Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 45
Filtrar
Más filtros










Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
P R Health Sci J ; 38(3): 176-180, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536631

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cause of cancer death in Puerto Rico (PR). CRC screening rates among PR Hispanics aged ≥ 50 years (57.5%) are below the Healthy People 2020 recommendations (70.5%). Low screening rates can be attributed to lack of education, and beliefs and knowledge about CRC screening procedures. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Caribe Colon inflatable colon model in two community events as an educational tool to increase CRC knowledge, awareness, and intention to undergo CRC screening. METHODS: Participants (aged ≥ 40 years and with no previous CRC history) completed a pre- and post- questionnaire, and took the tour of the Caribe Colon. RESULTS: After completing the tour, survey responses (n=154) revealed a significant increase in CRC knowledge and awareness (p<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression models showed that fear of CRC screening procedures was the primary independent factor for not getting screened after adjusting for age, gender, education, regular visits to a primary care physician, insurance, and history of CRC screening (p=0.006). CONCLUSION: Future studies should focus on understanding and reducing barriers to CRC screening including fear. Patients more knowledgeable about CRC screening procedures may have less fear for CRC screening. Furthermore, educational strategies need to be reinforced to reduce fear; this may lead to an increase in CRC screening rates among Hispanics.

3.
Diseases ; 7(1)2019 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717148

RESUMEN

Gut bacterial toxins are thought to contribute to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study examines the presence of specific gut bacterial toxin genes in stool samples from individuals with colorectal neoplasia (adenomas and/or CRC). The presence of bacterial genes encoding genotoxic or pro-inflammatory factors (pks, tcpC, gelE, cnf-1, AMmurB, and usp) was established by PCR of stool samples from individuals from mainland US (n = 30; controls = 10, adenoma = 10, CRC = 10) and from Puerto Rico (PR) (n = 33; controls = 13; adenomas = 8; CRC = 12). Logistic regression models and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the magnitude of association. Distinct bacterial gene profiles were observed in each sample cohort. In individuals with CRC, AMmurB was detected more frequently in samples from the US and gelE in samples from PR. In samples from PR, individuals with ≥2 gut bacterial toxin genes in stool had higher odds of having colorectal neoplasia (OR = 11.0, 95%: CI 1.0⁻637.1): however, no significant association between bacterial genes and colorectal neoplasia was observed in the US cohort. Further analyses are warranted in a larger cohort to validate these preliminary findings, but these encouraging results highlight the importance of developing bacterial markers as tools for CRC diagnosis or risk stratification.

4.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 12, 2019 02 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786938

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the first cause of cancer deaths among Puerto Ricans. The incidence and mortality of CRC in Puerto Rico continue to be on the rise. The burden of CRC in Puerto Rico is higher than among US Hispanics and is second only to African Americans, thus supporting the importance of studying this CRC health disparity. The genetic background of the Puerto Rican population is a mix of European, African, and Amerindian races, which may account, in part, for the differences observed in the CRC mortality rates among Puerto Ricans. The objective of the study was to assess the role of genetic ancestry in CRC risk and its association with clinicopathological features of CRC tumors in Puerto Ricans. RESULTS: We used a validated panel of 105 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate genetic ancestry in 406 Puerto Rican CRC cases and 425 Puerto Rican controls. We examined the association of genetic ancestry with CRC risk and tumor clinicopathological characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The mean ancestry proportions in the study population were 61% European, 21% African, and 18% Amerindian. No association was observed between genetic ancestry and risk of CRC. However, African ancestry was associated with an increased risk of developing rectal tumors (OR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.04-2.31). Additional studies are needed to fully elucidate the role of African ancestry in CRC carcinogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales/genética , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Afroamericanos/genética , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Hispanoamericanos/genética , Humanos , Indios Centroamericanos/genética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Puerto Rico
5.
AIDS Behav ; 23(5): 1135-1146, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467711

