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Perm J ; 232019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314733


INTRODUCTION: Twitter and media coverage on poliomyelitis help maintain global support for its eradication. OBJECTIVE: To test our hypothesis that themes of polio-related tweets and media articles would differ by location of interest (hashtag of country name mentioned in the tweet; country name mentioned in media articles) but would be similar to each other (tweets and media articles) for each location of interest. METHODS: We retrospectively examined a 40% random sample of Twitter data containing the hashtag #polio from January 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015 (N = 79,333), from which we extracted 5 subcorpora each with a co-occurring hashtag #India (n = 5027), #Iraq (n = 1238), #Nigeria (n = 1364), #Pakistan (n = 11,427), and #Syria (n = 2952). We also retrieved and categorized 73 polio-related English-language news stories from within the same timeframe. We assessed the association between polio-related English news themes and the Twitter content. Descriptive analyses and unsupervised machine learning (latent Dirichlet allocation modeling) were conducted on the 5 Twitter subcorpora. RESULTS: The results of the latent Dirichlet allocation modeling on the specific subcorpora with country co-occurring hashtags showed significant differences between the 5 countries in terms of content. English mass media content focused largely on violence/conflicts and cases of polio, whereas social media focused on eradication and vaccination efforts along with celebrations. DISCUSSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, our evidence suggests Twitter content differs significantly from English mass media content. Evidence from our study helps inform media monitoring and communications surveillance during global public health crises, such as infectious disease outbreaks, as well as reactions to health promotion campaigns.

Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Irak/epidemiología , Lenguaje , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pakistán/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Siria/epidemiología
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 110(11): 637-648, 2016 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28115686


BACKGROUND: Qualitative evidence suggests that inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) may affect diarrheal and helminthic infection in women disproportionately. We systematically searched PubMed in June 2014 (updated 2016) and the WHO website, for relevant articles. METHODS: Articles dealing with the public health relevance of helminthic and diarrheal diseases, and highlighting the role of gender in WASH were included. Where possible, we carried out a meta-analysis. RESULTS: In studies of individuals 5 years or older, cholera showed lower prevalence in males (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.34-0.94), while Schistosoma mansoni (1.38; 95% CI 1.14-1.67), Schistosoma japonicum (1.52; 95% CI 1.13-2.05), hookworm (1.43; 95% CI 1.07-1.89) and all forms of infectious diarrhea (1.21; 95% CI 1.06-1.38) showed a higher prevalence in males. When studies included all participants, S. mansoni and S. japonicum showed higher prevalence with males (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.27-1.55 and 1.84; 95% CI 1.27-2.67, respectively). Prevalence of Trichiuris and hookworm infection showed effect modification with continent. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of gender differences in infection may reflect differences in gender norms, suggesting that policy changes at the regional level may help ameliorate gender related disparities in helminthic and diarrheal disease prevalence.

Diarrea , Helmintiasis , Higiene , Abastecimiento de Agua , Diarrea/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales