower odds of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) control (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.94). There were no significant differences between groups for diabetes diagnoses or control. Conclusion: Compared to noncancer controls, nonmetastatic CRC survivors have 1) greater likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension and worse blood pressure control in the year following diagnosis; 2) lower likelihood of being diagnosed with hyperlipidemia or LDL control; and 3) comparable diabetes diagnoses and control. There may be a need for hypertension control interventions targeting cancer survivors.

15.
Am Heart J ; 216: 91-101, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419622

RESUMEN

Persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) are at increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In spite of this, uptake of evidence-based clinical interventions for ASCVD risk reduction in the HIV clinic setting is sub-optimal. METHODS: EXTRA-CVD is a 12-month randomized clinical effectiveness trial that will assess the efficacy of a multi-component nurse-led intervention in reducing ASCVD risk among PLHIV. Three hundred high ASCVD risk PLHIV across three sites will be randomized 1:1 to usual care with generic prevention education or the study intervention. The study intervention will consist of four evidence-based components: (1) nurse-led care coordination, (2) nurse-managed medication protocols and adherence support (3) home BP monitoring, and (4) electronic health records support tools. The primary outcome will be change in systolic blood pressure and secondary outcome will be change in non-HDL cholesterol over the course of the intervention. Tertiary outcomes will include change in the proportion of participants in the following extended cascade categories: (1) appropriately diagnosed with hypertension and hyperlipidemia (2) appropriately managed; (3) at treatment goal (systolic blood pressure <130 mm Hg and non-HDL cholesterol < National Lipid Association targets). CONCLUSIONS: The EXTRA-CVD trial will provide evidence appraising the potential impact of nurse-led interventions in reducing ASCVD risk among PLHIV, an essential extension of the HIV care continuum beyond HIV viral suppression.

16.
J Gen Intern Med ; 34(10): 2114-2122, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388914

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Helping Invested Families Improve Veterans' Experiences Study (HI-FIVES), a skills training program for caregivers of persons with functional or cognitive impairments. DESIGN: A two-arm RCT. SETTING: Single Veterans Affairs Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients and their primary caregivers referred in the past 6 months to home and community-based services or geriatrics clinic. INTERVENTION: All caregivers received usual care. Caregivers in HI-FIVES also received five training calls and four group training sessions. MAIN MEASURES: Cumulative patient days at home 12 months post-randomization, defined as days not in an emergency department, inpatient hospital, or post-acute facility. Secondary outcomes included patients' total VA health care costs, caregiver and patient rating of the patient's experience of VA health care, and caregiver depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Of 241 dyads, caregivers' (patients') mean age was 61 (73) years, 54% (53%) Black and 89% (4%) female. HI-FIVES was associated with a not statistically significant 9% increase in the rate of days at home (95% CI 0.72, 1.65; mean difference 1 day over 12 months). No significant differences were observed in health care costs or caregiver depressive symptoms. Model-estimated mean baseline patient experience of VA care (scale of 0-10) was 8.43 (95% CI 8.16, 8.70); the modeled mean difference between HI-FIVES and controls at 3 months was 0.29 (p = .27), 0.31 (p = 0.26) at 6 months, and 0.48 (p = 0.03) at 12 months. For caregivers, it was 8.34 (95% CI 8.10, 8.57); the modeled mean difference at 3 months was 0.28 (p = .18), 0.53 (p < .01) at 6 months, and 0.46 (p = 0.054) at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: HI-FIVES did not increase patients' days at home; it showed sustained improvements in caregivers' and patients' experience of VA care at clinically significant levels, nearly 0.5 points. The training holds promise in increasing an important metric of care quality-reported experience with care.

19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 38(6): 1028-1036, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158006

RESUMEN

Because of workforce needs and demographic and chronic disease trends, nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) are taking a larger role in the primary care of medically complex patients with chronic conditions. Research shows good quality outcomes, but concerns persist that NPs' and PAs' care of vulnerable populations could increase care costs compared to the traditional physician-dominated system. We used 2012-13 Veterans Affairs data on a cohort of medically complex patients with diabetes to compare health services use and costs depending on whether the primary care provider was a physician, NP, or PA. Case-mix-adjusted total care costs were 6-7 percent lower for NP and PA patients than for physician patients, driven by more use of emergency and inpatient services by the latter. We found that use of NPs and PAs as primary care providers for complex patients with diabetes was associated with less use of acute care services and lower total costs.

20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 198, 2019 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182055

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Measuring care processes is an important component of any effort to improve care quality, however knowing the appropriate metrics to measure is a challenge both in Ireland and other countries. Quality of midwifery care depends on the expert knowledge of the midwife and her/his contribution to women and their babies' safety in the healthcare environment. Therefore midwives need to be able to clearly articulate and measure what it is that they do, the dimensions of their professional practice frequently referred to as midwifery care processes. The objective of this paper is to report on the development and prioritisation of a national suite of Quality Care Metrics (QCM), and their associated indicators, for midwifery care processes in Ireland. METHODS: The study involved four discrete, yet complimentary, phases; i) a systematic literature review to identify midwifery care process metrics and their associated measurement indicators; ii) a two-round, online Delphi survey of midwives to develop consensus on the set of midwifery care process metrics to be measured; iii) a two-round online Delphi survey of midwives to develop consensus on the indicators that will be used to measure prioritised metrics; and iv) a face-to-face consensus meeting with midwives to review the findings and achieve consensus on the final suite of metrics and indicators. RESULTS: Following the consensus meeting, 18 metrics and 93 indicators were prioritised for inclusion in the suite of QCM Midwifery Metrics. These metrics span the pregnancy, birth and postpartum periods. CONCLUSION: The development of this suite of process metrics and indicators for midwifery care provides an opportunity for measuring the safety and quality of midwifery care in Ireland and for adapting internationally. This initial work should be followed by a rigorous evaluation of the impact of the new suite of metrics on midwifery care processes.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materno-Infantil/normas , Partería , Mejoramiento de la Calidad/organización & administración , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Benchmarking/métodos , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Irlanda , Partería/métodos , Partería/normas , Partería/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Participación de los Interesados
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