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4.
An Bras Dermatol ; 95(4): 508-510, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522447

RESUMEN

This study analyzed the trend of leprosy indicators in Sergipe, between 2001 and 2015. It was a time series study that analyzed the trend for general detection coefficient, children under 15 years of age, and new cases with grade 2 disability. The joinpoint model was used. Two (2.6%) municipalities had an increasing trend in general detection coefficient, five (6.6%) had an increasing trend in detection rate in children under 15, and 19 (25.3%) had an increasing trend in detection coefficient of new leprosy cases with grade 2 disability. The findings suggest maintenance of the chain of transmission.

6.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4): 407-413, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578771

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Analyzing the association between ABI and the main risk factors for coronary artery disease in coronary patients. METHODS: Were selected 156 adult patients from a hospital in Maceió, Alagoas. Were evaluated with risk factors age, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and dyslipidemia. PAOD screening was performed by the ankle-brachial index (ABI). The Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests were used. Confidence Interval of 95% and a significance of 5%. RESULTS: 67.3% (n=105) males, 52.6% (n=82) elderly, 23.1% (n = 34) obese, 72.4% 6% (n=113) hypertensive, 34.6% (n=54) diabetics, 53.2% (n=83) smokers, 34.6% (n=54) dyslipidemic and 70.5% (n=110) with a family history of CAD. 16.7% (n=26) of the individuals presented PAOD. Three factors were associated with PAOD: age group ≥ 60 years (OR:3.656; p=0.005), diabetes mellitus (OR:2.625; p=0.024) and hypertension (OR:5.528; p=0.008). No significant difference was observed in the variables smoking, dyslipidemia, family history of CAD, and obesity. CONCLUSION: The independent risk factors for PAOD were age, diabetes mellitus, and systemic arterial hypertension.

8.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e047, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401828

RESUMEN

The emergence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its association with severe pneumonia and deaths has exposed gaps in the health systems of several countries worldwide. Although the necessary focus has been to care for hospitalized patients, the strengthening of Primary Health Care (PHC) actions is necessary. PHC is the gateway to the health system in several countries, including Brazil and it plays a role in preventing, protecting, promoting, and treating individuals and communities. Brazil, like other countries, has faced the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. As Brazil has a universal and decentralized health system, in which PHC has been the model of health re-organizing the health system; here we reflected the importance of strengthening PHC in Brazil in the times of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/normas , Programas Nacionales de Salud/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Atención Primaria de Salud/normas , Brasil , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Programas Nacionales de Salud/organización & administración , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración
11.
Preprint en Inglés | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-390

RESUMEN

The emergence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its association with severe pneumonia and deaths has exposed gaps in the health systems of several countries worldwide. Although the necessary focus has been to care for hospitalized patients, the strengthening of Primary Health Care (PHC) actions is necessary. PHC is the gateway to the health system in several countries, including Brazil and it plays a role in preventing, protecting, promoting, and treating individuals and communities. Brazil, like other countries, has faced the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. As Brazil has a universal and decentralized health system, in which PHC has been the model of health re-organizing the health system; here we reflected the importance of strengthening PHC in Brazil in the times of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

12.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190199, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187335

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The number of syphilis cases among pregnant women in Brazil has increased. This study aimed to analyze the temporal trend of syphilis indicators among pregnant women in Northeast Brazil. METHODS: A time-series study was performed. RESULTS: We observed an increase in the detection rate of syphilis among pregnant women, those aged 15-19 years, and those of brown ethnicity. A strong correlation was observed between the detection rate of syphilis and family health strategy coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increase in primary care coverage, The increase in cases of syphilis among pregnant women is still considered a challenge.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Atención Prenatal , Sífilis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Adulto Joven
13.
Cad. saúde colet., (Rio J.) ; 28(1): 107-115, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1098143

RESUMEN

Resumo Introdução A tuberculose (TB) é uma doença infectocontagiosa causada pelo complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Objetivo Analisar a tendência e o perfil epidemiológico dos casos de TB registrados no Estado de Alagoas no período de 2007 a 2016. Método Trata-se de estudo descritivo envolvendo todos os casos de TB registrados em Alagoas entre 2007 e 2016. Inicialmente, foi analisada a tendência da taxa de incidência utilizando o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão (joinpoint regression). Para a análise das características epidemiológicas, foram selecionadas as variáveis: raça, gênero, faixa etária, escolaridade, classificação da doença, tipo de entrada, 1ª e 2ª baciloscopia, cultura de escarro e testagem para HIV. Resultados A taxa média de incidência do período foi de 33,43/100 mil habitantes, com tendência de redução estatisticamente significativa (APC -2,97%). Houve predomínio do gênero masculino (62,98%), cor parda (65,20%), idade entre 25 e 54 anos (60,35%) e ensino fundamental incompleto (35,17%). Com relação aos aspectos clínicos, 86,32% dos indivíduos apresentaram a forma pulmonar. A sorologia para o HIV não foi realizada em 41,58% dos casos. Quanto à evolução, 67,42% obtiveram alta com cura e 12,52% foram encerrados como abandono de tratamento. Conclusão A TB ainda representa um importante problema de saúde pública em Alagoas, sinalizando a necessidade de políticas públicas que oportunizem o diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento oportuno.


Abstract Background Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Objective To analyze the trend and the epidemiological profile of tuberculosis cases registered in the state of Alagoas from 2007 to 2016. Method This is a descriptive study involving all cases of tuberculosis registered in Alagoas between 2007 and 2016. Initially, it analyzed the incidence rate trend using the joinpoint regression model. For the analysis of epidemiological characteristics, the variables: race, gender, age group, education, disease classification, type of entry, 1st and 2nd smear microscopy, sputum culture, HIV testing were selected. Results The average incidence rate for the period was 33.43 per 100,000 populations, with a statistically significant reduction trend (APC: -2.97%). There was a predominance of males (62.98%), brown ethnicity (65.20%), age between 25 and 54 years (60.35%) and incomplete primary schooling (35.17%). Regarding the clinical aspects, 86.32% of the individuals presented the pulmonary form. HIV serology was not performed in 41.58% of cases. As for evolution, 67.42% evolved with cure and 12.52% were terminated as treatment abandonment. Conclusion Tuberculosis still represents an important public health problem in Alagoas, signaling the need for public policies that provide early diagnosis and timely treatment.

14.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200007, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130396

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is a disease that reserves close relation with social and economic conditions. Brazil is the only country that has not yet reached the goal of eliminating the disease as a public health problem. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze social deprivation in the municipalities of Bahia and its relation with the detection of new cases of leprosy in the population. METHODS: It is an ecological study conducted in the state of Bahia, from 2001 to 2015. Variables analyzed: detection rate of new cases, social deprivation index (SDI) and Hansen's disease in children under 15 years of age. The SDI was built on four variables: socioeconomic performance index, per capita income, proportion of extremely poor, and household density. For spatial analysis, local empirical bayesian modeling and global and local Moran statistics were used. Statistical analysis used multivariate, spatial and logistic regression, odds ratio calculation and analysis of variance. RESULTS: Leprosy showed heterogeneous distribution in the state, with concentration in the north-west and south axis. 60.4% (n = 252) of the municipalities presented very low life conditions. An association was observed between living conditions and the detection of leprosy, with higher coefficients in the municipality group with better living conditions (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the worst conditions acted as an impediment to the diagnosis, while increasing the risk of illness. Good conditions have the opposite effect.


Asunto(s)
Lepra/epidemiología , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Análisis de Varianza , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Ciudades/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacial
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(1): 91-94, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1088716

RESUMEN

Abstract This ecological study aims to analyze both the tendency and the characteristics of leprosy in the elderly population in the state of Bahia, 2001-2017. The tendency was analyzed through joinpoint regression. Epidemiological variables were also included in the study. The average detection rate was 38.73/100,000, with prevalence of men (45.19/100,000). A downward trend occurred in both genders, from 2004, with a greater magnitude in women (annual percent change [APC] = −3.4%). Men presented higher proportions of the multibacillary forms and physical disabilities. The epidemiological scenario indicates the need of implementation of actions that stimulate early diagnosis and treatment of the elderly population.

16.
An Bras Dermatol ; 95(1): 91-94, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889593

RESUMEN

This ecological study aims to analyze both the tendency and the characteristics of leprosy in the elderly population in the state of Bahia, 2001-2017. The tendency was analyzed through joinpoint regression. Epidemiological variables were also included in the study. The average detection rate was 38.73/100,000, with prevalence of men (45.19/100,000). A downward trend occurred in both genders, from 2004, with a greater magnitude in women (annual percent change [APC]=-3.4%). Men presented higher proportions of the multibacillary forms and physical disabilities. The epidemiological scenario indicates the need of implementation of actions that stimulate early diagnosis and treatment of the elderly population.


Asunto(s)
Lepra/epidemiología , Distribución por Edad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Endémicas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Factores de Tiempo
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190262, 2020. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1057292

RESUMEN

Abstract INTRODUCTION We aimed to analyze the relationship between visceral leishmaniasis mortality and social determinants of health (SDH). METHODS This was an ecological study of all leishmaniasis-related deaths in Brazil, from 2001 to 2015. We analyzed 49 indicators of human development and social vulnerability. The association was tested using the classical and spatial regression model. RESULTS Mortality was associated with indicators that expressed low human development and high social vulnerability: lack of garbage collection, low schooling, unemployment rate, low per capita income, and income inequality (Gini index). CONCLUSIONS: There was an association between high mortality by leishmaniasis and low SDH.

18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190262, 2020. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1092211

RESUMEN

Abstract INTRODUCTION We aimed to analyze the relationship between visceral leishmaniasis mortality and social determinants of health (SDH). METHODS This was an ecological study of all leishmaniasis-related deaths in Brazil, from 2001 to 2015. We analyzed 49 indicators of human development and social vulnerability. The association was tested using the classical and spatial regression model. RESULTS Mortality was associated with indicators that expressed low human development and high social vulnerability: lack of garbage collection, low schooling, unemployment rate, low per capita income, and income inequality (Gini index). CONCLUSIONS: There was an association between high mortality by leishmaniasis and low SDH.

19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190199, 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1092218

RESUMEN

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The number of syphilis cases among pregnant women in Brazil has increased. This study aimed to analyze the temporal trend of syphilis indicators among pregnant women in Northeast Brazil. METHODS: A time-series study was performed. RESULTS: We observed an increase in the detection rate of syphilis among pregnant women, those aged 15-19 years, and those of brown ethnicity. A strong correlation was observed between the detection rate of syphilis and family health strategy coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increase in primary care coverage, The increase in cases of syphilis among pregnant women is still considered a challenge.

20.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200007, 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1092619

RESUMEN

RESUMO: Introdução: A hanseníase é uma doença que guarda estreita relação com as condições sociais e econômicas. O Brasil é o único país que ainda não alcançou a meta de eliminação da doença como problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a associação entre a carência social dos municípios baianos e a detecção de casos novos de hanseníase na população, como instrumento para a definição de áreas prioritárias para intervenção. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo ecológico realizado no estado da Bahia, no período de 2001 a 2015. Variáveis analisadas: coeficiente de detecção casos novos, índice de carência social (ICS) e hanseníase em menores de 15 anos. O ICS foi construído com base em quatro variáveis: índice de performance socioeconômica, renda per capita, proporção de extremamente pobres e densidade domiciliar. Na análise espacial, foram utilizadas modelagem bayesiana empírica local e estatística de Moran global e local. Na análise estatística, foram empregados regressão multivariada, espacial e logística, cálculo do odds ratio e análise de variância. Resultados: A hanseníase apresentou distribuição heterogênea no estado, com concentração no eixo norte-oeste e sul. Dos municípios, 60,4% (n = 252) apresentaram muito baixa condição de vida. Observou-se associação entre as condições de vida e a detecção da hanseníase, com maiores coeficientes no grupo de município com melhor condição de vida (p < 0,001). Conclusão: As piores condições atuaram como um impeditivo ao diagnóstico, ao mesmo tempo que ampliaram o risco de adoecimento. As boas condições possuem efeito inverso.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Leprosy is a disease that reserves close relation with social and economic conditions. Brazil is the only country that has not yet reached the goal of eliminating the disease as a public health problem. Objective: This study aimed to analyze social deprivation in the municipalities of Bahia and its relation with the detection of new cases of leprosy in the population. Methods: It is an ecological study conducted in the state of Bahia, from 2001 to 2015. Variables analyzed: detection rate of new cases, social deprivation index (SDI) and Hansen's disease in children under 15 years of age. The SDI was built on four variables: socioeconomic performance index, per capita income, proportion of extremely poor, and household density. For spatial analysis, local empirical bayesian modeling and global and local Moran statistics were used. Statistical analysis used multivariate, spatial and logistic regression, odds ratio calculation and analysis of variance. Results: Leprosy showed heterogeneous distribution in the state, with concentration in the north-west and south axis. 60.4% (n = 252) of the municipalities presented very low life conditions. An association was observed between living conditions and the detection of leprosy, with higher coefficients in the municipality group with better living conditions (p < 0.001). Conclusion: It was concluded that the worst conditions acted as an impediment to the diagnosis, while increasing the risk of illness. Good conditions have the opposite effect.

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