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1.
Addict Behav ; 131: 107332, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436698

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Black and Hispanic individuals in the US experience more socioeconomic adversities that are associated with disparities in tobacco use and cessation than White individuals. This study examined if racial/ethnic differences in smoking abstinence were mediated by socioeconomic (SES) adversities. METHODS: Data from 7,101 established smokers were identified in Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) and followed to Wave 4 (2016-2018). The study outcome was cigarette abstinence at Wave 4. The main independent variable was race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic White [White], Non-Hispanic Black [Black] and Hispanic). The mediators were five measures of SES adversities (unemployment, poverty, difficulty with money, lower education level, lack of health insurance). A weighted Generalized Structural Equation Model (GSEM) was used to estimate the total, direct, and indirect effect of race/ethnicity on the odds of quitting mediated by the five SES adversities. This model was adjusted by study covariates, including health and smoking characteristics. RESULTS: The indirect effect of race/ethnicity on cessation showed that differences in quitting between Black and White individuals as well as Hispanic and White individuals were mediated by SES adversities. However, the differences in quitting between Hispanic and Black individuals were not mediated by SES adversities. Black and Hispanic individuals were less likely to quit than White individuals, but Hispanic individuals were more likely to quit than Black individuals. There were no direct effects between Black or Hispanic individuals compared to White individuals. Those with higher SES were more likely to quit compared to those with lower SES. DISCUSSION: Smoking abstinence is higher in White individuals compared to Black and Hispanic individuals and is mediated by SES adversities. However, smoking abstinence is higher among Hispanic individuals compared to Black individuals and it is not mediated by SES adversities. Future studies should consider the role of other factors, such as psychosocial support, racism, discrimination, and stress over the life course in explaining differences in smoking abstinence between Black and Hispanic individuals.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Humanos , Fumadores , Fumar/epidemiología
2.
Addict Behav ; 129: 107249, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104739

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with psychiatric conditions suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, but the factors driving this relationship remain unclear. We used data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) to investigate whether associations between internalizing psychiatric symptoms and change in smoking heaviness (as measured by cigarettes per day (CPD) were mediated by self-reported respiratory symptoms, smoking risk perceptions, and cigarette dependence. METHODS: This study used data from PATH Waves 1 through 4 (2013-2017, n = 4,152). Psychiatric symptoms were indexed with the internalizing sub-scale of the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs-Short Screener (GAIN-SS) among daily smokers. We fit auto-regressive structural equation models (SEM) to data from Wave 1-3 and 2-4 to determine the direct and indirect associations between internalizing symptom scores and CPD through each mediator. RESULTS: The association between internalizing symptoms and CPD was mediated by cigarette dependence (indirect: B = 0.004, SE = 0.041, p = 0.023) and respiratory symptom severity (indirect: B = 0.018, SE = 0.097, p < 0.001). Internalizing symptoms predicted higher harm perceptions (B = 0.056, SE = 0.035, p < 0.001) but the indirect relationship with CPD was non-significant. Findings from Waves 2-4 replicated these results. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that cigarette dependence and respiratory symptom severity partially mediate the relationship between internalizing symptoms and CPD but risk perceptions were not significant predictors in our models. This suggests that efforts to reduce smoking among people with internalizing disorders should focus on decreasing nicotine dependence and increasing awareness of respiratory symptoms to encourage a quit attempt or switch to a less harmful source of nicotine.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Productos de Tabaco , Tabaquismo , Adulto , Humanos , Fumadores , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco , Tabaquismo/epidemiología
3.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 24(6): 914-918, 2022 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958368

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes is a promising policy intervention to decrease cigarette dependence among people who smoke. Randomized trials support the potential efficacy of a reduced nicotine product standard for cigarettes. However, interpretation of such trials is challenged by incomplete adherence to the randomized treatment assignment, as some participants may continue to use commercial cigarettes not provided by the trial. The current study examined prevalence and predictors of non-adherence among trial participants with serious mental illness (SMI). AIMS AND METHODS: Adults with SMI who smoke daily and were not trying to quit (N = 58) were randomized to receive very low nicotine content (VLNC) or normal nicotine content cigarettes over 6 weeks. We investigated predictors of biologically assessed non-adherence in participants assigned to VLNC cigarettes (n = 30). Predictors included subjective responses to VLNC cigarettes, baseline nicotine dependence and dependence motives, and psychiatric symptom severity. We fit a series of linear models regressing non-adherence metrics onto covariates (gender; menthol preference) and focal predictors. RESULTS: Nearly all participants (96%) were estimated to be less than completely adherent to VLNC cigarettes. Lower enjoyment ratings of respiratory tract sensations of VLNC cigarettes predicted a greater degree of non-adherence (b = -.40, SE = .14, 95% CI: -0.71, -0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Less positive subjective response to smoking VLNC cigarettes was the only significant predictor of incomplete adherence among individuals with SMI, consistent with prior research in a general population sample. This suggests the potential for shared strategies to help different smoking populations adjust to a reduced nicotine product standard. IMPLICATIONS: Results offer preliminary insight into potential barriers to adherence in SMI populations. Adherence might be enhanced by supplementing VLNC cigarettes with alternative sources of non-combusted nicotine, paired with educational campaigns to encourage quitting or switching to less harmful products. Future studies should replicate these analyses in a larger sample of individuals with SMI who smoke.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Nicotina/análisis , Prevalencia , Fumar/epidemiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Productos de Tabaco/análisis
4.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 132: 108419, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098201

RESUMEN

Although many women quit smoking while pregnant, rates of relapse after delivery are high. We examined the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in maintaining postpartum abstinence from smoking among pregnant women who recently quit smoking (N = 382), randomized to receive five brief MI phone counseling calls or to a prenatal and postpartum care as usual control condition. Relapse to smoking was assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months postpartum based on self-report and urine cotinine. Cox regressions compared conditions on relapse outcomes and hazard ratio of total number of MI calls was examined to probe dose-response effects. Results revealed no difference in the hazard ratio of relapse between treatment condition and no dose-response effect of total number of MI calls. Phone counseling in the prenatal and postpartum period did not facilitate maintenance of abstinence among new mothers. Considerations for future intervention development studies on relapse prevention during the postpartum period are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Entrevista Motivacional , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Consejo/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Teléfono , Tabaco
5.
Addict Behav ; 125: 107154, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735980

RESUMEN

Cannabis refusal self-efficacy, defined as confidence in the ability to refuse cannabis or to avoid cannabis use, is associated with decreased cannabis use. Juvenile justice-involved youth are at high risk for cannabis use and may have lower refusal self-efficacy. While court-involved, non-incarcerated (CINI) and incarcerated youth are groups that are both at high-risk for cannabis use, the experience of incarceration may impact the measurement of refusal self-efficacy for cannabis. The factor structure, measurement invariance, and concurrent validity of the Brief Situational Confidence Questionnaire for Cannabis (BSCQ-M) was assessed among CINI (n = 148) and incarcerated (n = 199) youth (80.7% male, Mage = 16.3). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a correlated 3-factor model including positive/good times, negative internal, and negative external situational factors best fit the data. Multigroup measurement invariance testing revealed that the BSCQ-M demonstrated configural, metric, scalar, and residual invariance across CINI and incarcerated samples, indicating measurement invariance across the two groups. Negative binomial regressions revealed that BSCQ-M scores were significantly negatively associated with concurrent cannabis use. Results suggest that the BSCQ-M is a brief, psychometrically sound measure of refusal self-efficacy for cannabis among juvenile justice-involved youth that can be utilized with both CINI and incarcerated youth.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Adolescente , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometría , Autoeficacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(10): 2167-2178, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762304

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The reasons for college students to abstain from alcohol and cannabis use on a given day can inform efforts to prevent or intervene in those behaviors. Research on reasons for alcohol nonuse remains in its nascent stages and no study to date has examined reasons for cannabis nonuse on a given day. Here we examine reasons for nonuse among college students after they planned to use alcohol and/or cannabis. METHODS: College students (N = 341; Mage  = 19.79; 53% women; 74% White) from 3 universities completed 54 days of data collection across which approximately 50% were nonuse days. Each morning, participants indicated whether they planned to use that day; nonuse reasons were assessed the next morning, if applicable. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to disentangle within- and between-person effects. RESULTS: On a given nonuse day (at the within-person level), "work" and "school" were reasons associated with having no plan to use alcohol and "to feel in control" was linked to having no plan to use cannabis. "Did not want to get high" was related to forgoing plans (did not use when originally planned) for alcohol use at the within-person level. At the between-person level, "no desire" was associated with no plans for alcohol or cannabis use and "did not want to get high" was related to no plans for cannabis use. "School" and "could not get" were related to forgoing plans for alcohol and cannabis use, respectively, at the between-person level. CONCLUSION: An examination of earlier intentions for alcohol and/or cannabis use on nonuse days yielded novel findings on the intention-behavior gap. Reasons for nonuse can inform intervention and prevention strategies (e.g., those involving social norms or just-in-time adaptive efforts) for alcohol and cannabis use on college campuses.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Intención , Uso de la Marihuana/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Conducta , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(11): e29319, 2021 11 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591780

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Substance use is a risk factor for COVID-19 infection and adverse outcomes. However, reasons for elevated risk for COVID-19 in substance users are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether alcohol or other drug use is associated with adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for COVID-19 mitigation. Preregistered analyses tested the hypothesis that greater use of alcohol and other drugs would be associated with lower CDC guideline adherence. A secondary objective was to determine whether substance use was associated with the likelihood of COVID-19 testing or outcome. METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey was administered to a convenience sample recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform from June 18 to July 19, 2020. Individuals aged 18 years or older and residing in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, or Rhode Island were eligible to participate. The exposure of interest was past 7-day use of alcohol, cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, cannabis, stimulants, and nonmedical opioids. The primary outcome was CDC guideline adherence measured using a scale developed from behaviors advised to reduce the spread of COVID-19. Secondary outcomes were likelihood of COVID-19 testing and a positive COVID-19 test result. All analyses accounted for the sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1084 individuals (mean age 40.9 [SD 13.4] years): 529 (48.8%) men, 543 (50.1%) women, 12 (1.1%) other gender identity, 742 (68.5%) White individuals, 267 (24.6%) Black individuals, and 276 (25.5%) Hispanic individuals. Daily opioid users reported lower CDC guideline adherence than nondaily users (B=-0.24, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.05) and nonusers (B=-0.57, 95% CI -0.76 to -0.38). Daily alcohol drinkers reported lower adherence than nondaily drinkers (B=-0.16, 95% CI -0.30 to -0.02). Nondaily alcohol drinkers reported higher adherence than nondrinkers (B=0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.17). Daily opioid use was related to greater odds of COVID-19 testing, and daily stimulant use was related to greater odds of a positive COVID-19 test. CONCLUSIONS: In a regionally-specific, racially, and ethnically diverse convenience sample, adults who engaged in daily alcohol or opioid use reported lower CDC guideline adherence for COVID-19 mitigation. Any opioid use was associated with greater odds of COVID-19 testing, and daily stimulant use was associated with greater odds of COVID-19 infection. Cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, cannabis, or stimulant use were not statistically associated with CDC guideline adherence, after accounting for sociodemographic covariates and other substance use variables. Findings support further investigation into whether COVID-19 testing and vaccination should be expanded among individuals with substance-related risk factors.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adulto , Prueba de COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(6): 698-711, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472880

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Given the adverse outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use, understanding factors that give rise to occasions of simultaneous use is critical. This study examines the relationships between situational motives and contexts and three situational outcomes: simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM) use versus cannabis-only use, number of cannabis uses, and subjective effects. METHOD: Past-month SAM users (n = 341; 52% female; 75% White; 10% Latinx/Hispanic; age 18-24) from three U.S. college campuses completed 8 weeks of surveys up to five times a day. Three-level generalized linear mixed-effects models tested the effects of situational motives and social and physical contexts on occasion type (SAM vs. cannabis-only), cannabis use, and subjective effects. RESULTS: Situational social and enhancement motives were related to greater odds of SAM relative to cannabis-only use; expansion motives were reported more often on cannabis-only occasions. Using with others and at friends' places, being with others consuming cannabis, and being with others who are intoxicated were more likely when combining alcohol with cannabis. Increased number of cannabis uses and subjective effects in a social context were evident only on cannabis-only occasions. Using alone and using at home were greater on cannabis-only occasions and were associated with lower cannabis use and subjective effects. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of alcohol and cannabis use occurs during social situations and when motivated by positive reinforcement but number of cannabis uses is not increased when consuming cannabis with alcohol in social situations. Characterizing the complex interplay of situational factors that contribute to risky use will inform interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Humanos , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Motivación , Adulto Joven
9.
Addict Behav ; 122: 107037, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284312

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: E-cigarette (e-cig) use is widespread and may play an important role in facilitating smoking reduction. Racial/ethnic minorities are less likely than Whites to use e-cigs and suffer disproportionate tobacco-related disease, making them a priority for harm reduction. This paper explores factors associated with smoking reduction among African American (AA) and Latinx smokers enrolled in a trial assessing toxicant exposure in those assigned to e-cigs or smoking as usual. METHODS: Participants were randomized to receive 6 weeks of JUUL e-cigs or continue smoking cigarettes as usual (N = 187). This analysis focuses on 109 participants randomized to e-cigs. We modeled cigarettes smoked in the past week at baseline and week 6 as a function of a priori selected predictors (number of JUUL pods used throughout the study, baseline cigarette dependence, and baseline cotinine) using a Poisson model fit with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Over the six-week study, cigarette smoking decreased from an average of 82.4 to 15.5 cigarettes per week. Greater numbers of JUUL pods used predicted a greater smoking reduction by week 6 (IRR = 0.94 [0.91, 0.96], p < 0.001). Higher baseline cigarette dependence (IRR = 1.03 [1.01, 1.05], p = 0.004), and baseline cotinine (IRR = 1.18 [1.03, 1.37], p = 0.020) predicted a lesser smoking reduction. CONCLUSIONS: AA and Latinx smokers reduced their cigarette consumption while using JUUL e-cigs. Higher e-cig use during an intervention to switch to e-cigs to reduce harm may facilitate a transition to smoking fewer cigarettes, offering an opportunity to narrow smoking-related health disparities.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Reducción del Consumo de Tabaco , Productos de Tabaco , Afroamericanos , Humanos , Fumadores
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970653

RESUMEN

Substance use in young adulthood and polysubstance users (PSU), in particular, pose unique risks for adverse consequences. Prior research on young adult PSU has identified multiple classes of users, but most work has focused on college students. We examined PSU patterns by age and college attendance during young adulthood in two nationally representative samples. Using National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) Wave 1 and NESARC-III data sets, multigroup latent class analysis (MG-LCA) was employed to examine PSU patterns based on age (18-24 vs. 25-34) and determine whether solutions were similar (i.e., statistically invariant) by college attendance/graduation. Classes were estimated by binary past-year use of sedatives, tranquilizers, opioids/painkillers, heroin, amphetamines/stimulants, cocaine, hallucinogens, club drugs, and inhalants, and past-year frequency of alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis use. PSU patterns are largely replicated across waves. Model fit supported 3-class solutions in each MG-LCA: Low frequency-limited-range PSU (alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis only), medium-to-high frequency limited-range PSU (alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis only), and extended-range PSU (ER PSU; all substances). Apart from one model, MG-LCA solutions were not invariant by college attendance/graduation, suggesting important differences between these groups. Except for alcohol, cannabis, and cigarette use frequency, results showed that probabilities of illicit and prescription drug use declined in the older age group. Findings also supported examining college and noncollege youth separately when studying PSU. ER PSU may be uniquely vulnerable to coingesting substances, particularly for nongraduates, warranting future research to classify patterns of simultaneous PSU and identify predictors and consequences of high-risk combinations (e.g., alcohol and opioids). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705200

RESUMEN

Simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use is common, but it exacerbates negative consequences. Individuals use alcohol and cannabis products in different ways and have distinct reasons for use. The present study examines day-level effects of motives on consequences on SAM-use days, accounting for consumption, and tests whether using multiple alcohol (e.g., beer + liquor) and/or cannabis (e.g., concentrate + leaf) products on the same day mediates these relations. College students engaging in SAM use at least once in the past month (N = 281; Mage = 20.17) completed two bursts of 28 consecutive days of data collection. We examined within-person effects of motives (effect-enhancement, social, offered [it was offered], coping) on number of negative consequences and on experiencing hangover, nausea, or blackout; and indirect effects via two concurrent mediators: using multiple alcohol products and multiple cannabis products. Total effect models showed effect-enhancement motives were related to nausea, social motives to number of total consequences and hangover, and coping motives to blackout. Effect-enhancement, social, and offered motives evinced significant indirect effects on consequence outcomes via multiple alcohol, but not cannabis, product use. Coping motives did not exhibit significant indirect effects, and were related to multiple cannabis, but not alcohol, product use, although all other motives were related to both mediators. Findings support recent work demonstrating within-person relations between social motives and negative consequences on SAM-use days. Limiting the number of alcohol products consumed on SAM-use days may be beneficial, particularly for young adults using to enhance intoxication or for social reasons. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

12.
Addict Behav ; 115: 106783, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360444

RESUMEN

We examined tobacco use changes in young adult college students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on smoking and vaping. First, we evaluated changes in tobacco use from pre to post campus closure focusing on smoking and electronic nicotine vaping frequency (days) and quantity (cigarettes/cartridges per day). Also, given the potential protective effects of pausing (temporarily or permanently discontinuing) smoking or vaping, we evaluated its predictors. We hypothesized that generalized anxiety and moving home would increase the odds of pausing. We also explored effects of COVID-related news exposure and seeking on tobacco use. We re-contacted young adults two years after they completed a study on alcohol and marijuana co-use. A subset (N = 83; 26.6% of the 312 respondents) were enrolled in college and reported use of cigarettes (n = 35) and/or e-cigarettes (n = 69) in the week prior to their campus closing (PC). Paired sample t-tests compared smoking and vaping frequency and quantity PC to past-week use since closing (SC). Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine predictors of pausing. Both smoking and vaping frequency decreased from PC to SC; however, decreased frequency did not correspond to reduced quantity. Twenty-four participants (28.9%) paused past-week use SC. Higher anxiety and moving home (versus living independently) were related to increased odds of pausing, whereas COVID-19 related news exposure and seeking were related to decreased odds of pausing. Characterizing COVID-19 related tobacco use change provides insights into how college students respond to novel health threats and informs potential interventions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Joven
13.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(1): 181-193, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242220

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol and marijuana/cannabis are frequently used simultaneously (i.e., SAM use). SAM use is complex, and the ways in which alcohol and cannabis are simultaneously used may reveal differential effects. The purpose of this study was to examine day-level effects of distinct alcohol and cannabis product combinations on simultaneous use and consequences on that day. METHODS: College student SAM users (N = 274; 50% women; Mage  = 19.82 years) were recruited to complete 54 days of data collection, including 5 repeated daily surveys each day. We identified 12 distinct product combinations reported during SAM-use days. We tested 4 reference groups, with one reflecting the most common use pattern and 3 potentially risky use patterns. We considered 3 outcomes (negative consequences, number of drinks, and number of cannabis uses) and used generalized linear mixed-effects models disentangling within- from between-person effects in all analyses. RESULTS: Using multiple products (≥2) of alcohol was consistently linked to higher odds of experiencing a negative consequence. Combining beer with only one cannabis product (leaf or concentrate) was consistently associated with lower odds of a consequence. Combining cannabis with multiple alcohol products was associated with heavier alcohol consumption. Using dual cannabis products also was associated with heavier cannabis consumption, but this pattern was not significantly different than using concentrate only on a given day. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to examine day-level influences of distinct alcohol and cannabis product combinations on consumption and consequences among young adult SAM users. Findings suggest that mixing alcohol products confers greater risk for negative consequences and heavier consumption, whereas there is little difference in cannabis consumption when using concentrate only vs. 2 cannabis products on a given day, except for concentrate + beer. Our findings support existing protective strategies of not mixing alcohol products and avoiding use of cannabis concentrate for SAM use as well.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Cannabis , Uso de la Marihuana , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores , Adolescente , Cerveza , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
14.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(7): 1468-1478, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530512

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Self-reported consumption is pervasive in alcohol research, though retrospective recall bias is a concern. Fine-grained methods are designed to limit retrospection; yet, discrepancies can arise when comparing responses on fine-grained surveys with responses to retrospective surveys across weeks or months. Many fine-grained studies use both repeated daily surveys (RDS) and end-of-day (EOD) summaries, but little research has examined whether these survey types are consistent. The purpose of this study was to quantify the magnitude and directionality of discrepancy between EOD summaries and RDS and identify alcohol-related predictors of discrepancy. METHODS: As a part of a larger study, college student alcohol and cannabis users (N = 341; 53% women; Mage  = 19.79 years) were recruited to complete 56 days of data collection, including 5 daily assessments of their substance use and related constructs, one of which included an EOD summary of the previous day. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to examine between- and within-person predictors of a 5-category, discrepancy outcome: no discrepancy, low discrepancy where RDS < EOD, low discrepancy where EOD < RDS, high discrepancy where RDS < EOD, and high discrepancy where EOD < RDS. RESULTS: Discrepancies between EOD and RDS were observed in both directions. Alcohol problems predicted more alcohol consumption reported on the EOD survey than across RDS. Within-person alcohol quantity and hourly rate of consumption were most strongly related to less alcohol consumption reported on the EOD survey. Between- and within-person peak subjective intoxication and within-person liquor consumption were associated with discrepancies in both directions. CONCLUSIONS: Surveys requiring more retrospection may overestimate alcohol consumption in problematic drinkers and underestimate consumption on days where more alcohol is consumed than typical. Evidence also suggests that greater day-to-day instability in alcohol behavior is linked to less consistent reporting overall. More research is needed to discern factors contributing to inconsistent reporting on fine-grained surveys to maximize the validity of reports.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol , Intoxicación Alcohólica , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Uso de la Marihuana , Autoinforme , Adolescente , Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
15.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 212: 107986, 2020 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417362

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol and marijuana are frequently co-used with overlapping effects. However, the absence of consistent operational definitions delineating simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM) from concurrent use (CAM) challenges consistent inferences about these behaviors. This study first examined whether daily alcohol and marijuana co-use predicted substance-use related consequences and subjective intoxication; and then evaluated whether competing operationalizations of SAM and CAM were associated with differences in these outcomes on co-use days. METHODS: A sample of 341 young adult college students who reported past-month use of both alcohol and marijuana "at the same time so that their effects overlapped" completed a two-wave survey with paired 28-day daily experience sampling bursts examining alcohol and marijuana co-use. Outcomes were (a) daily substance-use related consequences; and (b) daily subjective intoxication. Focal predictors were daily drinks and marijuana uses; daily co-use versus single-substance use (Aim 1) or CAM versus SAM (Aim 2); and their interaction. RESULTS: Participants reported more negative consequences on co-use days versus marijuana-only days and greater subjective intoxication relative to alcohol or marijuana-only days. Competing operationalizations of SAM, defined as daily co-use occurring within 1-240 min in increments of 1 min, found no difference in consequences or subjective intoxication regardless of operationalization. CONCLUSION: Co-use days involve greater risk than alcohol-only or marijuana-only days. Although there was no evidence of additional daily risk from simultaneous use regardless of the timeframe used to operationalize it, investigating these effects remains challenging due to the generally small timeframe between substances on co-use days in this sample.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Intoxicación Alcohólica/epidemiología , Intoxicación Alcohólica/psicología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/psicología , Adolescente , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades/tendencias , Adulto Joven
16.
Addict Behav ; 105: 106329, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044680

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Historically, cannabis researchers have assumed a single mode and product of cannabis (e.g., smoking plant). However, patterns of use, products (e.g., concentrates, edibles), and modes (e.g. blunts, vaporizers) are diversifying. This study sought to: 1) classify cannabis users into groups based on their use of the full range of cannabis products, and 2) examine user group differences on demographics, cannabis consequences and cannabis use disorder (CUD) symptomatology. METHODS: In a sample of college students (data collected in Fall 2017), who used cannabis in the past year (N = 1390), latent class analysis (LCA) was used to characterize cannabis users. We then added demographic characteristics, cannabis consequences, and CUD symptomatology scores separately to LCA models to examine class differences. RESULTS: Five unique classes emerged: high-frequency all-product users, high-frequency plant/moderate-frequency edible and concentrate users, low-frequency plant users, moderate-frequency plant and edible users, and low-frequency edible users. Demographic characteristics, cannabis consequences, and CUD symptomatology differed across classes characterized by frequency as well as product. CONCLUSIONS: Results reflect the increasing variety of cannabis products, modes, and use patterns among college students. In this sample, frequency of use remains a strong predictor of cannabis-related consequences, in addition to type of product. As variation in cannabis use patterns continue to evolve, it is essential for researchers to conduct comprehensive assessments.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Consumidores de Drogas/clasificación , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Abuso de Marihuana/clasificación , Uso de la Marihuana/tendencias , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes/clasificación , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Joven
17.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 34(2): 370-381, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944787

RESUMEN

College students who use alcohol and marijuana often use them simultaneously, so that their effects overlap. The present study examined whether negative consequences experienced by simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) users vary from those experienced by individuals who use alcohol and marijuana concurrently but not simultaneously (CAM) or single-substance users. We considered 9 types of consequences: cognitive, blackout, vomiting, academic/occupational, social, self-care, physical dependence, risky behaviors, and driving under the influence (DUI). Further, we examined whether consequences experienced by SAM users are attributed to using alcohol, marijuana, or both simultaneously. The sample included past-year alcohol and marijuana users age 18-24 (N = 1,390; 62% female; 69% White; 12% Hispanic) recruited from 3 U.S. college campuses. SAM users experienced a greater overall number of consequences than CAM or alcohol-only users, even controlling for frequency and intensity of alcohol and marijuana use and potentially confounding psychosocial and sociodemographic factors. Experiencing specific consequences differed between simultaneous and concurrent users, but after adjusting for consumption and other covariates, only blackouts differed. In contrast, SAM users were more likely to experience each consequence than alcohol-only users, with strongest effects for DUI, blackouts, and cognitive consequences. Among SAM users, consequences were most likely to be attributed to alcohol and were rarely attributed to simultaneous use. Being a user of both alcohol and marijuana and using alcohol and marijuana together so that their effects overlap each contribute to risk, suggesting there is value in targeting the mechanisms underlying type of user as well as those underlying type of use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
18.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S56-S62, 2019 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867646

