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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(12): 127402, 2022 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394309

RESUMEN

Nonequilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated systems constitutes a fascinating problem of condensed matter physics with many open questions. Here, we investigate the relaxation dynamics of Landau-quantized electron system into spin-valley polarized ground state in a gate-tunable MoSe_{2} monolayer subjected to a strong magnetic field. The system is driven out of equilibrium with optically injected excitons that depolarize the electron spins and the subsequent electron spin-valley relaxation is probed in time-resolved experiments. We demonstrate that both the relaxation and light-induced depolarization rates at millikelvin temperatures sensitively depend on the Landau level filling factor: the relaxation is enhanced whenever the electrons form an integer quantum Hall liquid and slows down appreciably at noninteger fillings, while the depolarization rate exhibits an opposite behavior. Our findings suggest that spin-valley dynamics may be used as a tool to investigate the interplay between the effects of disorder and strong interactions in the electronic ground state.

2.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 33(2): 025701, 2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055370

RESUMEN

Zeeman effect induced by the magnetic field introduces a splitting between the two valleys at K + and K - points of the Brillouin zone in monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides. In consequence, the photoluminescence signal exhibits a field dependent degree of circular polarization. We present a comprehensive study of this effect in the case of a trion in monolayer MoTe2, showing that although time integrated data allows us to deduce a g-factor of the trion state, such an analysis cannot be substantiated by the timescales revealed in the time-resolved experiments.

3.
Nanotechnology ; 31(13): 135002, 2020 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825902

RESUMEN

At cryogenic temperatures, the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of monolayer WSe2 features a number of lines related to the recombination of so-called localized excitons (LEs). The intensity of these lines strongly decreases with increasing temperature. In order to understand the mechanism behind this phenomenon we carried out a time-resolved experiment, which revealed a similar trend in the PL decay time. Our results identify the opening of additional non-radiative relaxation channels as a primary cause of the observed temperature quenching of the LEs' PL.


Asunto(s)
Calcógenos/química , Compuestos de Tungsteno/química , Mediciones Luminiscentes , Temperatura
4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(9): 097403, 2019 Aug 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524484

RESUMEN

We report polarization-resolved resonant reflection spectroscopy of a charge-tunable atomically thin valley semiconductor hosting tightly bound excitons coupled to a dilute system of fully spin- and valley-polarized holes in the presence of a strong magnetic field. We find that exciton-hole interactions manifest themselves in hole-density dependent, Shubnikov-de Haas-like oscillations in the energy and line broadening of the excitonic resonances. These oscillations are evidenced to be precisely correlated with the occupation of Landau levels, thus demonstrating that strong interactions between the excitons and Landau-quantized itinerant carriers enable optical investigation of quantum-Hall physics in transition metal dichalcogenides.

5.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(45): 455301, 2019 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323648

RESUMEN

Owing to exchange interaction between the exciton and magnetic ion, a quantum dot embedding a single magnetic ion is a great platform for optical control of individual spin. In particular, a quantum dot provides strong and sharp optical transitions, which give experimental access to spin states of an individual magnetic ion. We show, however, that physics of quantum dot excitons also complicate spin readout and optical spin manipulation in such a system. This is due to electron-hole exchange interaction in anisotropic quantum dots, which affects the polarisation of the emission lines. One of the consequences is that the intensity of spectral lines in a single spectrum are not simply proportional to the population of various spin states of magnetic ion. In order to provide a solution of the above problem, we present a method of extracting both the spin polarisation degree of a neutral exciton and magnetic dopant inside a semiconductor quantum dot in an external magnetic field. Our approach is experimentally verified on a system of CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot containing a single Fe2+ ion. Both the resonant and non-resonant excitation regimes are explored resulting in a record high optical orientation efficiency of dopant spin in the former case. The proposed solutions can be easily expanded to any other system of quantum dots containing magnetic dopants.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1578, 2019 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733485

RESUMEN

Unlike monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, which possess high in-plane symmetry, layered ReS2 exhibits reduced in-plane crystal symmetry with a distorted 1 T structure. This unique symmetry leads to anisotropic optical properties, very promising for light polarization devices. Here, we report on low temperature polarization-resolved emission and absorption measurements of excitons in ReS2 from bulk to monolayer. In photoluminescence and reflectivity contrast spectra we distinguish two strongly polarized excitons X1 and X2 with dipole vectors along different crystal directions, which persist from bulk down to monolayer. Basing on the PL and RC spectra of bulk crystals we determine the energy of the ground and first four excited states of both excitons, which follow the usual hydrogenic Rydberg series of energy levels of 3D excitonic states (En = Ry*/n2). From the numerical fit we estimate that the energy gap is direct and equal to 1671.7 meV and binding energy of X1 and X2 is equal to 117.5 and 86.6 meV, respectively. In magneto-PL spectra of bulk ReS2 up to B = 10 T, the energy shift of all the states is below 2 meV. On reducing the crystal thickness from bulk to monolayer the ground state experience a strong blue shift.

7.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(5): 055303, 2018 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315081

RESUMEN

We provide a theoretical description of the optical orientation of a single Mn2+ ion spin under quasi-resonant excitation demonstrated experimentally by Goryca et al (2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 087401). We build and analyze a hierarchy of models by starting with the simplest assumptions (transfer of perfectly spin-polarized excitons from Mn-free dot to the other dot containing a single Mn2+ spin, followed by radiative recombination) and subsequently adding more features, such as spin relaxation of electrons and holes. Particular attention is paid to the role of the influx of the dark excitons and the process of biexciton formation, which are shown to contribute significantly to the orientation process in the quasi-resonant excitation case. Analyzed scenarios show how multiple features of the excitonic complexes in magnetically-doped quantum dots, such as the values of exchange integrals, spin relaxation times, etc, lead to a plethora of optical orientation processes, characterized by distinct dependencies on light polarization and laser intensity, and occurring on distinct timescales. Comparison with experimental data shows that the correct description of the optical orientation mechanism requires taking into account Mn2+ spin-flip processes occurring not only when the exciton is already in the orbital ground state of the light-emitting dot, but also those that happen during the exciton transfer from high-energy states to the ground state. Inspired by the experimental results on energy relaxation of electrons and holes in nonmagnetic dots, we focus on the process of biexciton creation allowed by mutual spin-flip of an electron and the Mn2+ spin, and we show that by including it in the model, we obtain good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data on quasi-resonantly driven Mn2+ spin orientation.

8.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(26): 265302, 2016 07 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27173643

RESUMEN

We present a comparative study of two self-assembled quantum dot (QD) systems based on II-VI compounds: CdTe/ZnTe and CdSe/ZnSe. Using magneto-optical techniques we investigated a large population of individual QDs. The systematic photoluminescence studies of emission lines related to the recombination of neutral exciton X, biexciton XX, and singly charged excitons (X(+), X(-)) allowed us to determine average parameters describing CdTe QDs (CdSe QDs): X-XX transition energy difference 12 meV (24 meV); fine-structure splitting δ1=0.14 meV (δ1=0.47 meV); g-factor g = 2.12 (g = 1.71); diamagnetic shift γ=2.5 µeV T(-2) (γ =1.3 µeV T(-2)). We find also statistically significant correlations between various parameters describing internal structure of excitonic complexes.

9.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10484, 2016 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818580

RESUMEN

Single impurities with nonzero spin and multiple ground states offer a degree of freedom that can be utilized to store the quantum information. However, Fe(2+) dopant is known for having a single nondegenerate ground state in the bulk host semiconductors and thus is of little use for spintronic applications. Here we show that the well-established picture of Fe(2+) spin configuration can be modified by subjecting the Fe(2+) ion to high strain, for example, produced by lattice mismatched epitaxial nanostructures. Our analysis reveals that high strain induces qualitative change in the ion energy spectrum and results in nearly doubly degenerate ground state with spin projection Sz= ± 2. We provide an experimental proof of this concept using a new system: a strained epitaxial quantum dot containing individual Fe(2+) ion. Magnetic character of the Fe(2+) ground state in a CdSe/ZnSe dot is revealed in photoluminescence experiments by exploiting a coupling between a confined exciton and the single-iron impurity. We also demonstrate that the Fe(2+) spin can be oriented by spin-polarized excitons, which opens a possibility of using it as an optically controllable two-level system free of nuclear spin fluctuations.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(22): 227202, 2014 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25494084

RESUMEN

We present direct observation of a coherent spin precession of an individual Mn^{2+} ion, having both electronic and nuclear spins equal to 5/2, embedded in a CdTe quantum dot and placed in a magnetic field. The spin state evolution is probed in a time-resolved pump-probe measurement of absorption of the single dot. The experiment reveals subtle details of the large-spin coherent dynamics, such as nonsinusoidal evolution of states occupation, and beatings caused by the strain-induced differences in energy levels separation. Sensitivity of the large-spin impurity on the crystal strain opens the possibility of using it as a local strain probe.

11.
Nano Lett ; 14(5): 2807-14, 2014 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24745828

RESUMEN

Achieving significant doping in GaAs/AlAs core/shell nanowires (NWs) is of considerable technological importance but remains a challenge due to the amphoteric behavior of the dopant atoms. Here we show that placing a narrow GaAs quantum well in the AlAs shell effectively getters residual carbon acceptors leading to an unintentional p-type doping. Magneto-optical studies of such a GaAs/AlAs core-multishell NW reveal quantum confined emission. Theoretical calculations of NW electronic structure confirm quantum confinement of carriers at the core/shell interface due to the presence of ionized carbon acceptors in the 1 nm GaAs layer in the shell. Microphotoluminescence in high magnetic field shows a clear signature of avoided crossings of the n = 0 Landau level emission line with the n = 2 Landau level TO phonon replica. The coupling is caused by the resonant hole-phonon interaction, which points to a large two-dimensional hole density in the structure.

12.
Nat Commun ; 5: 3191, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24463946

RESUMEN

Solotronics, optoelectronics based on solitary dopants, is an emerging field of research and technology reaching the ultimate limit of miniaturization. It aims at exploiting quantum properties of individual ions or defects embedded in a semiconductor matrix. It has already been shown that optical control of a magnetic ion spin is feasible using the carriers confined in a quantum dot. However, a serious obstacle was the quenching of the exciton luminescence by magnetic impurities. Here we show, by photoluminescence studies on thus-far-unexplored individual CdTe dots with a single cobalt ion and CdSe dots with a single manganese ion, that even if energetically allowed, nonradiative exciton recombination through single-magnetic-ion intra-ionic transitions is negligible in such zero-dimensional structures. This opens solotronics for a wide range of as yet unconsidered systems. On the basis of results of our single-spin relaxation experiments and on the material trends, we identify optimal magnetic-ion quantum dot systems for implementation of a single-ion-based spin memory.

13.
Med Educ ; 20(1): 23-7, 1986 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3951376

RESUMEN

Self-teaching programmes in the form of tape/slide sequences have been used in the Department of Anatomy and Experimental Pathology, University of St Andrews, Scotland for a number of years and provide students with taped text and colour projections of two-dimensional drawings or diagrams. Such presentations are intended to replicate the lectures. Like anatomy departments elsewhere, anatomical and pathological specimens in museum pots have a fully-labelled photograph alongside to help identify specific anatomical structures. Recently, fibre optics have been introduced to illustrate anatomical features in prosections or museum specimens as a means of overcoming the drawbacks of a two dimensional illustration. A labelled push-button device has been constructed to illuminate optical fibres in order to identify and pinpoint anatomical structures in wet or dry specimens. Pinpoints of bright light are more readily seen than pin labels which also proved to be unsuitable in certain situations, such as within the skull foramina.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía/educación , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Tecnología de Fibra Óptica , Instrucciones Programadas como Asunto , Humanos , Escocia
14.
J Clin Pathol ; 30(11): 1086-7, 1977 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-591648
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