RESUMEN

Anal cancer incidence is higher in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) than in the general population. Participation of PLWHA in anal cancer clinical trials (CTs) is essential; Hispanic PLWHA are underrepresented in CTs. We conducted a behavioral CT among 305 PLWHA in Puerto Rico to measure the efficacy of an educational video in increasing calls and screening into an anal cancer CT. Participants received printed educational materials on anal cancer and CTs; the intervention group also received an educational video. Outcome assessment based on follow-up interviews showed that printed materials increased awareness about CTs and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA), and willingness to participate in an anal cancer CT in both groups. However, the addition of the video increased the likelihood of participants to call the CT for orientation (RRadjusted = 1.66, 95% CI 1.00-2.76; p = 0.05) and pre-screening evaluation (RRadjusted = 1.70, 95% CI 0.95-3.03; p = 0.07). This intervention could help increase participation of Hispanics into anal cancer-related CTs.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Ano/diagnóstico , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Hispanoamericanos/educación , Grabación en Video , Adulto , Neoplasias del Ano/epidemiología , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Puerto Rico/epidemiología
6.
Cancer ; 124(23): 4520-4528, 2018 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345506

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 10% of cancers among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people in the United States. Because Hispanics are disproportionally affected by the HIV epidemic and by infection-related cancers, this study compared incidence rates for HPV-related cancers and survival between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) and non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) in the HIV-infected US population. METHODS: Based on data from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study, standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to estimate cancer risk in HIV-infected Hispanics and the general US Hispanic population. Among HIV-infected people, cancer rates were compared with incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and survival was compared with hazard ratios between Hispanics and NHWs and NHBs. RESULTS: Five hundred two HPV-related cancers occurred in 864,067 person-years of follow-up among HIV-infected Hispanics. Except for oropharyngeal cancer, the risk of HPV-related cancers was higher among HIV-infected Hispanics than in the general population (SIR range, 3.59 [cervical cancer] to 18.7 [anal cancer in men]). Among HIV-infected females, Hispanics had higher cervical cancer rates than NHWs (IRR, 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.43) but lower vulvar cancer rates than NHWs (IRR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.24-0.67) and NHBs (IRR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41-0.95). Among HIV-infected males, Hispanics had higher penile cancer rates than NHWs (IRR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.36-4.96) but lower anal cancer rates than NHWs (IRR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.46-0.63) and NHBs (IRR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.56-0.77). Among HIV-infected Hispanics, 5-year survival was greater than 50% across HPV-related cancer types, with no major differences by racial/ethnic group. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected Hispanics have an elevated risk for HPV-related cancers. Similarly to the general population, HIV-infected Hispanics have higher rates of cervical and penile cancer than NHWs and NHBs. HPV vaccination should be promoted among HIV-infected individuals to reduce the burden of HPV-related cancers.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Ano/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Pene/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Vulva/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Neoplasias del Ano/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Ano/virología , Comorbilidad , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Pene/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Pene/virología , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Análisis de Supervivencia , Estados Unidos/etnología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología , Neoplasias de la Vulva/mortalidad , Neoplasias de la Vulva/virología , Adulto Joven
7.
P R Health Sci J ; 37(1): 39-45, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547683

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading causes of cancer death among men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oligopolyposis (≥20 synchronous colorectal adenomas) and its associated clinicopathological characteristics in Hispanics with incident CRC. METHODS: Pathology reports from individuals diagnosed with CRC (2007 to 2011) were obtained from the PR Central Cancer Registry. Colorectal polyp burden was calculated using pathology reports and the data was normalized to colon segment size. Comparisons of demographic and clinicopathological characteristics by synchronous oligopolyposis status (<20 vs. <= *20) were performed using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). All analyses were performed using Stata (v.12.0). RESULTS: Analyses of 1,573 colectomy specimens was performed. Oligopolyposis was observed in 9.47% (149 of 1,573) of the subjects with incident CRC. Increasing age (aPOR50-64 = 1.72, 95% CI: 0.59-5.02; aPOR65-74 = 1.83, 95% CI: 0.64-5.27; aPOR≥75 = 2.67, 95% CI: 0.93-7.64) and proximal CRC tumor location (POR = 2.91, 95% CI:1.98-4.30) were significantly associated with having oligopolyposis at CRC diagnosis. However, subjects diagnosed with CRC at a regional stage (aPORRegional = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.32-0.79) or distant stage (aPORDistant = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.29-0.69) were less likely to have synchronous oligopolyposis (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that genetic syndromes associated with colorectal polyposis may be implicated in a higher than expected number of CRC cases. Individuals with CRC and synchronous oligopolyposis should receive genetic counseling.