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Minimal research exists on adolescent smokers' perceptions of very low-nicotine-content (VLNC) cigarettes. As approximately half of adolescent smokers prefer menthol cigarettes, it is important to consider the influence of menthol preference on VLNC cigarette perceptions and to what extent menthol preference may affect VLNC smoking behavior. This study examined the effects of cigarette nicotine content and menthol preference or menthol smoking on health risk perceptions, subjective ratings, and carbon monoxide (CO) boost in adolescent smokers. METHODS: Across two counterbalanced sessions, adolescent smokers sampled VLNC and normal nicotine content (NNC) research cigarettes following overnight abstinence. Cigarettes were mentholated or non-mentholated consistent with participants' usual brand. In each session, participants smoked the research cigarette and then completed the Perceived Health Risk Scale and Cigarette Evaluation Scale. Breath CO readings were obtained pre- and post-smoking. Mixed-factor ANOVA tests compared outcomes with cigarette type (VLNC vs. NNC) as the within-subjects factor and menthol preference as the between-subjects factor. RESULTS: Participants (N = 50) were M = 17.7 years old, smoked M = 8.2 cigarettes/day, and 56% typically smoked menthol cigarettes. Participants reported lower risk of developing lung cancer, other cancers, emphysema, bronchitis, and heart disease (ps ≤ .05) when smoking VLNC cigarettes relative to NNC cigarettes. Perceived risk of addiction and stroke did not differ by nicotine content. Menthol preference or menthol smoking did not moderate risk perceptions, subjective ratings, or CO boost. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents may incorrectly perceive that VLNC cigarettes are less harmful products. Health communication campaigns could help to correct VLNC misperceptions and potentially minimize unintended consequences of a nicotine reduction policy.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Nicotina , Fumadores , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Monóxido de Carbono , Humanos , Mentol , Riesgo , Fumadores/psicología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(7): 1545-1555, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135972

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol and marijuana users often engage in simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use (i.e., using the 2 substances together so that their effects overlap), which can result in more negative consequences than using either substance alone. Nevertheless, little is known about SAM use among contemporary college students to aid in the development of preventive interventions. This study examined SAM use patterns, demographic correlates of SAM use, and normative influences on SAM use and related negative consequences among college students. METHODS: Students who had used alcohol and marijuana in the past year were recruited from 3 state universities in states with different laws regarding recreational marijuana use (N = 1,389). They completed an online survey, which assessed their own alcohol, marijuana, and SAM use and related consequences, their perceptions of the proportion of same-gender peers and close friends who engaged in SAM use, marijuana access, and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: About three-fourths of participants reported at least 1 occasion of SAM use in the past year with an average frequency of twice per month among SAM users. There were significant differences in SAM use prevalence and frequency by sociodemographic characteristics controlling for past-year alcohol and marijuana frequency. Students in a state with decriminalized recreational marijuana use reported higher frequency of past-year SAM use than students in states with legalized or criminalized use. There were significant demographic differences in perceived norms regarding SAM use among close friends and same-gender peers. SAM users endorsed significantly higher perceived peer and friend norms than nonusers. Also, higher perceived norms predicted more frequent SAM use and more negative consequences of use. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate a need for prevention programs on college campuses that address SAM use. Interventions that use personalized normative feedback may be effective.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Uso de la Marihuana/psicología , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Amigos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Grupo Paritario , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Soc Sci Med ; 228: 135-141, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909157

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Student-athletes are at risk for engaging in drinking games and pregaming. Research suggests that brief motivational and alcohol education intervention approaches designed to reduce harmful drinking behaviors may not be effective in lowering students' participation in drinking games or pregaming. METHOD: We evaluated the effects of myPlaybook (a student-athlete-specific web-based alcohol intervention) on student-athletes' avoidance of drinking games and pregaming over a 4-month period. Seventy-three NCAA member institutions were randomly assigned to the treatment condition or a no-intervention control. Student-athletes at these schools (N = 2449) completed assessments at baseline, 1-, and 4-months post-intervention. At each assessment, participants indicated how often they used each of several harm prevention strategies when they drank in the past month including "avoided drinking games" and "avoided drinking before going out (i.e., pregaming or pre-drinking)." RESULTS: Controlling for gender and race/ethnicity, treatment condition was not associated with change in avoidance of drinking games and pregaming between baseline and either follow-up. Athletic season did not moderate treatment effects on avoidance of either behavior. We found no evidence that myPlaybook, a general alcohol-reduction intervention, is efficacious in influencing student-athletes' avoidance of drinking games or pregaming as a protective strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the present study as well as other research suggest that general alcohol-focused interventions may not have secondary effects on reducing students' participation in drinking games and pregaming and as such, more specific targeted interventions should be investigated.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Atletas/psicología , Promoción de la Salud/normas , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/organización & administración , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
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