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1.
Viruses ; 15(12)2023 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38140542

RESUMEN

Monkeypox virus (MPXV), belonging to the Poxviridae family and Orthopoxvirus genus, is closely related to the smallpox virus. Initial prodromal symptoms typically include headache, fever, and lymphadenopathy. This review aims to detail various ocular manifestations and immune evasion associated with the monkeypox viral infection and its complications, making it appropriate as a narrative review. Common external ocular manifestations of MPXV typically involve a generalized pustular rash, keratitis, discharges, and dried secretions related to conjunctival pustules, photophobia, and lacrimation. Orthopoxviruses can evade host immune responses by secreting proteins that antagonize the functions of host IFNγ, CC and CXC chemokines, IL-1ß, and the complement system. One of the most important transcription factors downstream of pattern recognition receptors binding is IRF3, which controls the expression of the crucial antiviral molecules IFNα and IFNß. We strongly recommend that ophthalmologists include MPXV as part of their differential diagnosis when they encounter similar cases presenting with ophthalmic manifestations such as conjunctivitis, blepharitis, or corneal lesions. Furthermore, because non-vaccinated individuals are more likely to exhibit these symptoms, it is recommended that healthcare administrators prioritize smallpox vaccination for at-risk groups, including very young children, pregnant women, older adults, and immunocompromised individuals, especially those in close contact with MPXV cases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de la Córnea , Monkeypox virus , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Preescolar , Anciano , Evasión Inmune , Vacunación , Párpados
2.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36851765

RESUMEN

Non-human primates contribute to the spread of yellow fever virus (YFV) and the establishment of transmission cycles in endemic areas, such as Brazil. This study aims to investigate virological, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in livers of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) infected with the YFV. Viremia occurred 1-30 days post infection (dpi) and the virus showed a predilection for the middle zone (Z2). The livers were jaundiced with subcapsular and hemorrhagic multifocal petechiae. Apoptosis, lytic and coagulative necrosis, steatosis and cellular edema were also observed. The immune response was characterized by the expression of S100, CD11b, CD57, CD4 and CD20; endothelial markers; stress and cell death; pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as Treg (IL-35) and IL-17 throughout the experimental period. Lesions during the severe phase of the disease were associated with excessive production of apoptotic pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, released by inflammatory response cells (CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes) and associated with high expression of molecules of adhesion in the inflammatory foci observed in Z2. Immunostaining of the local endothelium in vascular cells and the bile duct was intense, suggesting a fundamental role in liver damage and in the pathogenesis of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Amarilla , Animales , Saimiri , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla , Hígado , Citocinas
3.
J Clin Med ; 7(12)2018 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487475

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The recent Zika virus(ZIKV) epidemic in Brazil was characterized by a range of different clinical presentations, particularly microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and death. In this context, we determined the causal relationship between fatal microcephaly cases and ZIKV infection. METHODS: Twelve fatal cases of neonates, whose mothers were infected with ZIKV during pregnancy, were examined; cases included nine neonatal deaths due to microcephaly, one miscarriage, and two stillbirths. Tissue samples were obtained from all cases at necropsy and were submitted for virological investigation (RT-qPCR and virus isolation) and/or histopathology (hematoxylin and eosin staining) and immunohistochemical assay for the detection of ZIKV antigens. RESULTS: ZIKV antigens and/or ZIKV RNA were detected in tissue samples of all 12 cases examined. ZIKV was recovered in one case. Results of the virological and immunohistochemical analyses, as well as the anatomic abnormalities and histopathologic changes observed at necropsy on the 12 fatal cases, are presented. CONCLUSIONS: Data from these 12 cases provide strong evidence of the causal relationship between ZIKV and congenital disease in fetuses of women who were infected with the virus during pregnancy.

4.
Am J Pathol ; 188(11): 2644-2652, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121258

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA flavivirus that possesses a genome approximately 10.7 Kb in length. Although pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and apoptotic markers belonging to the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways are suggested to be involved in fatal cases of ZIKV-induced microcephaly, their exact roles and associations are unclear. To address this, brain tissue samples were collected from 10 individuals, five of whom were diagnosed as ZIKV positive with microcephaly and a further five were flavivirus-negative controls that died because of other causes. Examination of material from the fatal cases of microcephaly revealed lesions in the cerebral cortex, edema, vascular proliferation, neuronal necrosis, gliosis, neuronophagy, calcifications, apoptosis, and neuron loss. The expression of various apoptosis markers in the neural parenchyma, including FasL, FAS, BAX, BCL2, and caspase 3 differed between ZIKV-positive cases and controls. Further investigation of type 1 and 2 helper T-cell cytokines confirmed a greater anti-inflammatory response in fatal ZIKV-associated microcephaly cases. Finally, an analysis of the linear correlation between tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor-ß, and IL-33 expression and various apoptotic markers suggested that the immune response may be associated with the apoptotic phenomenon observed in ZIKV-induced microcephaly.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis , Microcefalia/inmunología , Microcefalia/patología , Neuronas/inmunología , Tejido Parenquimatoso/inmunología , Infección por el Virus Zika/complicaciones , Virus Zika/patogenicidad , Citocinas/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Microcefalia/virología , Neuronas/patología , Neuronas/virología , Tejido Parenquimatoso/patología , Tejido Parenquimatoso/virología , Embarazo , Infección por el Virus Zika/virología
5.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1, 2018 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311619

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused a pandemic disease, and many cases of ZIKV infection in pregnant women resulted in abortion, stillbirth, deaths and congenital defects including microcephaly, which now has been proposed as ZIKV congenital syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the in situ immune response profile and mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in fatal Zika microcephaly cases. Brain tissue samples were collected from 15 cases, including 10 microcephalic ZIKV-positive neonates with fatal outcome and five neonatal control flavivirus-negative neonates that died due to other causes, but with preserved central nervous system (CNS) architecture. In microcephaly cases, the histopathological features of the tissue samples were characterized in three CNS areas (meninges, perivascular space, and parenchyma). The changes found were mainly calcification, necrosis, neuronophagy, gliosis, microglial nodules, and inflammatory infiltration of mononuclear cells. The in situ immune response against ZIKV in the CNS of newborns is complex. Despite the predominant expression of Th2 cytokines, other cytokines such as Th1, Th17, Treg, Th9, and Th22 are involved to a lesser extent, but are still likely to participate in the immunopathogenic mechanisms of neural disease in fatal cases of microcephaly caused by ZIKV.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Nervioso Central/inmunología , Sistema Nervioso Central/metabolismo , Inmunidad , Microcefalia/etiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/complicaciones , Virus Zika , Apoptosis , Biomarcadores , Biopsia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Recién Nacido , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Modelos Biológicos , Infección por el Virus Zika/virología
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 6(1): 82, 2017 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28457229

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The impact of leprosy reduces health-related quality of life of affected patients, interfering with different factors such as nutrition. This study investigated the lipid profile, nutritional status, and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients who underwent leprosy treatment in Brazil. METHODS: Eighty-four adult patients of both genders ranging in age from 20 to 60 years and diagnosed with paucibacillary (PB) or multibacillary (MB) leprosy were selected after undergoing multidrug treatment. The following data were collected: sociodemographic and clinical data; food intake; anthropometric measures (weight, height, and waist circumference); and lipid profile components (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], and triglycerides). RESULTS: Among the study population, there was a predominance of males (65.48%) aged 50 to 60 years, patients with an income of 248-496 American dollars (63.10%), patients who completed elementary school (65.48%), inactive patients (76.19%), non-smokers (46.43%), and non-drinking patients (69.05%). The levels (mean ± standard deviation) of total cholesterol were 193.8 ± 29.4 mg/dL in the PB form and 203.5 ± 41.7 mg/dL in the MB form. The mean LDL-c was 116.9 ± 22.7 mg/dL in PB patients and 121 ± 31.3 mg/dL in MB patients. Mean triglyceride levels were 123.4 ± 45.2 mg/dL in the PB form and 147.4 ± 88.9 mg/dL in the MB form. The evaluation of nutritional status showed that 41.67% of the patients were eutrophic, while 55.96% had excess weight. Food intake was significantly associated with HDL-c in male patients (P = 0.0264) and with triglycerides in patients above the ideal weight (P = 0.0049). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of acquiring CVDs was observed to be high due to patients' excess weight and increased waist circumference. This study will guide clinicians in the adequate treatment of patients with leprosy in order to avoid adverse cardiovascular events.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Colesterol/sangre , Lepra/tratamiento farmacológico , Lepra/epidemiología , Triglicéridos/sangre , Adulto , Tamaño Corporal/fisiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Estudios de Cohortes , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/complicaciones , Lepra/metabolismo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
7.
Microb Pathog ; 78: 29-36, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25450888

RESUMEN

Jorge Lobo's disease is a rare mycosis characterized by chronic inflammation, which causes skin lesions in the absence of visceral dissemination. The disease occurs mainly in hot and humid climates and most cases have been registered in the Brazilian Amazon region. This study investigated possible microvascular alterations in skin lesions caused by infection with Lacazia loboi which may interfere with the clinical progression of the disease. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the density of blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as expression of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin. The results showed a reduced number of blood (62.66 ± 20.30 vessels/mm(2)) and lymphatic vessels (3.55 ± 5.84 vessels/mm(2)) in Jorge Lobo's disease when compared to control skin (169.66 ± 66.38 blood vessels/mm(2) and 8 ± 2.17 lymphatic vessels/mm(2)). There were a larger number of vessels expressing ICAM-1 (27.58 ± 15.32 vessels/mm(2)) and VCAM-1 (7.55 ± 6.2 vessels/mm(2)). No difference was observed in the expression of E-selectin (4.66 ± 11 vessels/mm(2)). Taken together, the results indicate changes in the local microvasculature which may interfere with the development of an efficient cell-mediated immune response and may explain restriction of the fungus to the site of injury.


Asunto(s)
Células Endoteliales/patología , Lacazia/fisiología , Lobomicosis/patología , Microvasos/patología , Piel/irrigación sanguínea , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Brasil , Selectina E/genética , Selectina E/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Molécula 1 de Adhesión Intercelular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adhesión Intercelular/metabolismo , Lobomicosis/genética , Lobomicosis/metabolismo , Lobomicosis/microbiología , Masculino , Microvasos/metabolismo , Microvasos/microbiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Piel/metabolismo , Piel/patología , Molécula 1 de Adhesión Celular Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adhesión Celular Vascular/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
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