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2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(47): 20717-26, 2013 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24192645

RESUMEN

Hyperpolarization techniques, such as Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), can provide a dramatic increase in the signal obtained from nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and may therefore enable new applications where sensitivity is a limiting factor. In this contribution, studies of the (1)H and (19)F Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization enhancements at 345 mT are presented for three different aromatic solvents with the TEMPO radical for a range of radical concentrations. Furthermore, nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion measurements of the same solutions are analyzed, showing contributions from dipolar and scalar coupling modulated by translational diffusion and different coupling efficiency for different solvents and nuclei. Measurements of the electron paramagnetic resonance linewidth are included to support the analysis of the DNP saturation factor for varying radical concentration. The results of our study give an insight into the characteristics of nitroxide radicals as polarizing agents for (19)F Overhauser DNP of aromatic fluorinated solvents. Furthermore, we compare our results with the findings of the extensive research on Overhauser DNP that was conducted in the past for a large variety of other radicals.


Asunto(s)
Benceno/química , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/química , Electrones , Flúor/química , Halogenación , Hidrógeno/química , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Solventes/química
3.
Acc Chem Res ; 46(9): 1996-2007, 2013 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23480021

RESUMEN

The function of synthetic and natural macromolecularsystems critically depends on the packing and dynamics of the individual components of a given system. Not only can solid-state NMR provide structural information with atomic resolution, but it can also provide a way to characterize the amplitude and time scales of motions over broad ranges of length and time. These movements include molecular dynamics, rotational and translational motions of the building blocks, and also the motion of the functional species themselves, such as protons or ions. This Account examines solid-state NMR methods for correlating dynamics and function in a variety of chemical systems. In the early days, scientists thought that the rotationalmotions reflected the geometry of the moving entities. They described these phenomena as jumps about well-defined axes, such as phenyl flips, even in amorphous polymers. Later, they realized that conformational transitions in macromolecules happen in a much more complex way. Because the individual entities do not rotate around well-defined axes, they require much less space. Only recently researchers have appreciated the relative importance of large angle fluctuations of polymers over rotational jumps. Researchers have long considered that cooperative motions might be at work, yet only recently they have clearly detected these motions by NMR in macromolecular and supramolecular systems. In correlations of dynamics and function, local motions do not always provide the mechanism of long-range transport. This idea holds true in ion conduction but also applies to chain transport in polymer melts and semicrystalline polymers. Similar chain motions and ion transport likewise occur in functional biopolymers, systems where solid-state NMR studies are also performed. In polymer science, researchers have appreciated the unique information on molecular dynamics available from advanced solid-state NMR at times, where their colleagues in the biomacromolecular sciences have emphasized structure. By contrast, following X-ray crystallographers, researchers studying proteins using solution NMR introduced the combination of NMR with computer simulation before that became common practice in solid-state NMR. Today's simulation methods can handle partially ordered or even disordered systems common in synthetic polymers. Thus, the multitechnique approaches employed in NMR of synthetic and biological macromolecules have converged. Therefore, this Account will be relevant to both researchers studying synthetic macromolecular and supramolecular systems and those studying biological complexes.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 51(44): 11068-72, 2012 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23038051

RESUMEN

To tilt or not to tilt: The crystal structure for bulk P3HT (phase I) was determined by "multi-technique crystallography", which combines X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations. The results showed that this semiconducting polymer crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with nontilted π-stacks at a distance of 3.9 Š(see picture).


Asunto(s)
Polímeros/química , Tiofenos/química , Rastreo Diferencial de Calorimetría , Cristalografía por Rayos X , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Semiconductores
6.
J Magn Reson ; 213(2): 326-8, 2011 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21890390

RESUMEN

The development of four-pulse DEER as described, which has been published in the Journal of Magnetic Resonance more than 10 years ago. The corresponding paper is an example where a slight advance, such as adding a refocusing pulse, which in retrospect looks so simple, can have a remarkable impact on an entire field of science. In our case it offered a simple way to exact measurements of distances between defined species in the nanometer range. The current applications are mainly in determining structures of proteins and nucleic acids.


Asunto(s)
Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética/métodos
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(8): 2605-12, 2011 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21291267

RESUMEN

In this article, the design paradigm involving molecular weight, alkyl substituents, and donor-acceptor interaction for the poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-alkyl-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (cyclopentadithiophene-benzothiadiazole) donor-acceptor copolymer (CDT-BTZ) toward field-effect transistors (FETs) with ultrahigh mobilities is presented and discussed. It is shown that the molecular weight plays a key role in improving hole mobilities, reaching an exceptionally high value of up to 3.3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Possible explanations for this observation is highlighted in conjunction with thin film morphology and crystallinity. Hereby, it is found that the former does not change, whereas, at the same time, crystallinity improved with ever growing molecular weight. Furthermore, other important structural design factors such as alkyl chain substituents and donor-acceptor interaction between the polymer backbones potentially govern intermolecular stacking distances crucial for charge transport and hence for device performance. In this aspect, for the first time we attempt to shed light onto donor-acceptor interactions between neighboring polymer chains with the help of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). On the basis of our results, polymer design principles are inferred that might be of relevance for prospective semiconductors exhibiting hole mobilities even exceeding 3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 46(47): 8932-4, 2010 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21046034

RESUMEN

Three-dimensional conjugated poly(azomethine) networks were found to be promising candidates for applications in photocatalytic water splitting. Straightforward synthetic protocols lead to fully organic photocatalysts that showed enhanced long-time stability. Furthermore, the catalytic performance of these materials was correlated to the molecular composition and the optoelectronic properties of the samples.

11.
J Magn Reson ; 204(1): 50-5, 2010 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20207180

RESUMEN

Significant (13)C NMR signal enhancement by a factor of 5000 of a barbituric acid derivative (5-methyl-5-propenyl-barbituric acid) via parahydrogen induced polarization is presented. This hyperpolarization is achieved by hydrogenating 5-methyl-5-propargyl-barbituric acid with 98% enriched para-H(2) under elevated temperature and pressure and transferring the initially created (1)H hyperpolarization with an INEPT-derived pulse sequence to (13)C. The polarization can be selectively transferred to different carbons in the barbituric acid derivative by applying different pulse delays in the INEPT pulse sequence. These results demonstrate the potential of using hyperpolarized barbituric acid derivatives as "active" contrast agents in MRI and visualizing their pharmacokinetics in vivo.


Asunto(s)
Barbitúricos/química , Medios de Contraste/análisis , Medios de Contraste/síntesis química , Hidrógeno/química , Aumento de la Imagen/métodos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Isótopos de Carbono/química
12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 11(40): 9241-9, 2009 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19812845

RESUMEN

Solid-state guest dynamics of tetratolyl tetraurea calix[4]arene tetrapentylether dimeric capsules filled with different types of aromatic guests such as benzene-d6, fluorobenzene-d5 and 1,4-difluorobenzene were studied. Upon inclusion, all guest moieties revealed complexation-induced shifts varying from 2.8 ppm to 5.1 ppm. All guest molecules were shown to undergo distinct motions, ranging from mere C6-rotations of benzene-d6 to (ill-defined) 180 degrees phenyl flips of fluorobenzene-d5. In all cases, dynamic heterogeneities were identified based on 2H lineshape deconvolution. In addition, by combination of both a computed nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) map and explicit 19F and 2H ab initio DFT chemical shift calculations, the preferred orientation of the guest molecules within the host was derived.


Asunto(s)
Calixarenos/química , Fenoles/química , Teoría Cuántica , Urea/química , Benceno/química , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Conformación Molecular , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular
13.
J Phys Chem B ; 113(27): 9151-60, 2009 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19534450

RESUMEN

(1)H MAS solid-state NMR methods are applied to elucidate the conduction mechanism of an anhydrous proton conducting triazole-functionalized polysiloxane. At temperatures below T = 260 K, hydrogen bonding between neighboring heterocycles is observed and a dimer formation can be excluded. From the temperature dependence of (1)H MAS NMR spectra, different dynamic processes of the triazole ring contributing to the proton conduction process are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and detailed insight into the conduction mechanism and temperature-dependent structural changes is obtained. Although the dynamics processes on the molecular level are qualitatively in good agreement with the findings from macroscopic conductivity measurements, temperature-dependent factors on mesoscopic scales beyond the local molecular mobility influence the macroscopic conductivity and hamper quantitative interpretation.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 48(25): 4617-20, 2009.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19437520

RESUMEN

Branching out: The mobility of linear polymers changes upon branching, which has a pronounced effect on processability and drawability. Regularly branched model polyolefins were studied by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and twist defects around the branches in the crystalline regions are identified. For lower branch content, the twisting motions are decoupled; for higher content, collective motion is found (see picture).

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 131(21): 7216-7, 2009 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19469570

RESUMEN

Recently, the synthesis of organic materials with high porosity has received considerable scientific interest, and various chemical approaches have been applied to the build-up of microporous polymer networks. In a novel catalyst-free process using Schiff base chemistry, melamine has been reacted with various di- and trivalent aldehydes to form a series of highly cross-linked microporous aminal networks with BET surface areas as high as 1377 m(2)/g and a NLDFT micropore volume of up to 0.41 cm(3)/g. It was shown that through the proper choice of the starting compounds the porosity of the final material can be fine-tuned. The materials contain up to 40 wt % of nitrogen and were also found to exhibit high thermal stability. Owing to the cheap and abundant monomers used in this study these networks are promising candidates for large-scale applications in gas storage, gas separation, catalysis, and sensing.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 48(25): 4621-4, 2009.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19455530

RESUMEN

Always on the move: Molecular dynamics of perylene cores in columnar structures influences the processability and self-healing of these materials. A combination of X-ray scattering and advanced solid-state NMR methods show that these systems have restricted angular mobility of the cores even in the frozen phase, and a cooperative spiral type of motion in the liquid crystalline phase (see picture).

17.
J Phys Chem B ; 113(19): 6674-81, 2009 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19385594

RESUMEN

Two novel phosphonic acid-based "dry" proton exchange membrane materials that may allow for fuel cell operation above 100 degrees C have been prepared and characterized via solid-state 1H and 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy. We obtained information on both the nature of hydrogen bonding and local proton mobilities among phosphonic acid moieties. In particular, 2H MAS NMR line shape analysis yielded apparent activation energies of the underlying motional processes. Using this approach, we have investigated both a model compound and a novel PEM system. It was found that the relation of estimated hydrogen-bond strength and local proton mobility accessible by solid-state NMR and bulk proton conductivity is complex. Improvements through admixture of a second component with protogenic groups are suggested.

18.
J Phys Chem B ; 113(16): 5448-57, 2009 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19301888

RESUMEN

The thermotropic, structural, and morphological properties of blends of a disk-like liquid crystalline phthalocyanine derivative and a lath-shaped perylenetetracarboxidiimide mesogen derivative have been studied by combining differential scanning calorimetry, thermal polarized optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and atomic force microscopy. The two compounds are fully miscible for blends containing at least 60 mol % of the disk-like molecule. In such composition range, the homogeneous blends form a columnar hexagonal (Col(h)) mesophase for which the thermal stability is enhanced compared to that of the corresponding mesophase of the pure phthalocyanine. The miscible blends self-align homeotropically between two glass slides. For blends containing between 55 and 40 mol % of the disk-shaped molecule, the two components are fully miscible at high temperature but the perylene derivative forms a separate crystalline phase when the temperature is decreased. Phase separation is systematically observed in blends containing less than 40 mol % of the discotic molecule. In this case, the resulting Col(h) mesophase is less stabilized compared to the blends containing a larger amount of the phthalocyanine derivative. These phase-separated blends do not show any homeotropic alignment. AFM investigations confirm the formation of a single columnar morphology in the phthalocyanine-rich blends, consistent with the full miscibility between the two compounds. Solid-state NMR measurements on the mixed phase show the influence of the presence of the perylene molecules on the molecular dynamics of the molecules; remarkably, the presence of the host molecules improves the local order parameter in the phthalocyanine columnar phase.


Asunto(s)
Indoles/química , Cristales Líquidos/química , Perileno/química , Cristalografía por Rayos X , Electrones , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Estructura Molecular , Tamaño de la Partícula , Solubilidad , Temperatura Ambiental
19.
J Phys Chem B ; 113(5): 1360-6, 2009 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19140734

RESUMEN

Bulk-phase self-assembly of a series of semifluorinated alkanes (SFAs) with hydrocarbon chains of varying length has been investigated by 19F NMR spectroscopy. At room temperature, a single 19F resonance for the terminal sCF3 group was observed at -81.7 ppm for perfluorododecylhexane (F12H6), whereas a sCF3 resonance was seen at -82.5 ppm for perfluorododecyldodecane (F12H12) and perfluorododecyleicosane (F12H20). This difference in chemical shift position is ascribed to the different molecular packing geometries, i.e., a monolayer lamellar structure for F12H6 vs a bilayer lamellar organization for F12H12 and F12H20. Moreover, in F12H12, a solid-solid phase transition from bilayer to monolayer lamellae can be followed by 19F NMR spectroscopy. 1H/19F-->13C CPMAS experiments indicated that the phase transition is accompanied by disordering of hydrocarbon chains, but does not involve a significant conformational change in the fluorocarbon chains. Yet, a change in the 19F T1 relaxation times was found to occur at the phase transition temperature, suggesting a change in the packing environments of the fluorocarbon chains. Two-dimensional exchange NMR experiments yielded cross-peaks between terminal sCF3 and inner sCF2CH2s moieties for the high-temperature monolayer phase, providing clear evidence for the spatial proximity between these groups. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model for the phase transition involving bilayer lamellae and monolayer lamellae with hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon interdigitation.


Asunto(s)
Alcanos/química , Hidrocarburos Fluorados/química , Isótopos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Temperatura Ambiental , Factores de Tiempo
20.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 30(4-5): 278-98, 2009 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21706605

RESUMEN

This work highlights the results of recent efforts to understand the hierarchical self-assembly and dynamics of polypeptides with the aid of different NMR techniques, X-ray scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy. The concerted application of these techniques sheds light on the origin of the glass transition, the persistence of the α-helical peptide secondary motif, and the effects of topology and packing on the type and persistence of secondary structures. With respect to the freezing of the dynamics at the liquid-to-glass temperature it was found that the origin of this effect is a network of defected hydrogen bonds. The presence of defected hydrogen-bonded regions reduces the persistence length of α-helices. Block copolypeptides provide means to manipulate both the type and persistence of peptide secondary structures.

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