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1.
Nephron ; : 1-10, 2020 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434210

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the effect of posttransplant opioid use on adherence to immunosuppressant therapy (IST) among adult renal transplant recipients (RTRs). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between opioid use and IST adherence among adult RTRs during the first year posttransplant. METHODS: Longitudinal data were analyzed from a retrospective cohort study examining US veterans undergoing renal transplant from October 1, 2007, through March 31, 2015. Data were collected from the US Renal Data System, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Data (Medicare Part D), and Veterans Affairs pharmacy records. Dose of opioid prescriptions was collected and divided based on annual morphine milligram equivalent within a year of transplant. Proportion of days covered of greater than or equal to 80% indicated adherence to tacrolimus. Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: A study population of 1,229 RTRs included 258 with no opioid use, while 971 opioid users were identified within the first year after transplantation. Compared to RTRs without opioid usage, RTRs with opioid usage had a lower probability of being adherent to tacrolimus in unadjusted logistic regression (odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]): 0.22 [0.07-0.72]) and adjusted logistic regression (OR [95% CI]: 0.11 [0.03-0.44]). These patterns generally remained consistent in unadjusted and adjusted main and sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate RTRs who use prescription opioids during the first year posttransplant, regardless of the dosage/amount, are less likely to be adherent to tacrolimus. Future studies are needed to better understand underlying causes of the association between opioid use and tacrolimus nonadherence.

2.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 84(2): 7561, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226072

RESUMEN

Objective. To examine predictors of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students' on-time graduation, dismissal from pharmacy school, and scores on their first attempt at taking the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX). Methods. A retrospective review of student records for the graduating classes of 2015-2018 at a college of pharmacy was performed. Data on the following were collected: student demographics/characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, financial need), having an undergraduate degree, undergraduate science grade point average (GPA), Pharmacy College Admission Test composite score percentile, pharmacy school GPAs for the didactic portion of the curriculum, Pre-NAPLEX score, on-time graduation from pharmacy school, dismissal from pharmacy school, and outcome (pass/fail) of first-attempt at taking the NAPLEX. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results. Of the 657 students whose records were included in the study, the majority were female (60%) and non-Hispanic white (70%). Higher first-year GPA was associated with increased likelihood of on-time graduation, while increased age and having an undergraduate degree were associated with a decreased likelihood of on-time graduation. A higher first-year GPA was associated with decreased likelihood of being dismissed from pharmacy school. Appearing before the Academic Standing and Promotion Review Committee for unsatisfactory academic performance was associated with decreased likelihood of passing the NAPLEX. Conclusion. First-year pharmacy school GPA is a critical predictor for student pharmacists in terms of on-time graduation and dismissal, and may have consequences for later NAPLEX outcome. Pharmacy schools should closely monitor students' performance during the first year and provide support to students experiencing academic difficulties.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146134

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Tennessee has one of the highest rates of opioid prescribing in the United States; therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine availability, pricing, and pharmacist-initiated recommendations of naloxone in retail community pharmacies in Eastern and Western Tennessee; to identify the most common barriers to naloxone dispensing and strategies to improve access; and to determine regional differences in access to naloxone. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey conducted via telephone. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All retail community pharmacies located in the most populous counties in the eastern and western regions of Tennessee were eligible for inclusion, as were all retail community pharmacies in the 5 counties in each region that had the highest rates of opioid prescriptions (316 pharmacies identified in 12 counties). OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcome measures included availability, price, and pharmacist-initiated recommendations of naloxone products, barriers to dispensing, and suggestions to improve naloxone access. Survey responses were summarized as descriptive statistics. Chi-square, independent samples t test, and inductive content analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Response rate was 56.3%. Most participants (92.7%) reported that naloxone (Narcan) was available from their pharmacies at a mean cash price of $132.49, with no statistically significant differences between regions. The most commonly reported barrier was cost (70.2%). When queried about recommendations to various groups at a high risk of overdose, as advised by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 42.1% to 69.1% of pharmacies reported recommending naloxone to at least 50% of high-risk patients. Suggestions to increase naloxone access included lowering the cost and improving naloxone-related education for patients, pharmacists, and other providers. CONCLUSION: Although Narcan was widely available, cost was a frequently cited barrier to dispensing. Pharmacist-initiated recommendations for coprescribing and dispensing naloxone to patients at a high risk of overdose were limited. Addressing cost issues in addition to increasing patient and pharmacist education concerning the use and benefit of naloxone were suggested to improve naloxone access.

4.
Rheumatol Ther ; 7(1): 133-147, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741182

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Treatment guidelines recommend low-dose corticosteroids as short-term therapy among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. However, it may be difficult to wean/eliminate steroids once initiated. Initiation of more effective therapies such as biologics may help to taper corticosteroid use. The objective was to examine the impact of adalimumab (ADA) initiation on steroid utilization and non-drug medical costs among patients with RA. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted among adult RA patients initiating ADA as the initial biologic in the MarketScan Database (2012-2016). Study outcomes included whether oral/injectable steroids were used, daily dose, dosage categories (< 5 and ≥ 5 mg/day), number of steroid injections, and non-drug medical costs. Outcomes were compared 6 months pre- and post-ADA initiation. Mixed effects logistic, classical linear, multinomial logistic models, and linear model with a log link and gamma distribution were used to adjust for patient demographic and health characteristics. RESULTS: The sample included 7404 ADA initiators. Compared to pre-ADA initiation, in the post-initiation period there was a reduction in proportions of patients using oral steroids (from 71.80 to 62.56%) and injectable steroids (from 34.91 to 29.88%), average daily dose of oral steroids (from 3.30 to 2.62 mg/day), patients with dose ≥ 5 mg/day (from 21.76 to 16.34%), number of injections (from 0.64 to 0.53), and non-drug medical costs (from $5356.30 to $5146.84) (P < 0.01). The multivariate analysis produced similar patterns. For example, post-ADA initiation, patients were less likely to use oral steroids [odds ratio (OR) 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.56]; coefficient estimate for daily dose reduction was - 0.68 (95% CI - 0.81 to - 0.56); ratio estimate for medical costs was 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with RA, following ADA initiation, there is a reduction in steroid utilization and dosage, and non-drug medical costs. Prospective studies should be conducted to confirm this relationship in the future.

5.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(9): 7460, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871361

RESUMEN

Objective. To evaluate educational debt-to-income trends in pharmacy, dentistry, medicine, optometry, and veterinary medicine in the United States from 2010 to 2016. Methods. A retrospective analysis of educational debt and income for selected health professions was conducted. Data on student loan debt were collected from professional organizations and data on income were collected from the American Community Survey. Ratios of the mean educational debt of graduating students to the median annual income for their respective profession were calculated for 2010 through 2016. Average change per year in debt, income, and debt-to-income ratio were calculated. Results. Debt-to-income ratios for all selected health professions except medicine exceeded 100%. For physicians, debt-to-income ratios ranged from 89% to 95%. On average, physicians (-0.3 percentage point) and optometrists (-0.5 percentage point) had negative changes in their debt-to-income ratios from 2010 to 2016. Average increases per year in debt-to-income ratio of veterinarians, pharmacists, and dentists were 5.5, 5.7, and 6.0 percentage points, respectively. From 2010 to 2016, dentists had the largest average increase per year in debt ($10,525), while physicians had the largest average increase per year in income ($6667) and a minimal average debt increase per year ($5436). Pharmacists had the second largest average increase per year in debt ($8356). Conclusion. Educational debt-to-income ratios in the United States increased considerably over the past decade among pharmacists, dentists, and veterinarians and can negatively impact health professionals as well as patient care. Innovative strategies are needed to alleviate the educational debt burden.

6.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(6): 6875, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507285

RESUMEN

Objective. To assess the impact of pharmacy school characteristics on the pass rates of students taking the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) for the first time. Methods. A retrospective review of NAPLEX first-time pass rates, pharmacy school characteristics and percent of total graduating class who matched for a first postgraduate year (PGY1) residency was performed for 2014, 2015, and 2016. All US colleges of pharmacy accredited as of July 2017 were included. Independent samples t tests, paired samples t tests, correlational analysis, and multiple linear regression were conducted. Results. The first-time pass rates on the NAPLEX were significantly higher for the following: schools located within an academic health center; schools established before 2000, and public schools. The 2016 NAPLEX first-time pass rate was significantly higher for schools with a traditional four-year program structure versus an accelerated three-year structure. Also, a school's first-time pass rate on the NAPLEX was positively, significantly correlated with percentage of fourth-year students who matched for a PGY1 residency and being located within an academic health center. The NAPLEX first-time pass rate for the previous year and percent of the total graduating class that matched for a PGY1 residency were significant predictors in the final regression models for 2015 and 2016 NAPLEX first-time pass rates. Conclusion. While differences in certain program characteristics was coorelated with NAPLEX pass rate, many of these factors are not modifiable. Programs can proactively and critically evaluate their educational programs and the readiness of their students to sit for the NAPLEX.

7.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(6): 6896, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507286

RESUMEN

Objective. To develop a valid and reliable academic resilience scale for use in the didactic portion of the Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum to identify those pharmacy students who have greater capacity to overcome academic adversity. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among first-year, second-year, and third-year pharmacy students to assess psychometric properties of a 30-item adapted academic resilience scale. Data were also collected using the Short Grit Scale (Grit-S). Demographic characteristics were collected from student records. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to determine the number of underlying factors responsible for data covariation. Principal components analysis was used as the extraction method. Varimax rotation method was used, and the Cronbach alpha was estimated. Validity testing was conducted by calculating Pearson's r correlations between the adapted academic resilience scale and Grit-S. Results. The survey response rate was 84%. The final version of the scale, the Academic Pharmacy Resilience Scale (APRS-16), had four subscales and 16 items (14 items failed to load on any of the factors and were deleted). The Cronbach alpha was .84, indicating strong internal consistency. The APRS-16 and its subscales were significantly correlated to the Grit-S and its subscales, providing evidence of effective convergent validity. Conclusion. Evidence supports the reliability and validity of the APRS-16 as a measure of academic resilience in pharmacy students. Future studies should use the APRS-16 to investigate the relationship between academic resilience and performance outcomes among pharmacy students.

8.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(7): 424-435, 2019 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361827

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to (1) provide information concerning the opioid crisis including origins, trends, and some important related laws/policies; and (2) summarize the current involvement and impact of pharmacists in helping to address the crisis, as well as examine practices in other healthcare disciplines from which pharmacists might derive guidance and strategies. SUMMARY: Contributors to the opioid crisis included campaigns to treat pain as a fifth vital sign and to use opioids in treatment of non-cancer-related pain, as well as aggressive marketing of opioid analgesics by pharmaceutical companies. To address the crisis, numerous strategies have been implemented at the policy/legislative, health-system, and patient levels, such as prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), increased regulation of pain clinics, and expanded use of naloxone. Pharmacists have a critical role to play in interventions to address opioid misuse and reduce harm resulting from misuse. Such interventions include patient screening and risk stratification, patient and community education and outreach concerning appropriate pain management, medication reviews/medication therapy management, education on safe storage and disposal, distribution of naloxone/opioid rescue kits and training on their proper use, and referral of patients to addiction treatment, among other strategies. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists have multiple, complex roles in addressing the opioid crisis. Outcomes of several studies provide substantial evidence that pharmacists can make an impact through appropriate pain management, use of PDMPs, opioid overdose prevention training, and medication reviews and counseling, among other interventions.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/efectos adversos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/epidemiología , Manejo del Dolor/métodos , Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Consejo , Publicidad Directa al Consumidor/legislación & jurisprudencia , Revisión de la Utilización de Medicamentos/organización & administración , Política de Salud , Humanos , Prescripción Inadecuada/efectos adversos , Prescripción Inadecuada/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prescripción Inadecuada/prevención & control , Administración del Tratamiento Farmacológico/organización & administración , Naloxona/uso terapéutico , Antagonistas de Narcóticos/uso terapéutico , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/etiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/terapia , Servicios Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Mal Uso de Medicamentos de Venta con Receta/efectos adversos , Mal Uso de Medicamentos de Venta con Receta/legislación & jurisprudencia , Mal Uso de Medicamentos de Venta con Receta/prevención & control , Rol Profesional , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(4): 6608, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223146

RESUMEN

Objective. To examine the association between certain demographic and admission measures and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) performance in a cohort of pharmacy students. Methods. A retrospective review of demographic characteristics, admissions data [cumulative and science admission Grade Point Average (GPA), Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) scores], and OSCE scores was performed for the Class of 2017 at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Results. Female students scored significantly higher than male students on the Warfarin OSCE - Standardized Patient (SP) rated General Communication Skills and on the Warfarin OSCE - Faculty rated Patient Interviewing Skills. Age was significantly, inversely correlated with Warfarin OSCE - Faculty rated Therapeutic Knowledge score. Warfarin OSCE - SP rated General Communication Skills score was significantly, positively related to PCAT composite score and PCAT reading comprehension score. PCAT composite score was significantly, inversely correlated to Warfarin OSCE - Faculty rated Patient Interviewing Skills score. Warfarin OSCE - Faculty rated General Communication Skills score was significantly, positively related to cumulative admission GPA and admission science GPA. Conclusion. Eight statistically significant correlations were found between demographic and admissions measures and specific OSCE scores. Regression models were significant but explained a low percentage of the variance in OSCE scores, suggesting other factors not included in the study have a greater effect on scores. Such factors may include knowledge acquired in pharmacy school courses such as the therapeutics course series.

10.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 11(7): 710-718, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227094

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Knowledge related to the use of virtual patients (VP) in pharmacy education is limited in relation to student satisfaction with this learning technique. This project aimed to assess students' confidence and impressions in using their communication skills with a VP and to evaluate their skills using this technology. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: This explanatory mixed-methods study was conducted with first-year doctor of pharmacy students. Fourteen survey items that addressed confidence in student abilities and VP impressions were analyzed. Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted to compare pre- and post- scores. Student reflections were reviewed to obtain primary themes and concerns. Descriptive statistics were used for student grades. FINDINGS: Out of 205 students, 203 completed the pre-survey and 163 completed the post-survey. Responses regarding pre-post confidence indicated statistically significant improvement (p < 0.001) for 8 of 10 survey items as follows: understand history taking, conduct an organized interview, elicit subjective information, ask follow-up questions, ask questions related to severity, document subjective data, document objective data, and organize an interview. Regarding their impressions toward VPs, student responses were improved and statistically significant (p < 0.001) for 1 of 4 survey items (tools are easy to use). Forty-two students stressed the need to improve their written communication skills in the self-reflection. The average grade for subjective data was 31.48% and for objective data was 93.66%. SUMMARY: This VP program improved student confidence in their verbal and written communication skills despite low subjective data scores.

11.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(2): 6516, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962637

RESUMEN

Objective. To examine relationships between students' demographic and academic performance factors and their scores on the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Methods. Students' PCOA scores and demographics (eg, age, race/ethnicity, sex), preadmission data [eg, cumulative and science grade point average (GPA), Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT)], and academic performance variables (eg, pharmacy GPA, academic standing) were analyzed for one class of third-year pharmacy students (N=159). Independent t-tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to compare scores by demographic variables. Pearson's r correlations were used to assess relationships between PCOA scores and age, PCAT scores, and GPA. Stepwise linear regression was conducted to determine the predictive ability of variables with significant correlations to PCOA performance. Results. Significant correlations were found between sex and PCOA scores with males scoring higher than females. Significant correlations with PCOA scores were also found for PCAT scores, pre-pharmacy science GPA, and pharmacy didactic GPA. Significant differences were found by academic standing, where students in academic difficulty who were allowed to proceed without repeating curricular content scored significantly lower on the PCOA than those who did not experience academic difficulty. Conversely, there were no statistical differences between those who repeated courses and those who never experienced academic difficulty. PCOA performance predictors in the final regression model included PCAT composite score, pharmacy GPA and sex. Conclusion. New findings included differences in PCOA scores by sex and by academic standing, a variable not previously explored in published studies. Findings have implications for remediation decisions in pharmacy curricula.

12.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(3): 581-587, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674080

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Previous research indicates that eligibility criteria for medication therapy management (MTM) services in Medicare prescription drug (Part D) plans, defined under the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA), are associated with racial/ethnic disparities and ineffective in identifying individuals with medication utilization issues. Our study's objective was to determine the comparative effectiveness of MTM eligibility criteria under MMA and in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in identifying patients with medication utilization issues across racial/ethnic groups. DESIGN: ACA and MMA MTM eligibility criteria were compared on proportions of eligible individuals among patients with medication utilization issues. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to control for patient/community characteristics. Need-based and demand-based analyses were used to determine disparities due to need and demand for healthcare. Main/sensitivity analyses were conducted for the range of eligibility thresholds. SETTING: Medicare data (2012-2013) linked to Area Health Resources Files. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 964 610 patients 65 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: Medication safety/adherence measures, developed primarily by the Pharmacy Quality Alliance, were used to determine medication utilization issues. RESULTS: Higher proportions of patients were eligible based on ACA than MMA MTM eligibility criteria. For example, in 2013, proportions based on ACA and MMA MTM eligibility criteria would be 99.7% and 26.2%, respectively, in the main analysis (p < .001); in the demand-based main analysis, ACA criteria were associated with 13.6% and 9.8%, respectively, higher effectiveness than MMA criteria among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites. CONCLUSION: ACA MTM eligibility criteria are more effective than MMA criteria in identifying older patients needing MTM, particularly among minorities. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:581-587, 2019.

13.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 12: 2325-2338, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464420

RESUMEN

Optimizing wellness and health are the most critical goals for patients post solid-organ transplantation. Low health literacy has important implications for wellness and health, increasing patient risk for negative health outcomes. More than 30% of the general US patient population has low health literacy, and solid-organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) may be especially vulnerable to low health literacy and its adverse impact on health outcomes. A comprehensive literature review was conducted and a model was adapted to better depict factors associated with low health literacy. Based on the Paasche-Orlow and Wolf model of health literacy, the Health Literacy Model in Transplantation (HeaL-T) provides a foundation to visually demonstrate the relationships among variables associated with low health literacy and to develop evidence-based strategies to improve care. The model depicts a number of patient and healthcare level factors associated with health literacy, several of which have bi-directional or reciprocal relationships, including access and utilization of healthcare, provider-patient interaction, and self-management/adherence. The impact of these factors and their relationships to SOTR outcomes are reviewed. The HeaL-T represents an important step in developing holistic understanding of the complexity of health literacy in SOTRs and offers clinicians a base from which to design strategies to mitigate adverse health effects including increased hospitalizations, graft failure, and mortality.

14.
Inquiry ; 55: 46958018795749, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175638

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to examine positive predictive value (PPV) of medication therapy management (MTM) eligibility criteria under Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in identifying patients with medication utilization issues across racial and ethnic groups. The study analyzed Medicare data (2012-2013) for 2 213 594 beneficiaries. Medication utilization issues were determined based on medication utilization measures mostly developed by Pharmacy Quality Alliance. MMA was associated with higher PPV than ACA in identifying individuals with medication utilization issues among non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) and Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites (whites). For example, odds ratio for having medication utilization issues to whites when examining MMA in 2013 and ACA were 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.15) among blacks, and 1.17 (95% CI = 1.10-1.24) among Hispanics, in the main analysis. Therefore, MMA was associated with 9% and 17% higher PPV than ACA in identifying patients with medication utilization issues among blacks and Hispanics, respectively, than whites.


Asunto(s)
Grupos de Población Continentales , Determinación de la Elegibilidad/tendencias , Grupos Étnicos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Administración del Tratamiento Farmacológico/tendencias , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare Part D/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
15.
Clin Transplant ; 32(9): e13353, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022527

RESUMEN

Starting in 2015, the American Society of Transplantation Psychosocial Community of Practice, with representatives of the Transplant Pharmacy Community of Practice, convened a taskforce to develop a white paper that focused on clinically practical, evidenced-based interventions that transplant centers could implement to increase adherence to medication and behavioral recommendations in adult solid organ transplant recipients. The group focused on what centers could do in their daily routines to implement best practices to increase adherence in adult transplant recipients. We developed a list of strategies using available resources, clinically feasible methods of screening and tracking adherence, and activities that ultimately empower patients to improve their own self-management. We limited the target population to adults because they predominate the research, and because adherence issues differ in pediatric patients, given the necessary involvement of parents/guardians. We also examined broader multilevel areas for intervention including provider and transplant program practices. Ultimately, the task force aims to foster greater recognition, discussion, and solutions required for implementing practical interventions targeted at improving adherence.


Asunto(s)
Adhesión a Directriz/normas , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Inmunosupresores/administración & dosificación , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Trasplante de Órganos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/normas , Adulto , Humanos , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Pronóstico , Sociedades Médicas
16.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 24(2): 97-107, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384031

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous research found racial and ethnic disparities in meeting medication therapy management (MTM) eligibility criteria implemented by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in accordance with the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA). OBJECTIVE: To examine whether alternative MTM eligibility criteria based on the CMS Part D star ratings quality evaluation system can reduce racial and ethnic disparities. METHODS: This study analyzed the Beneficiary Summary File and claims files for Medicare beneficiaries linked to the Area Health Resource File. Three million Medicare beneficiaries with continuous Parts A, B, and D enrollment in 2012-2013 were included. Proposed star ratings criteria included 9 existing medication safety and adherence measures developed mostly by the Pharmacy Quality Alliance. Logistic regression and the Blinder-Oaxaca approach were used to test disparities in meeting MMA and star ratings eligibility criteria across racial and ethnic groups. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether there was a disparity reduction by comparing individuals who were MTM-eligible under MMA but not under star ratings criteria and those who were MTM-eligible under star ratings criteria but not under the MMA. Concerning MMA-based MTM criteria, main and sensitivity analyses were performed to represent the entire range of the MMA eligibility thresholds reported by plans in 2009, 2013, and proposed by CMS in 2015. Regarding star ratings criteria, meeting any 1 of the 9 measures was examined as the main analysis, and various measure combinations were examined as the sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: In the main analysis, adjusted odds ratios for non-Hispanic blacks (backs) and Hispanics to non-Hispanic whites (whites) were 1.394 (95% CI = 1.375-1.414) and 1.197 (95% CI = 1.176-1.218), respectively, under star ratings. Blacks were 39.4% and Hispanics were 19.7% more likely to be MTM-eligible than whites. Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to be MTM-eligible than whites in some sensitivity analyses. Disparities were not completely explained by differences in patient characteristics based on the Blinder-Oaxaca approach. The multinomial logistic regression of each main analysis found significant adjusted relative risk ratios (RRR) between whites and blacks for 2009 (RRR = 0.459, 95% CI = 0.438-0.481); 2013 (RRR = 0.449, 95% CI = 0.434-0.465); and 2015 (RRR = 0.436, 95% CI = 0.425-0.446) and between whites and Hispanics for 2009 (RRR = 0.559, 95% CI = 0.528-0.593); 2013 (RRR = 0.544, 95% CI = 0.521-0.569); and 2015 (RRR = 0.503, 95% CI = 0.488-0.518). These findings indicate a significant reduction in racial and ethnic disparities when using star ratings eligibility criteria; for example, black-white disparities in the likelihood of meeting MTM eligibility criteria were reduced by 55.1% based on star ratings compared with MMA in 2013. Similar patterns were found in most sensitivity and disease-specific analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that minorities were more likely than whites to be MTM-eligible under the star ratings criteria. In addition, MTM eligibility criteria based on star ratings would reduce racial and ethnic disparities associated with MMA in the general Medicare population and those with specific chronic conditions. DISCLOSURES: Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health under award number R01AG049696. The content of this study is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Cushman reports an Eli Lilly grant and uncompensated consulting for Takeda Pharmaceuticals outside this work. The other authors have no potential conflicts of interest to report. Study concept and design were contributed by Wang and Shih, along with Wan, Kuhle, Spivey, and Cushman. Wang, Qiao, and Wan took the lead in data collection, with assistance from the other authors. Data interpretation was performed by Wang, Kuhle, and Qiao, with assistance from the other authors. The manuscript was written by Spivey and Qiao, along with the other authors, and revised by Cushman, Dagogo-Jack, and Chisholm-Burns, along with the other authors.


Asunto(s)
/legislación & jurisprudencia , Grupos de Población Continentales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Determinación de la Elegibilidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Grupos Étnicos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medicare Part D/legislación & jurisprudencia , Administración del Tratamiento Farmacológico/legislación & jurisprudencia , Afroamericanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/legislación & jurisprudencia , Femenino , Regulación Gubernamental , Hispanoamericanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Beneficios del Seguro/legislación & jurisprudencia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Oportunidad Relativa , Formulación de Políticas , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
17.
J Pharm Health Serv Res ; 9(4): 393-401, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906425

RESUMEN

Objectives: To compare the predictive value positives (PVP) of medication therapy management eligibility criteria under the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in identifying individuals with medication utilization issues (MUI). Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of Medicare database (2012-2013). MUI were determined based on medication utilization measures related to Medicare Part D Star Ratings. PVP or proportions of individuals with MUI were compared between individuals eligible for MTM under MMA and ACA. Need-based and demand-based logistic regression was used to adjust for patient characteristics. MTM eligibility thresholds in 2009 and 2013 and proposed 2015 MTM eligibility thresholds under MMA were examined. Main/sensitivity/disease-specific analyses were conducted to cover the range of eligibility thresholds and combinations. Key Findings: MMA has higher PVP in identifying patients with MUI than ACA. Proportions of individuals with MUI were higher based on MMA than ACA (e.g., 74.96% for 2009 MMA, 73.51% for 2013 MMA, and 62.46% for proposed 2015 MMA vs. 52.17% for ACA in main analysis; P<0.05). Adjusted findings were similar. For example, based on the demand-based model in the main analysis, the odds ratios were 2.474 (95% CI: 2.454-2.494) for 2013 MMA in comparison to ACA. These numbers indicate that the MMA MTM eligibility criteria for 2013 had 147.4% higher PVP in identifying patients with MUI than ACA. Similar patterns were found in most sensitivity and disease-specific analyses. Conclusions: MMA has higher PVP than ACA in identifying patients with MUI. This study may inform the government on future MTM policy.

18.
Rheumatol Ther ; 5(1): 255-270, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29204858

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the effects of corticosteroid utilization prior to initiation of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) can inform decision-makers on the appropriate use of these medications. This study examined treatment patterns and associated burden of corticosteroid utilization before initiation of biologic DMARDs among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of adult RA patients in the US MarketScan Database (2011-2015). The following patterns of corticosteroid utilization were analyzed: whether corticosteroids were used; duration of use (short/long duration defined as < or ≥ 3 months); and dosage (low as < 2.5, medium as 2.5 to < 7.5 and high as ≥ 7.5 mg/day). Effects of corticosteroid use on time to biologic DMARD initiation were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Likelihood and number of adverse events were examined using logistic and negative binomial regression models. Generalized linear models were used to examine healthcare costs. Independent variables in all models included patient demographics and health characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 25,542 patients were included (40.84% used corticosteroids). Lower hazard of biologic DMARD initiation was associated with corticosteroid use (hazard ratio = 0.89, 95% confidence interval = 0.83-0.96), long duration and lower dose. Corticosteroid users compared to non-users had higher incidence rates of various adverse events including cardiovascular events (P < 0.05). Higher likelihood of adverse events was associated with corticosteroid use and long duration of use, as was increased number of adverse events. Corticosteroid users had a greater annualized mean number of physician visits, hospitalizations, and emergency department (ED) visits than non-users in adjusted analysis. Corticosteroid users compared to non-users had higher mean costs for total healthcare, physician visits, hospitalizations, and ED visits. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with RA, corticosteroid utilization is associated with delayed initiation of biologic DMARDS and higher burden of adverse events and healthcare utilization/costs before the initiation of biologic DMARDs. FUNDING: AbbVie Inc.

19.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 9(3): 473-478, 2017 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233287

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To explore students' perceptions (self-assessment) of their preparedness to develop collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) before and after delivery of one CPA-focused classroom lectures and 2) a CPA development student project in partnership with a local community-based pharmacy. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: A CPA-focused didactic lecture and subsequent project were given to second-year (P2) pharmacy students enrolled in a community pharmacy elective course at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Pre- and post-surveys were administered using an online survey platform to assess student perceptions. Responses for each survey question were summarized using frequencies, and chi-square analysis was conducted to assess the association between pre- and post-scores on each question. FINDINGS: Students were significantly more likely to rate themselves as prepared or completely prepared to develop a CPA in a community pharmacy setting (χ2=61.21, p<0.01) after the course and project. Students also noted that they felt they were prepared or very prepared to work within a team to develop and implement a CPA in a community pharmacy setting (χ2=37.60, p<0.01). SUMMARY: This study demonstrated that a didactic classroom lecture series followed by a student project partnered with a local community pharmacy improved perceived knowledge, preparedness, and ability to implement CPAs in a community pharmacy. Through intentional exposure of students to scope-of-practice expanding opportunities like CPAs, pharmacy educators can potentially accelerate the evolution of community pharmacy practice.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/legislación & jurisprudencia , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Farmacéuticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Médicos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Contratos , Conducta Cooperativa , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Humanos , Autoeficacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 81(7): 5918, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29109558

RESUMEN

Objective. To assess graduating pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt and determine associations with stress, student loan debt, financial need, current employment, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Methods. Survey was conducted using an attitudes-toward-debt scale (sub-scales: tolerant attitudes toward debt; contemplation and knowledge about loans; fear of debt), Perceived Stress Scale, and questions concerning current employment, estimated total student loan debt, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Federal loan data were collected using financial aid records. Independent samples t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson's r correlations were conducted. Results. There were 147 students (96.7%) who participated. The majority were female (59.2%), white (69.4%), and had federal student loans (90.5%). Mean total loan amount was $153,276 (SD $59,810), which included federal students loans accumulated before and during pharmacy school. No significant differences were noted on attitudes toward debt or stress based on whether respondents had federal student loans. Greater "fear of debt" was correlated with increased stress, estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan debt, and pharmacy school loan debt. Greater "contemplation and knowledge about loans" was correlated with lower estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan amount, and pharmacy school loan amount. Students with higher "contemplation and knowledge" scores expected to repay loans within a shorter time frame than students with lower scores. Conclusion. Increased fear of debt was related to greater perceived stress and higher student loan amounts borrowed, while increased contemplation and knowledge about loans was associated with lower amounts borrowed. Educational programming concerning loans, debt, and personal financial management may help reduce stress and amount borrowed.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/economía , Facultades de Farmacia/economía , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Apoyo a la Formación Profesional/economía , Adulto , Actitud , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
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