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1.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA11914217, 2020 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008462

RESUMEN

Our objective was to gain insight in the calculation and interpretation of population health metrics that inform disease prevention. Using as model environmental exposure to lead (ELE), a global pollutant, we assessed population health metrics derived from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 to 1994), the GBD (Global Burden of Disease Study 2010), and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the hazard ratio relating mortality over 19.3 years of follow-up to a blood lead increase at baseline from 1.0 to 6.7 µg/dL (10th-90th percentile interval) was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17-1.60). The population-attributable fraction of blood lead was 18.0% (10.9%-26.1%). The number of preventable ELE-related deaths in the United States would be 412 000 per year (250 000-598 000). In GBD 2010, deaths and disability-adjusted life-years globally lost due to ELE were 0.67 million (0.58-0.78 million) and 0.56% (0.47%-0.66%), respectively. According to the 2017 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development statistics, ELE-related welfare costs were $1 676 224 million worldwide. Extrapolations from the foregoing metrics assumed causality and reversibility of the association between mortality and blood lead, which at present-day ELE levels in developed nations is not established. Other issues limiting the interpretation of ELE-related population health metrics are the inflation of relative risk based on outdated blood lead levels, not differentiating relative from absolute risk, clustering of risk factors and exposures within individuals, residual confounding, and disregarding noncardiovascular disease and immigration in national ELE-associated welfare estimates. In conclusion, this review highlights the importance of critical thinking in translating population health metrics into cost-effective preventive strategies.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950604

RESUMEN

AIMS: Asymptomatic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at greater risk of developing heart failure (HF). Fibrosis, leading to myocardial and vascular dysfunction, might be an important pathway of progression. The Heart OMics in AGing (HOMAGE) trial aims to investigate the effects of spironolactone on serum markers of collagen metabolism and on cardiovascular structure and function in people at risk of developing HF and potential interactions with a marker of fibrogenic activity, galectin-3. METHODS AND RESULTS: The HOMAGE trial is a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded endpoint (PROBE) study comparing spironolactone (up to 50 mg/day) and standard care over 9 months in people with clinical risk factors for developing HF, including hypertension, CAD and T2DM, and elevated plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, 125 to 1000 ng/L) or B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP, 35 to 280 ng/L). Exclusion criteria included left ventricular ejection fraction < 45%, atrial fibrillation, severe renal dysfunction, or treatment with loop diuretics. The primary endpoint was the interaction between change in serum concentrations of procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP) and treatment with spironolactone according to median plasma concentrations of galectin-3 at baseline. For the 527 participants enrolled, median (interquartile range) age was 73 (69-79) years, 135 (26%) were women, 412 (78%) had hypertension, 377 (72%) CAD, and 212 (40%) T2DM. At baseline, medians (interquartile ranges) were for left ventricular ejection fraction 63 (58-67) %, for left atrial volume index 31 (26-37) mL/m2 , for plasma NT-proBNP 214 (137-356) ng/L, for serum PIIINP 3.9 (3.1-5.0) ng/mL, and for galectin-3 16.1 (13.5-19.7) ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: The HOMAGE trial will provide insights on the effect of spironolactone on pathways that might drive progression to HF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02556450.

3.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 10, 2020 01 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918764

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: The urinary proteome reflects molecular drivers of disease. OBJECTIVES: To construct a urinary proteomic biomarker predicting 1-year post-ICU mortality. METHODS: In 1243 patients, the urinary proteome was measured on ICU admission, using capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry along with clinical variables, circulating biomarkers (BNP, hsTnT, active ADM, and NGAL), and urinary albumin. Methods included support vector modeling to construct the classifier, Cox regression, the integrated discrimination (IDI), and net reclassification (NRI) improvement, and area under the curve (AUC) to assess predictive accuracy, and Proteasix and protein-proteome interactome analyses. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the discovery (deaths/survivors, 70/299) and test (175/699) datasets, the new classifier ACM128, mainly consisting of collagen fragments, yielding AUCs of 0.755 (95% CI, 0.708-0.798) and 0.688 (0.656-0.719), respectively. While accounting for study site and clinical risk factors, hazard ratios in 1243 patients were 2.41 (2.00-2.91) for ACM128 (+ 1 SD), 1.24 (1.16-1.32) for the Charlson Comorbidity Index (+ 1 point), and ≥ 1.19 (P ≤ 0.022) for other biomarkers (+ 1 SD). ACM128 improved (P ≤ 0.0001) IDI (≥ + 0.50), NRI (≥ + 53.7), and AUC (≥ + 0.037) over and beyond clinical risk indicators and other biomarkers. Interactome mapping, using parental proteins derived from sequenced peptides included in ACM128 and in silico predicted proteases, including/excluding urinary collagen fragments (63/35 peptides), revealed as top molecular pathways protein digestion and absorption, lysosomal activity, and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: The urinary proteomic classifier ACM128 predicts the 1-year post-ICU mortality over and beyond clinical risk factors and other biomarkers and revealed molecular pathways potentially contributing to a fatal outcome.

4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(3): 343-350, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958313

RESUMEN

Background: To investigate the association between fasting serum insulin and glucose levels with atherosclerotic plaque composition in the carotid artery. Impaired insulin and glucose levels are implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease; however, their influence on the formation and composition of atherosclerotic plaque remains unclear. Methods: In 1740 participants (mean age 72.9 years, 46% women, 14.4% diabetes mellitus) from the population-based Rotterdam Study, we performed carotid MRI to evaluate the presence of calcification, lipid core, and intraplaque hemorrhage in carotid atherosclerosis. All participants also underwent blood sampling to obtain information on serum insulin and glucose levels. Using logistic regression models, we assessed the association of serum insulin and glucose levels (per s.d. and in tertiles) with the different plaque components, while adjusting for sex, age, intima-media thickness, and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Serum insulin levels were associated with the presence of intraplaque hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12-1.7)) We found no association with the presence of calcification or lipid core. Sensitivity analyses restricted to individuals without diabetes mellitus yielded similar results. No associations were found between serum glucose levels and any of the plaque components. Conclusions: Serum insulin levels are associated with the presence of vulnerable components of carotid plaque, specifically with intraplaque hemorrhage. These findings suggest a complex role for serum insulin in the pathophysiology of carotid atherosclerosis and in plaque vulnerability.

5.
Neurology ; 94(3): e267-e281, 2020 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827004

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is one of the main modifiable risk factors for dementia. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the best antihypertensive class for optimizing cognition. Our objective was to determine whether any particular antihypertensive class was associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline or dementia using comprehensive meta-analysis including reanalysis of original participant data. METHODS: To identify suitable studies, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO and preexisting study consortia were searched from inception to December 2017. Authors of prospective longitudinal human studies or trials of antihypertensives were contacted for data sharing and collaboration. Outcome measures were incident dementia or incident cognitive decline (classified using the reliable change index method). Data were separated into mid and late-life (>65 years) and each antihypertensive class was compared to no treatment and to treatment with other antihypertensives. Meta-analysis was used to synthesize data. RESULTS: Over 50,000 participants from 27 studies were included. Among those aged >65 years, with the exception of diuretics, we found no relationship by class with incident cognitive decline or dementia. Diuretic use was suggestive of benefit in some analyses but results were not consistent across follow-up time, comparator group, and outcome. Limited data precluded meaningful analyses in those ≤65 years of age. CONCLUSION: Our findings, drawn from the current evidence base, support clinical freedom in the selection of antihypertensive regimens to achieve blood pressure goals. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: The review was registered with the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO), registration number CRD42016045454.

6.
Blood Press ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833420

RESUMEN

Purpose: Arterial stiffness predicts cardiovascular complications. The association between arterial stiffness and blood lead (BL) remains poorly documented. We aimed to assess the association of central hemodynamic measurements, including pulse wave velocity (aPWV), with blood lead in a Flemish population.Materials and Methods: In this Flemish population study (mean age, 37.0 years; 48.3% women), 267 participants had their whole BL and 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry in 1985-2005. After 9.4 years (median), they underwent applanation tonometry to estimate central pulse pressure (cPP), the augmentation index (AI), pressure amplification (PA), and aPWV. The amplitudes of the forward (Pf) and backward (Pb) pulse waves and reflection index (RI) were derived by a pressure-based wave separation algorithm.Results: BL averaged 2.93 µg/dL (interquartile range, 1.80-4.70) and UCd 4.79 µg (2.91-7.85). Mean values were 45.0 ± 15.2 mm Hg for cPP, 24.4 ± 12.4% for AI, 1.34 ± 0.21 for PA, 7.65 ± 1.74 m/s for aPWV, 32.7 ± 9.9 mm Hg for Pf, 21.8 ± 8.4 mm Hg for Pb, and 66.9 ± 18.4% for RI. The multivariable-adjusted association sizes for a 2-fold higher BL were: +3.03% (95% confidence interval, 1.56, 4.50) for AI; -0.06 (-0.08, -0.04) for PA; 1.02 mm Hg (0.02, 2.02) for Pb; and 3.98% (1.71, 6.24) for RI (p ≤ .045). In 206 participants never on antihypertensive drug treatment, association sizes were +2.59 mm Hg (0.39, 4.79) for cPP and +0.26 m/s (0.03, 0.50) for aPWV. Analyses adjusted for co-exposure to cadmium were consistent.Conclusion: In conclusion, low-level environmental lead exposure possibly contributes to arterial stiffening and wave reflection from peripheral sites.

8.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1333-1342, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630575

RESUMEN

Participant-level meta-analyses assessed the age-specific relevance of office blood pressure to cardiovascular complications, but this information is lacking for out-of-office blood pressure. At baseline, daytime ambulatory (n=12 624) or home (n=5297) blood pressure were measured in 17 921 participants (51.3% women; mean age, 54.2 years) from 17 population cohorts. Subsequently, mortality and cardiovascular events were recorded. Using multivariable Cox regression, floating absolute risk was computed across 4 age bands (≤60, 61-70, 71-80, and >80 years). Over 236 491 person-years, 3855 people died and 2942 cardiovascular events occurred. From levels as low as 110/65 mm Hg, risk log-linearly increased with higher out-of-office systolic/diastolic blood pressure. From the youngest to the oldest age group, rates expressed per 1000 person-years increased (P<0.001) from 4.4 (95% CI, 4.0-4.7) to 86.3 (76.1-96.5) for all-cause mortality and from 4.1 (3.9-4.6) to 59.8 (51.0-68.7) for cardiovascular events, whereas hazard ratios per 20-mm Hg increment in systolic out-of-office blood pressure decreased (P≤0.0033) from 1.42 (1.19-1.69) to 1.09 (1.05-1.12) and from 1.70 (1.51-1.92) to 1.12 (1.07-1.17), respectively. These age-related trends were similar for out-of-office diastolic pressure and were generally consistent in both sexes and across ethnicities. In conclusion, adverse outcomes were directly associated with out-of-office blood pressure in adults. At young age, the absolute risk associated with out-of-office blood pressure was low, but relative risk high, whereas with advancing age relative risk decreased and absolute risk increased. These observations highlight the need of a lifecourse approach for the management of hypertension.

9.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 151, 2019 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665082

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Platelet-endothelial aggregation receptor 1 (PEAR-1) is a transmembrane receptor involved in platelet activation and megakaryopoiesis whose expression is driven by DNA methylation. PEAR1 variants were associated with differential platelet response to activation and cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed at investigating the link between PEAR1 methylation and platelet and leukocyte function markers in a family-based population. RESULTS: We measured PEAR1 methylation in 605 Moli-family participants with available blood counts, plasma P-selectin and C-reactive protein, whole blood platelet P-selectin, and platelet-leukocyte mixed conjugate measurements. We performed principal component analysis (PCA) to identify groups of highly correlated CpG sites. We used linear mixed regression models (using age, gender, BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, being a proband for family recruitment, being a member of myocardial infarction (MI) family as fixed effects, and family as a random effect) to evaluate associations between PEAR1 methylation and phenotypes. PEAR1 methylation Factor2, characterized by the previously identified megakaryocyte-specific CpG sites, was inversely associated with platelet-monocyte conjugates, P-selectin, and WBC counts, while positively associated with the platelet distribution width (PDW) and with leukocyte CD11b and L-selectin. Moreover, PEAR1 Factor2 methylation was negatively associated with INFLAscore, a low-grade inflammation score. The latter was partially mediated by the PEAR1 methylation effect on platelet variables. PEAR1 methylation association with WBC measurements and INFLAscore was confirmed in the independent cohort FLEMENGHO. CONCLUSIONS: We report a significant link between epigenetic signatures in a platelet functional gene and inflammation-dependent platelet function variability measured in two independent cohorts.

12.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 44(5): 897-906, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536985

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A number of studies examined the association between preterm delivery and kidney size and function later in life. However, the number of cases in published cohort studies is low. This study was aimed at performing a multicenter collaboration to pool data to obtain more accurate results to quantify the extent of renal impairment in former extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1,000 g) children. METHODOLOGY: We performed a subject-level meta-analysis to pool data from Cracow (64 cases/34 controls) and Leuven (93 cases/87 controls). We assessed and analyzed cystatin C, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ultrasound kidney length, and blood pressure (BP) in 11-year-old ELBW children compared with controls born at term. The prevalence of hypertension (HT) and prehypertension (preHT) in both groups was also analyzed. RESULTS: The study group comprised 157 former ELBW children (gestational age 23-33 weeks and birth weight 430-1,000 g) and 123 children born at term. Former ELBW children had lower mean eGFR (100.62 ± 16.53 vs. 111.89 ± 15.26 mL/min/1.73 m2; p < 0.001), smaller absolute kidney length (8.56 ± 0.78 vs. 9.008 ± 0.73 cm; <0.001), and higher systolic (111.8 ± 9.8 vs. 107.2 ± 9.07 mm Hg; p = 0.01) and diastolic (68.6 ± 6.8 vs. 66.3 ± 7.7 mm Hg; p = 0.03) BP. Smaller renal size in former ELBW children was positively associated with lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, and severity of perinatal complications (intraventricular hemorrhage, length of stay, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen therapy). CONCLUSION: ELBW is associated with lower eGFR and a high frequency of preHT and HT.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(18): e013558, 2019 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510823

RESUMEN

Background Increased renal resistive index (RRI) has been associated with target organ damage as well as renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Matrix Gla (γ-carboxyglutamate) protein (MGP) is a strong inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. Its inactive form (dephospho-uncarboxylated MGP [dp-ucMGP]) has been associated with vascular stiffness, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality. In this study, we hypothesized that high levels of dp-ucMGP were associated with increased RRI. Methods and Results We recruited participants via a multicenter family-based cross-sectional study in Switzerland. Levels of dp-ucMGP were measured in plasma by sandwich ELISA. RRI was measured by Doppler ultrasound in 3 segmental arteries in both kidneys. We used mixed regression models to assess the relationship between dp-ucMGP and RRI. We adjusted for common determinants of RRI as well as renal function and cardiovascular risk factors. We included 1006 participants in our analyses: 526 women and 480 men. Mean values were 0.44±0.20 nmol/L for dp-ucMGP and 64±5% for RRI. After multivariable adjustment, dp-ucMGP was positively associated with RRI (P=0.001). In subgroup analysis by age tertiles, this association was not significant in the youngest age group (<38 years; P=0.62), whereas it was significant in older age groups (38-55 and >55 years; P=0.016 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Levels of dp-ucMGP are positively and independently associated with RRI after adjustment for common determinants of RRI, cardiovascular risk factors, and renal function. The stronger association among older adults is probably due, in part, to age-related arterial stiffness. RRI thus seems to reflect the global atherosclerotic burden in a general adult population.

14.
JAMA ; 322(5): 409-420, 2019 08 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386134

RESUMEN

Importance: Blood pressure (BP) is a known risk factor for overall mortality and cardiovascular (CV)-specific fatal and nonfatal outcomes. It is uncertain which BP index is most strongly associated with these outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the association of BP indexes with death and a composite CV event. Design, Setting, and Participants: Longitudinal population-based cohort study of 11 135 adults from Europe, Asia, and South America with baseline observations collected from May 1988 to May 2010 (last follow-ups, August 2006-October 2016). Exposures: Blood pressure measured by an observer or an automated office machine; measured for 24 hours, during the day or the night; and the dipping ratio (nighttime divided by daytime readings). Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) expressed the risk of death or a CV event associated with BP increments of 20/10 mm Hg. Cardiovascular events included CV mortality combined with nonfatal coronary events, heart failure, and stroke. Improvement in model performance was assessed by the change in the area under the curve (AUC). Results: Among 11 135 participants (median age, 54.7 years, 49.3% women), 2836 participants died (18.5 per 1000 person-years) and 2049 (13.4 per 1000 person-years) experienced a CV event over a median of 13.8 years of follow-up. Both end points were significantly associated with all single systolic BP indexes (P < .001). For nighttime systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17-1.28) and for CV events, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.30-1.43). For the 24-hour systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.16-1.28) and for CV events, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.37-1.54). With adjustment for any of the other systolic BP indexes, the associations of nighttime and 24-hour systolic BP with the primary outcomes remained statistically significant (HRs ranging from 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10-1.25] to 1.87 [95% CI, 1.62-2.16]). Base models that included single systolic BP indexes yielded an AUC of 0.83 for mortality and 0.84 for the CV outcomes. Adding 24-hour or nighttime systolic BP to base models that included other BP indexes resulted in incremental improvements in the AUC of 0.0013 to 0.0027 for mortality and 0.0031 to 0.0075 for the composite CV outcome. Adding any systolic BP index to models already including nighttime or 24-hour systolic BP did not significantly improve model performance. These findings were consistent for diastolic BP. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, higher 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure measurements were significantly associated with greater risks of death and a composite CV outcome, even after adjusting for other office-based or ambulatory blood pressure measurements. Thus, 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure may be considered optimal measurements for estimating CV risk, although statistically, model improvement compared with other blood pressure indexes was small.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Adulto , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Ritmo Circadiano , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/mortalidad , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores de Riesgo
16.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 17(1): 15, 2019 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382957

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous studies highlighted the usefulness of integrating left ventricular (LV) deformation (strain) and hemodynamic parameters to quantify LV performance. In a population sample, we investigated the anthropometric and clinical determinants of a novel non-invasive index of LV systolic performance derived from simultaneous registration of LV strain and brachial pressure waveforms. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-six randomly recruited subjects (44.7% women; mean age, 53.9 years; 47.5% hypertensive) underwent echocardiographic and arterial data acquisition. We constructed pressure-strain loops from simultaneously recorded two-dimensional LV strain curves and brachial pressure waveforms obtained by finger applanation tonometry. We defined the area of this pressure-strain loop during ejection as LV ejection work density (EWD). We reported effect sizes as EWD changes associated with a 1-SD increase in covariables. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted analyses, higher EWD was associated with age, female sex and presence of hypertension (P ≤ 0.0084). In both men and women, EWD increased independently with augmentation pressure (effect size: + 59.1 Pa), central pulse pressure (+ 65.7 Pa) and pulse wave velocity (+ 44.8 Pa; P ≤ 0.0006). In men, EWD decreased with relative wall thickness (- 29.9 Pa) and increased with LV ejection fraction (+ 23.9 Pa; P ≤ 0.040). In women, EWD increased with left atrial (+ 76.2 Pa) and LV end-diastolic (+ 43.8 Pa) volume indexes and with E/e' ratio (+ 51.1 Pa; P ≤ 0.026). CONCLUSION: Older age, female sex and hypertension were associated with higher EWD. Integration of the LV pressure-strain loop during ejection might be a useful tool to non-invasively evaluate sex-specific and interdependent effects of preload and afterload on LV myocardial performance.

17.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 776-783, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378104

RESUMEN

The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline reclassified office blood pressure and proposed thresholds for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). We derived outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding with the new office blood pressure categories. We performed 24-hour ABP monitoring in 11 152 participants (48.9% women; mean age, 53.0 years) representative of 13 populations. We determined ABP thresholds resulting in multivariable-adjusted 10-year risks similar to those associated with elevated office blood pressure (120/80 mm Hg) and stages 1 and 2 of office hypertension (130/80 and 140/90 mm Hg). Over 13.9 years (median), 2728 (rate per 1000 person-years, 17.9) people died, 1033 (6.8) from cardiovascular disease; furthermore, 1988 (13.8), 893 (6.0), and 795 (5.4) cardiovascular and coronary events and strokes occurred. Using a composite cardiovascular end point, systolic/diastolic outcome-driven thresholds indicating elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 117.9/75.2, 121.4/79.6, and 105.3/66.2 mm Hg. For stages 1 and 2 ambulatory hypertension, thresholds were 123.3/75.2 and 128.7/80.7 mm Hg for 24-hour ABP, 128.5/79.6 and 135.6/87.1 mm Hg for daytime ABP, and 111.7/66.2 and 118.1/72.5 mm Hg for nighttime ABP. ABP thresholds derived from other end points were similar. After rounding, approximate thresholds for elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 120/75, 120/80, and 105/65 mm Hg, and for stages 1 and 2, ambulatory hypertension 125/75 and 130/80 mm Hg, 130/80 and 135/85 mm Hg, and 110/65 and 120/70 mm Hg. Outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding to elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 of hypertension are similar to those proposed by the current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anciano , American Heart Association , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial/métodos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos
19.
Blood Press ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352838

RESUMEN

Purpose: Previous studies that addressed whether left ventricular hypertrophy is more closely associated with central than peripheral blood pressure (BP) have been inconsistent. Radial artery wave generated by applanation tonometry and calibrated with brachial BP in 162 adult Nigerians were analysed by using generalized transfer function to derive central BP. Materials and methods: We compared the associations of ECG voltages and left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) as continuous and binary variables respectively with central and brachial BP indices. Results: In a multivariable adjusted analysis, 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in brachial systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean arterial pressures increased the Sokolow-Lyon QRS voltage by 0.34 (CI, 0.21-0.48; p < 0.0001), 0.21 (CI, 0.07-0.36; p < 0.05); 0.22 (CI, 0.9-0.34; p < 0.001) and 0.29 (CI, 0.14-0.43) similar to (p > 0.05) corresponding Sokolow-Lyon QRS increase of 0.26 (0.12-0.40, p < 0.001); 0.14 (0.00-0.28, p < 0.05); 0.24 (0.11-0.39; p < 0.001) and 0.19 (0.05-0.34, p < 0.05) respectively observed for 1 SD increment in central pressures. The odds ratio (OR) relating ECG-LVH to 1 SD increase in brachial systolic, pulse, and mean arterial pressures were 2.62 (CI, 1.49-4.65, p < 0.001); 1.88 (CI, 1.19-2.95, p < 0.01) and 2.16 (CI, 1.22-3.82, p < 0.01) was similar to (p > 0.05) corresponding OR of 2.41 (1.33-4.36, p < 0.01); 2.04 (1.23-3.37, p < 0.01); 2.00 (1.11-3.63, p < 0.001) observed for I SD increment in central pressures. Conclusion: Central and peripheral BP are similarly associated with Sokolow-Lyon ECG voltage and hypertrophy.

20.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 606-613, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280648

RESUMEN

Arterial stiffness and wave reflection predict cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and are associated with renal microvascular disease. We hypothesized that the retinal microvascular traits might be associated with central hemodynamic properties. In 735 randomly recruited Flemish (mean age, 50.3 years; 47.1% women), we derived central pulse pressure and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity by applanation tonometry and calculated forward (Pf) and backward (Pb) pulse waves, using an automated pressure-based wave separation algorithm. We measured central retinal arteriolar (CRAE) and venular equivalent and their ratio, using IVAN software (Vasculomatic ala Nicola, version 1.1). Mean values for pulse wave velocity (n=554), Pf and Pb were 7.50 m/s, 32.0 mm Hg, and 21.5 mm Hg, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, CRAE was 4.62 µm and 1.26 µm smaller (P≤0.034) for a 1-SD increment in central mean arterial pressure (+11.3 mm Hg) and central pulse pressure (+15.2 mm Hg); a 1-SD increment in the augmentation ratio (+7.0%), aortic pulse wave velocity (+1.66 m/s), Pf (+10.0 mm Hg), and Pb (+8.5 mm Hg), was associated with smaller CRAE; the association sizes were -1.91 µm, -1.59 µm, -1.45 µm, and -2.38 µm (P≤0.014), respectively. Associations of arteriole-to-venule diameter ratio with the central hemodynamic traits mirrored those of CRAE. None of the multivariable-adjusted associations of central retinal venular diameter with the central hemodynamic traits reached significance with the exception of central diastolic blood pressure (-1.62 µm; P=0.030). In conclusion, in the general population, higher central pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity, Pf, and Pb were associated with smaller CRAE.


Asunto(s)
Hemodinámica/fisiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Microvasos/fisiopatología , Vasos Retinianos/fisiopatología , Rigidez Vascular/fisiología , Adulto , Presión Arterial , Bélgica , Velocidad del Flujo Sanguíneo , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso , Estudios Retrospectivos
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