Asunto(s)
Poliposis Adenomatosa del Colon/epidemiología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Neoplasias Primarias Múltiples/epidemiología , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
Helicobacter ; 23(1)2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210527

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is an important etiologic factor for peptic ulcers and gastric cancer, one of the top ten leading causes of cancer death in Puerto Rico. However, the prevalence of H. pylori infections in this population was previously unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of H. pylori and its associated risk factors in Puerto Rico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed using an existing population-based biorepository. Seropositivity was determined using the Premier™ H. pylori immunoassay. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence was estimated with 95% confidence using marginal standardization following logistic regression. To assess the risk factors associated with H. pylori seropositivity, a multivariable log-binomial model was fitted to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). RESULTS: A total of 528 population-based serum samples were analyzed. The mean age of the study population was 41 ± 12 years, of whom 55.3% were females. The overall seroprevalence of H. pylori was 33.0% (95% CI = 28.3%-38.1%). Increasing age and having <12 years of education were significantly (P < .05) associated with H. pylori seropositivity in the multivariable model; however, residing in counties with low population density reached marginal significance (P = .085). CONCLUSIONS: We report that H. pylori infection is common among Hispanics living in Puerto Rico. The H. pylori seroprevalence observed in Puerto Rico is similar to the seroprevalence reported in the overall population of the United States. The association between H. pylori seroprevalence and the risk factors analyzed offers insight into the epidemiology of gastric cancer in Puerto Rico and warrants further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Infecciones por Helicobacter/sangre , Infecciones por Helicobacter/epidemiología , Helicobacter pylori , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Puerto Rico/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
9.
P R Health Sci J ; 36(4): 191-197, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220062

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe how a community-academic partnership between Taller Salud Inc., a community-based organization, and the Puerto Rico Community Cancer Control Outreach Program of the University of Puerto Rico was crucial in the adaptation and implementation of Cultivando La Salud (CLS), an evidencebased educational outreach program designed to increase breast and cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women living in Puerto Rico. This collaboration facilitated the review and adaptation of the CLS intervention to improve cultural appropriateness, relevance, and acceptability for Puerto Rican women. METHODS: A total of 25 interviewers and 12 Lay Health Workers (LHWs) were recruited and trained to deliver the program. The interviewers recruited women who were non-adherent to recommended screening guidelines for both breast and cervical cancer. LHWs then provided one-on-one education using the adapted CLS materials. RESULTS: A total of 444 women were recruited and 48% of them were educated through this collaborative effort. CONCLUSION: Our main accomplishment was establishing the academic-community partnership to implement the CLS program. Nevertheless, in order to promote better collaborations with our community partners, it is important to carefully delineate and establish clear roles and shared responsibilities for each partner for the successful execution of research activities, taking into consideration the community's needs.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Relaciones Comunidad-Institución , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Adulto , Conducta Cooperativa , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Cooperación del Paciente , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Puerto Rico , Adulto Joven
10.
J Community Health ; 42(6): 1141-1147, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28547033

RESUMEN

In Puerto Rico, colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates are increasing. Moreover, adherence rates to CRC screening (52.2%) are still below the goals (70.5%) established by Healthy People 2020. Lack of knowledge is described as a significant barrier to adherence to CRC screening. The aim of this study was to assess CRC knowledge and screening rates among Puerto Rican Hispanics. Participants aged 40-85 years were recruited from the internal medicine outpatient clinics at the University of Puerto Rico. Demographic characteristics and knowledge about CRC, including risk factors and CRC screening tests, were obtained through face-to-face interviews. A mean CRC knowledge score was calculated based on correct responses to 13 validated questions. Mean knowledge scores were evaluated according to demographic characteristics using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. A total of 101 participants were recruited with mean age of 63 (±10.6) years. Fifty-eight (58%) of participants were females, 59% reported ≥12 years of education, and 71% reported ever screening for CRC. The mean CRC knowledge score was significantly lower (p < 0.05) among participants with lower annual family income, those who had never received a recommendation for CRC screening by a healthcare provider, and those who had no history of CRC screening. Knowledge about CRC must be improved in Puerto Rico. Efforts must be made to promote and develop culturally appropriate CRC educational strategies. Future studies should focus on identifying other barriers and factors that may limit CRC screening in the Puerto Rican Hispanic population.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Hispanoamericanos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias Colorrectales/etnología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Detección Precóz del Cáncer , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Puerto Rico/etnología
11.
San Juan, P.R; Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Ciencias Médicas, Escuela Graduada de Salud Pública; 2017. xii, 123 páginas p. ilustraciones (algunas a color), gráficas, tablas.
Tesis en Español | Puerto Rico | ID: por-58889
12.
Cancer Clin Oncol ; 5(2): 29-37, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680047

RESUMEN

Purpose: Ethnic/racial disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) survival have been well documented. However, there is limited information regarding CRC survival among Hispanic subgroups. This study reports the 5-year relative survival of Puerto Rican Hispanic (PRH) CRC patients and the relative risk of death compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the US. Methods: CRC incidence data from subjects ≥50 years was obtained from the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003. Relative survival rates were calculated using the life tables from the population of PR and SEER. A Poisson regression model was used to assess relative risk of death by stage, sex, and age. Results: A total of 76,444 subjects with incident CRC were analyzed (non-Hispanic White (NHW) n=59,686; non-Hispanic black (NHB) n=7,700; US Hispanics (USH) n=5,699; PRH n=3,359). Overall and stage-specific five-year survival rates differed by race/ethnicity. When comparing PRH to the other racial/ethnic groups, PRH had the lowest survival rates in regional cancers and were the only racial/ethnic group where a marked 5-year survival advantage was observed among females (66.0%) compared to males (60.3%). A comparable and significantly higher relative risk of death of CRC was observed for PRH and NHB compared to NHW. Conclusions: Our findings establish baseline CRC survival data for PRH living in Puerto Rico. The gender and racial/ethnic disparities observed in PRH compared to US mainland racial/ethnic groups warrant further investigation of the risk factors affecting this Hispanic subgroup.

13.
Int J Sex Health ; 28(4): 296-305, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28286595

RESUMEN

This secondary data analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of same-sex behavior and sexual and health-related practices of a population-based sample (n=560) of women aged 16-64 years in Puerto Rico (PR). Data collection included interviews and biologic samples. Seven percent of the sample had had sex with other women (WSW). Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that WSW had higher odds of history of cancer, having ≥ 7 lifetime sexual partners, using sex toys and sharing them, and use of tobacco and illicit drugs. Future research is needed to address the health needs of WSW, including cancer-related risk factors and sexual practices.

14.
Fam Cancer ; 15(2): 267-74, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26690363

RESUMEN

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited form of colorectal cancer characterized by hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum. FAP is also associated with thyroid cancer (TC), but the lifetime risk is still unclear. This study reports the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TC in Hispanic FAP patients. TC incidence rates in patients with FAP between the periods of January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2013 were compared with the general population through direct database linkage from the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry (PRCCR) and the Puerto Rico Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry (PURIFICAR). The study population consisted of 51 Hispanic patients with FAP and 3239 with TC from the general population. The SIR was calculated using the Indirect Method, defined as observed TC incidence among patients with FAP in PURIFICAR's cohort (2006-2013) divided by the expected TC incidence based on the PR population rates (2006-2010). SIR values were estimated by sex (male, female, and overall). This study received IRB approval (protocol #A2210207). In Hispanic patients with FAP, the SIR (95% CI) for TC was 251.73 (51.91-735.65), with higher risk for females 461.18 (55.85-1665.94) than males 131.91 (3.34-734.95). Hispanic FAP patients are at a high risk for TC compared to the general population. Our incidence rates are higher than previous studies, suggesting that this community may be at a higher risk for TC than previously assumed. Implementation of clinical surveillance guidelines and regular ultrasound neck screening in Hispanic FAP patients is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Poliposis Adenomatosa del Colon/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/epidemiología , Poliposis Adenomatosa del Colon/complicaciones , Poliposis Adenomatosa del Colon/patología , Adulto , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Puerto Rico/epidemiología , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/etiología , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/patología
15.
Lipids Health Dis ; 14: 111, 2015 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26377420

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While obesity and fat intake have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness and mortality, the association between lipid levels and PCa phenotype remains unclear. Previous reports evaluating this association are inconsistent and highly variable when considering different racial/ethnic groups. There are scarce data regarding this association among Hispanics, and specifically Puerto Rico's Hispanic men, a population with a higher burden of PCa, metabolic syndrome and overweight. This population has a different ancestry profile than other Hispanics from Central and South America. Due to the above the researchers inquired if there is a relationship between serum lipid levels and PCa phenotype in this understudied population using a cohort of patients treated with radical prostatectomy as their first treatment. METHODS: We performed an exploratory retrospective medical record review study of 199 PCa patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2005 and 2012. Variables analyzed included age at PCa diagnosis, Body Mass Index (BMI), preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), lipid levels, and clinical parameters such as prostatectomy pathologic stage and Gleason Score (GS). PCa severity was defined using pathologic stage and GS. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) to define the relationship among clinical characteristics and PCa severity. RESULTS: Mean age for the cohort was 58.8 years (range: 40-75), 78.9 % were overweight or obese, 36.7 % had hypertriglyceridemia, and 35.2 % had low HDL levels. In the unadjusted logistic regression model, hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 2.11, 95 % CI = 1.13-3.93), low HDL (OR: 1.90, 95 % CI = 1.02-3.56-), and age (OR: 2.34, 95 % CI 1.25-4.40) were significantly associated with a diagnosis of high severity of PCa. CONCLUSIONS: In Puerto Rican men with PCa, elevated hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL levels, and age were statistically associated with high grade PCa on bivariate analysis. Total cholesterol level was not associated with severity of disease. Associations lost significance upon multivariate adjustment. These data generate important hypotheses regarding the potential relationship between lipid pathways and PCa development and underscore the need to perform larger scale and longitudinal studies to sort out whether, hypertriglyceridemia is associated with PCa phenotype and development.


Asunto(s)
HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Hipertrigliceridemia/patología , Síndrome Metabólico/patología , Obesidad/patología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Triglicéridos/sangre , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangre , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicaciones , Hipertrigliceridemia/cirugía , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Síndrome Metabólico/cirugía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/cirugía , Oportunidad Relativa , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patología , Próstata/cirugía , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangre , Prostatectomía , Neoplasias de la Próstata/sangre , Neoplasias de la Próstata/complicaciones , Neoplasias de la Próstata/cirugía , Puerto Rico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
16.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 13(9): 1697-9, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25681317

RESUMEN

Patients with serrated polyposis develop multiple colorectal hyperplastic and/or serrated sessile adenomas/polyps. We investigated the risk of colorectal and other cancers by analyzing data from 64 patients with serrated polyposis (mean age at diagnosis, 54 y; 41% men; 92% white) listed in the Johns Hopkins Polyposis Registry. Medical, endoscopic, and histopathology reports were evaluated. Six patients (9.4%) had a history of colorectal cancer, diagnosed at a mean age of 56 years; 6 additional patients (9.4%) had at least 1 advanced colorectal adenoma. Extracolonic cancers were found in 16% of the study population. The standard incidence ratio for colorectal cancer in patients with serrated polyposis was 18.72 (95% confidence interval, 6.87-40.74) and for extracolonic cancer was 31.20 (95% confidence interval, 14.96-57.37), compared with the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population. Patients with serrated polyposis therefore have a high risk for colorectal cancer and require vigilant colorectal surveillance, starting at the time of diagnosis of serrated polyposis. The risk of extracolonic cancer also appears to be increased, but this requires further evaluation.


Asunto(s)
Adenoma/epidemiología , Pólipos del Colon/complicaciones , Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
17.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 17(3): 971-5, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25564340

RESUMEN

This study compared the incidence of lung cancer among Puerto Ricans (PRs) with that of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in the United States. We computed age-standardized rates of lung cancer during 1992-2010 and percentages of change over time. Standardized rate ratios (SRR) were estimated to assess racial/ethnic and gender differences. All men groups showed a significant decline in lung cancer over time but PRs observed the smallest change (-1.2%). For both men and women, PRs had lower incidence rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups (SRR < 1; P < 0.05). Among all groups, men reported higher incidence rates than women but PRs showed the largest gender disparity (SRR = 2.29). This study showed that although PRs exhibited lower incidence rates of lung cancer, this subgroup of Hispanics faced an important burden of lung cancer, principally because PR men had the smallest decline over time and the largest gender difference among all groups.


Asunto(s)
Grupos de Población Continentales , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Puerto Rico/etnología , Distribución por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
18.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 17(4): 1002-9, 2015 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24781780

RESUMEN

This study examined the prevalence and association of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prediabetes with cardiovascular risk factors among Puerto Ricans adults. Data from a household survey of 857 adults aged 21-79 years who underwent interviews, physical exams, and blood draws were analyzed. Prevalence of total DM and prediabetes was estimated using American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Poisson regression models were used to estimate the prevalence ratio for each cardiovascular risk factor under study. Age-standardized prevalence of total DM and prediabetes, detected by FPG and/or HbA1c, was 25.5 and 47.4 %, respectively. Compared with participants with normoglycemia, those with previously diagnosed DM, undiagnosed DM, and prediabetes had more adverse cardiovascular risk factor profiles, characterized by a higher prevalence of general and abdominal obesity, hypertension, low HDL cholesterol, elevated LDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (p < 0.05). The high prevalence of DM and prediabetes calls for public health actions to plan and implement lifestyle interventions to prevent or delay the onset of DM and cardiovascular disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/etnología , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado Prediabético/etnología , Adulto , Anciano , Glucemia/análisis , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Prediabético/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Puerto Rico/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
19.
P R Health Sci J ; 33(2): 39-44, 2014 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24964636

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Scientific findings need to be summarized for the better understanding of the community and for the development of the respective preventive actions that they espouse, suggest, or imply. The news media play a critical role in communicating health information to the public. Among chronic diseases, cancer receives a great deal of attention from the media, possibly because of its position as a leading cause of death. While the news media are vital to the dissemination of health information, one of the main information sources comes from epidemiological studies. Thus, it is important that health professionals interpret the results of these studies in order to efficiently communicate the results in a thorough and comprehensible manner. This special article aims to guide health professionals through the process of reading and interpreting the most relevant components of epidemiological literature. METHODS: Guiding questions were prepared based on the main components of the aforementioned literature. RESULTS: An abstract that was chosen from the available literature was used for the responses to the proposed guiding questions. CONCLUSION: We expect that reading the proposed questions will improve the communication and dissemination of epidemiological findings, thereby contributing to the understanding of the health problems of our community. Also, we expect the readers to visit the recommended web sites presented at the end of this document for more complete definitions of the epidemiological terms found herein.


Asunto(s)
Diseño de Investigaciones Epidemiológicas , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Comunicación , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Terminología como Asunto
20.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 11: E80, 2014 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24831284

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers and the risk of death (by cancer status) among people living with AIDS (PLWA) in Puerto Rico. We used data from the Puerto Rico AIDS Surveillance Program and Central Cancer Registry (1985-2005). Cancers with highest incidence were cervix (299.6/100,000) for women and oral cavity/oropharynx for men (150.0/100,000); the greatest excess of cancer incidence for men (standardized incidence ratio, 86.8) and women (standardized incidence ratio, 52.8) was for anal cancer. PLWA who developed a cancer had decreased survival and increased risk of death compared with those who did not have cancer. Cancer control strategies for PLWA will be essential for improving their disease survival.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/virología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/complicaciones , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbilidad , Costo de Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/etiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Puerto Rico/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Vigilancia de Guardia , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis de Supervivencia , Adulto Joven
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA