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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1284, 2020 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992776

RESUMEN

Host genetic susceptibility to leprosy has been intensively investigated over the last decades; however, there are no studies on the role of genetic variants in disease recurrence. A previous initiative identified three recurrent cases of leprosy for which none of the M. leprae strains, as obtained in the first and the second diagnosis, had any known genomic variants associated to resistance to Multidrug therapy; in addition, whole genome sequencing indicated that the same M. leprae was causing two out of the three recurrences. Thus, these individuals were suspected of being particularly susceptible to M. leprae infection, either as relapse or reinfection. To verify this hypothesis, 19 genetic markers distributed across 11 loci (14 genes) classically associated with leprosy were genotyped in the recurrent and in three matching non-recurrent leprosy cases. An enrichment of risk alleles was observed in the recurrent cases, suggesting the existence of a particularly high susceptibility genetic profile among leprosy patients predisposing to disease recurrence.


Asunto(s)
Sitios Genéticos , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Lepra/genética , Mycobacterium leprae , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Recurrencia
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(6): e0007400, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181059

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early detection of Mycobacterium leprae is a key strategy for disrupting the transmission chain of leprosy and preventing the potential onset of physical disabilities. Clinical diagnosis is essential, but some of the presented symptoms may go unnoticed, even by specialists. In areas of greater endemicity, serological and molecular tests have been performed and analyzed separately for the follow-up of household contacts, who are at high risk of developing the disease. The accuracy of these tests is still debated, and it is necessary to make them more reliable, especially for the identification of cases of leprosy between contacts. We proposed an integrated analysis of molecular and serological methods using artificial intelligence by the random forest (RF) algorithm to better diagnose and predict new cases of leprosy. METHODS: The study was developed in Governador Valadares, Brazil, a hyperendemic region for leprosy. A longitudinal study was performed, including new cases diagnosed in 2011 and their respective household contacts, who were followed in 2011, 2012, and 2016. All contacts were diligently evaluated by clinicians from Reference Center for Endemic Diseases (CREDEN-PES) before being classified as asymptomatic. Samples of slit skin smears (SSS) from the earlobe of the patients and household contacts were collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of 16S rRNA, and peripheral blood samples were collected for ELISA assays to detect LID-1 and ND-O-LID. RESULTS: The statistical analysis of the tests revealed sensitivity for anti-LID-1 (63.2%), anti-ND-O-LID (57.9%), qPCR SSS (36.8%), and smear microscopy (30.2%). However, the use of RF allowed for an expressive increase in sensitivity in the diagnosis of multibacillary leprosy (90.5%) and especially paucibacillary leprosy (70.6%). It is important to report that the specificity was 92.5%. CONCLUSION: The proposed model using RF allows for the diagnosis of leprosy with high sensitivity and specificity and the early identification of new cases among household contacts.


Asunto(s)
Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Composición Familiar , Salud de la Familia , Lepra/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/inmunología , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Inteligencia Artificial , Brasil , Niño , Preescolar , ADN Bacteriano/química , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Ribosómico/química , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos , Adulto Joven
3.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 97, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804902

RESUMEN

Intersubtype recombinants classified as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) or unique recombinant forms (URFs) have been shown to play an important role in the complex and dynamic Brazilian HIV/AIDS epidemic. Previous pol region studies (2003-2013) in 828 patients from six states from Central Western, Northern and Northeastern Brazil reported variable rates of BF1, F1CB, BC, and CF1 mosaics. In this study HIV-1 subtype diversity BF1, F1CB, BC, and CF1 recombinants in pol were analyzed. Full/near-full/partial genome sequences were generated from F1CB and BF1 recombinants. Genomic DNA extracted from whole blood was used in nested-PCR to amplify four overlapping fragments encompassing the full HIV-1 genome. Phylogenetic trees were generated using the neighbor-joining/NJ method (MEGA 6.0). The time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of F1CB and BF1 clades was estimated using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach (BEAST v1.8; BEAGLE). Bootscanning was used for recombination analyses (Simplot v3.5.1); separate NJ phylogenetic analysis of fragments confirmed subtypes. The phylogenetic analyses of protease/reverse-transcriptase sequences in 828 patients revealed 76% subtype B (n = 629), 6.4% subtype C (n = 53), 4.2% subtype F1 (n = 35), 13.4% intersubtype recombinants: 10.5% BF1 (n = 87), 2.3% BC (n = 19), 0.4% F1CB (n = 3), and 0.2% CF1 (n = 2). Two full and one partial BF1C genomes allowed the characterization of the CRF81_cpx that has 9 breakpoints dividing the genome into 10 subregions. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches (Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database) identified six other sequences with the same recombination profile in pol, five from Brazil, and one from Italy. The estimated median TMRCA of CRF81_cpx was 1999 (1992-2003). CRF60_BC-like sequences, originally described in Italy, were also found. Two full and one near full-length BF1 genomes led to the characterization of the new CRF99_BF1 that has six recombination breakpoints dividing the genome into seven subregions. Two new URFs BF1, with six recombination breakpoints and seven subregions were also characterized. The description of the first Brazilian BF1C CRF81_cpx and of the new CRF99_BF1 corroborate the important role of CRFs in the HIV/AIDS epidemic throughout Brazil. Our data also highlight the value of HIV-1 full-genome sequence studies in order to fully reveal the complexity of the epidemic in a huge country as Brazil.

4.
Transfusion ; 59(2): 629-638, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499594

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Confidential unit exclusion (CUE) was introduced in the 1980's as an additional layer to blood safety, before highly specific and sensitive nucleic acid tests (NAT) for HIV were implemented. The utility of CUE-use in settings that have implemented NAT should be evaluated over time. STUDY DESIGN, METHODS: Cross-sectional retrospective study carried out from June 2010-November 2015, at Manaus Hemocenter (HEMOAM), Amazonas, Brazil that implemented HIV-NAT in 2012. The HIV, HCV, HBV, HTLV, Chagas disease, and syphilis rates were compared among CUE and non-CUE blood donors, before and after HIV-NAT implementation. RESULTS: Among 287,588 donations, 2,154 (0.75%) were associated with CUE, mainly voluntary donations (64.2%), by repeat donors (58.4%) from young (median age = 31 years), males (84.4%), unmarried (63.1%). CUE-users compared to non-CUE donors (n = 285,434) had higher seropositivity rates to HIV (OR = 6.09, 95% CI: 3.68-10.07, p < 0.001), HBV (anti-HBc OR = 1.81 95% CI: 1.24-2.64, p = 0.004; HBsAg OR = 5.68, 95% CI: 1.78-18.07, p = 0.017), and syphilis (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.05-3.04, p = 0.030). Most (97.2%) discarded blood units associated to CUE was seronegative for all pathogens. Most donations (73.4%) were tested by HIV-NAT and showed four window period donations, positive by HIV-NAT only among non-CUE donors. CONCLUSION: A high rate of transfusion transmissible infections/TTIs was observed at HEMOAM especially in CUE-users. CUE-use offered an additional layer of blood safety by its association with anti-HBc/HBsAg and syphilis that are not covered by NAT. For blood banks in highly endemic areas for HIV and TTI, as HEMOAM, the identification of at risk donors, and the orientation to be tested at proper sites remain a great challenge.


Asunto(s)
Seguridad de la Sangre , ADN Bacteriano/sangre , ADN Viral/sangre , Infecciones por VIH , VIH-1 , Hepatitis B , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico , Sífilis , Reacción a la Transfusión , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis B/sangre , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sífilis/sangre , Sífilis/epidemiología , Reacción a la Transfusión/sangre , Reacción a la Transfusión/epidemiología
5.
Transfusion ; 59(3): 1044-1051, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566229

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the Brazilian Amazon, the filarial nematode Mansonella ozzardi co-exists with malaria parasites and thick blood smear microscopy is considered the diagnostic gold standard. Transfusion of M. ozzardi microfilariae does not establish new infections, however microfilariae can survive approximately 2 years in blood-recipients with unknown risk of pathology. Data on transfusion-transmitted filariasis are lacking. This study investigated M. ozzardi parasitemias in blood donors from decentralized centers of "Fundação Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Estado do Amazonas/HEMOAM," Northern Brazil. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional investigation employing blood smear microscopy (n = 356) and qualitative nested-M. ozzardi-PCR (227 out of 356) in donor candidates from 19 hemocenters in interior/rural municipalities of Amazonas state. FINDINGS: Participants were mostly young males. Positivity by microscopy was 7.9% (28 out of 356) and 23.8% by M. ozzardi-PCR (54 out of 227). Parasitaemias were found in 16 out of 19 municipalities. In 54 M. ozzardi-positives, 24 were ineligible; among 30 that donated, 27 were interdicted by seropositivity (22 anti-HBc, 3 anti-HBc + HBsAg, 1 Chagas+malaria, 1 VDRL). Seropositivty was higher in M. ozzardi-PCR-positives vs M. ozzardi-PCR-negatives (OR = 15.8, 95% CI 4.5-56.1, p < 0.0001). Three M. ozzardi contaminated blood units were transfused, but no follow-up information on the recipients is available. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides important baseline data on M. ozzardi among blood donors from the Brazilian Amazon. Further investigations in endemic areas are necessary to clarify possible association between M. ozzardi and other infections and also to elucidate whether there is any significant clinical effect upon transfusion of contaminated blood.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Mansonella/patogenicidad , Mansoneliasis/parasitología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mansonella/aislamiento & purificación , Mansoneliasis/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
6.
Front Immunol ; 9: 915, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867930

RESUMEN

Leprosy serology reflects the bacillary load of patients and multidrug therapy (MDT) reduces Mycobacterium leprae-specific antibody titers of multibacillary (MB) patients. The Clinical Trial for Uniform Multidrug Therapy Regimen for Leprosy Patients in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR) compared outcomes of regular 12 doses MDT/R-MDT and the uniform 6 doses MDT/U-MDT for MB leprosy, both of regimens including rifampicin, clofazimine, and dapsone. This study investigated the impact of R-MDT and U-MDT and the kinetic of antibody responses to M. leprae-specific antigens in MB patients from the U-MDT/CT-BR. We tested 3,400 serum samples from 263 MB patients (R-MDT:121; U-MDT:142) recruited at two Brazilian reference centers (Dona Libânia, Fortaleza, Ceará; Alfredo da Matta Foundation, Manaus, Amazonas). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with three M. leprae antigens [NT-P-BSA: trisaccharide-phenyl of phenollic glycolipid-I antigen (PGL-I); LID-1: Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic 1 di-fusion recombinant protein; and ND-O-LID: fusion complex of disaccharide-octyl of PGL-I and LID-1] were performed using around 13 samples per patient. Samples were collected at baseline/M0, during MDT (R-MDT:M1-M12 months, U-MDT:M1-M6 months) and after MDT discontinuation (first, second year). Statistical significance was assessed by the Mann-Whitney U test for comparison between groups (p values < 0.05). Mixed effect multilevel regression analyses were used to investigate intraindividual serological changes overtime. In R-MDT and U-MDT groups, males predominated, median age was 41 and 40.5 years, most patients were borderline lepromatous and lepromatous leprosy (R-MDT:88%, U-MDT: 90%). The bacilloscopic index at diagnosis was similar (medians: 3.6 in the R-MDT and 3.8 in the U-MDT group). In R-MDT and U-MDT groups, a significant decline in anti-PGL-I positivity was observed from M0 to M5 (p = 0.035, p = 0.04, respectively), from M6 to M12 and at the first and second year posttreatment (p < 0.05). Anti-LID-1 antibodies declined from M0 to M6 (p = 0.024), M7 to M12 in the R-MDT; from M0 to M4 (p = 0.003), M5 to M12 in the U-MDT and posttreatment in both groups (p > 0.0001). Anti-ND-O-LID antibodies decreased during and after treatment in both groups, similarly to anti-PGL-I antibodies. Intraindividual serology results in R-MDT and U-MDT patients showed that the difference in serology decay to all three antigens was dependent upon time only. Our serology findings in MB leprosy show that regardless of the duration of the U-MDT and R-MDT, both of them reduce M. leprae-specific antibodies during and after treatment. In leprosy, antibody levels are considered a surrogate marker of the bacillary load; therefore, our serological results suggest that shorter U-MDT is also effective in reducing the patients' bacillary burden similarly to R-MDT. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00669643.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Lepra Multibacilar/tratamiento farmacológico , Mycobacterium leprae/efectos de los fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Antígenos Bacterianos/inmunología , Brasil , Niño , Clofazimina/administración & dosificación , Dapsona/administración & dosificación , Esquema de Medicación , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Rifampin/administración & dosificación , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
7.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0196853, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883464

RESUMEN

Leprosy is a complex chronic, infectious dermato-neurological disease that affects the skin and peripheral nerves especially during immuno-inflammatory episodes known as type 1/T1R and type 2/T2R reactions. This study investigated the in situ expression of CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells and TGF-ß1, IFN-γ, IL-17 in leprosy T1R and T2R. Tregs were evaluated in 114 skin biopsies from 74 leprosy patients: 56 T1R (28-paired reaction-free/reactional biopsies, 28 unpaired T1R), 18 T2R (12 paired reaction-free/reactional biopsies, 6 unpaired T2R). Double CD25+Foxp3+immunostained Treg cells obtained by automated platform (Ventana BenchMark XT, Roche, Mannheim, Germany) were counted (Nikon Eclipse E400 2mm2). Cytokine expression was evaluated by immunostaining in 96 biopsies (48 paired reaction-free/reactional lesions, 24 T1R, 24 T2R) using rabbit polyclonal anti human TGF-ß1, IFN-γ, IL-17 antibodies (Santa Cruz Biotechnology CA, USA). Treg cell counts in leprosy reactional lesions were higher compared to reaction-free (p = 0.002). Treg numbers were higher in T1R compared to paired unreactional T1R lesions (p = 0.001). Similar frequency of Treg was seen in paired reactional versus unreactional T2R lesions. Higher expression of TGF-ß, IFN-γ and IL-17 was seen in T2R lesions compared to T1R and reaction-free lesions. The increase in Treg cells during T1R suggests a suppressive role to control the exacerbated cellular immune response during T1R that can cause tissue and nerve damage. Evidences of upregulated Treg cells in TR1, which usually occurs in patients with Th1-Th17 immunity and the indications of the expression of Th17/IL-17 in T2R, which develops in patients with Th2-Treg profile, suggest plasticity of Treg-Th17 cells populations and a potential role for these cell populations in the immunopathogenesis of leprosy reactions.


Asunto(s)
Citocinas/inmunología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/inmunología , Lepra/inmunología , Linfocitos T Reguladores/inmunología , Células Th17/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Biopsia , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Linfocitos T Reguladores/patología , Células Th17/patología
8.
Microb Pathog ; 118: 277-284, 2018 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605649

RESUMEN

Mast cells (MCs) have important immunoregulatory roles in skin inflammation. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory protein that can be expressed by mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, epithelial and T cells. This study investigated MCs heterogeneity and ANXA1 expression in human dermatoses with special emphasis in leprosy. Sixty one skin biopsies from 2 groups were investigated: 40 newly diagnosed untreated leprosy patients (18 reaction-free, 11 type 1 reaction/T1R, 11 type 2 reaction/T2R); 21 patients with other dermatoses. Tryptase/try+ and chymase/chy + phenotypic markers and toluidine blue stained intact/degranulated MC counts/mm2 were evaluated. Try+/chy+ MCs and ANXA1 were identified by streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunostaining and density was reported. In leprosy, degranulated MCs outnumbered intact ones regardless of the leprosy form (from tuberculoid/TT to lepromatous/LL), leprosy reactions (reactional/reaction-free) and type of reaction (T1R/T2R). Compared to other dermatoses, leprosy skin lesions showed lower numbers of degranulated and intact MCs. Try+ MCs outnumbered chy+ in leprosy lesions (reaction-free/reactional, particularly in T2R), but not in other dermatoses. Compared to other dermatoses, ANXA1 expression, which is also expressed in mast cells, was higher in the epidermis of leprosy skin lesions, independently of reactional episode. In leprosy, higher MC degranulation and differential expression of try+/chy+ subsets independent of leprosy type and reaction suggest that the Mycobacterium leprae infection itself dictates the inflammatory MCs activation in skin lesions. Higher expression of ANXA1 in leprosy suggests its potential anti-inflammatory role to maintain homeostasis preventing tissue and nerve damage.


Asunto(s)
Anexina A1/biosíntesis , Anexina A1/inmunología , Antiinflamatorios/inmunología , Antiinflamatorios/metabolismo , Lepra/inmunología , Lepra/metabolismo , Mastocitos/metabolismo , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Biopsia , Brasil , Quimasas/metabolismo , Epidermis/inmunología , Epidermis/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/patología , Lepra Lepromatosa/metabolismo , Lepra Tuberculoide/metabolismo , Masculino , Mastocitos/patología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium leprae/inmunología , Mycobacterium leprae/patogenicidad , Piel/patología , Enfermedades de la Piel/metabolismo , Enfermedades de la Piel/patología , Triptasas/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 352, 2018 01 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367657

RESUMEN

Leprosy is a chronic human disease caused by the yet-uncultured pathogen Mycobacterium leprae. Although readily curable with multidrug therapy (MDT), over 200,000 new cases are still reported annually. Here, we obtain M. leprae genome sequences from DNA extracted directly from patients' skin biopsies using a customized protocol. Comparative and phylogenetic analysis of 154 genomes from 25 countries provides insight into evolution and antimicrobial resistance, uncovering lineages and phylogeographic trends, with the most ancestral strains linked to the Far East. In addition to known MDT-resistance mutations, we detect other mutations associated with antibiotic resistance, and retrace a potential stepwise emergence of extensive drug resistance in the pre-MDT era. Some of the previously undescribed mutations occur in genes that are apparently subject to positive selection, and two of these (ribD, fadD9) are restricted to drug-resistant strains. Finally, nonsense mutations in the nth excision repair gene are associated with greater sequence diversity and drug resistance.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/efectos de los fármacos , Filogenia , Codón sin Sentido , ADN Bacteriano/química , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación
10.
s.l; s.n; 2018. 11 p. mapa, tab, graf.
No convencional en Inglés | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1095218

RESUMEN

Leprosy is a chronic human disease caused by the yet-uncultured pathogen Mycobacterium leprae. Although readily curable with multidrug therapy (MDT), over 200,000 new cases are still reported annually. Here, we obtain M. leprae genome sequences from DNA extracted directly from patients' skin biopsies using a customized protocol. Comparative and phylogenetic analysis of 154 genomes from 25 countries provides insight into evolution and antimicrobial resistance, uncovering lineages and phylogeographic trends, with the most ancestral strains linked to the Far East. In addition to known MDT-resistance mutations, we detect other mutations associated with antibiotic resistance, and retrace a potential stepwise emergence of extensive drug resistance in the pre-MDT era. Some of the previously undescribed mutations occur in genes that are apparently subject to positive selection, and two of these (ribD, fadD9) are restricted to drug-resistant strains. Finally, nonsense mutations in the nth excision repair gene are associated with greater sequence diversity and drug resistance.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Filogenia , ADN Bacteriano/química , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Genoma Bacteriano , Codón sin Sentido , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Mycobacterium leprae/efectos de los fármacos , Mycobacterium leprae/genética
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(6): e0005598, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28617800

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since leprosy is both treated and controlled by multidrug therapy (MDT) it is important to monitor recurrent cases for drug resistance and to distinguish between relapse and reinfection as a means of assessing therapeutic efficacy. All three objectives can be reached with single nucleotide resolution using next generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of Mycobacterium leprae DNA present in human skin. METHODOLOGY: DNA was isolated by means of optimized extraction and enrichment methods from samples from three recurrent cases in leprosy patients participating in an open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial of uniform MDT in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR). Genome-wide sequencing of M. leprae was performed and the resultant sequence assemblies analyzed in silico. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In all three cases, no mutations responsible for resistance to rifampicin, dapsone and ofloxacin were found, thus eliminating drug resistance as a possible cause of disease recurrence. However, sequence differences were detected between the strains from the first and second disease episodes in all three patients. In one case, clear evidence was obtained for reinfection with an unrelated strain whereas in the other two cases, relapse appeared more probable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of using M. leprae whole genome sequencing to reveal that treated and cured leprosy patients who remain in endemic areas can be reinfected by another strain. Next generation sequencing can be applied reliably to M. leprae DNA extracted from biopsies to discriminate between cases of relapse and reinfection, thereby providing a powerful tool for evaluating different outcomes of therapeutic regimens and for following disease transmission.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Bacteriano , Lepra/diagnóstico , Tipificación Molecular/métodos , Mycobacterium leprae/clasificación , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Biología Computacional/métodos , ADN Bacteriano/aislamiento & purificación , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Recurrencia , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS Genet ; 13(2): e1006637, 2017 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222097

RESUMEN

Leprosy Type-1 Reactions (T1Rs) are pathological inflammatory responses that afflict a sub-group of leprosy patients and result in peripheral nerve damage. Here, we employed a family-based GWAS in 221 families with 229 T1R-affect offspring with stepwise replication to identify risk factors for T1R. We discovered, replicated and validated T1R-specific associations with SNPs located in chromosome region 10p21.2. Combined analysis across the three independent samples resulted in strong evidence of association of rs1875147 with T1R (p = 4.5x10-8; OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.32-1.80). The T1R-risk locus was restricted to a lncRNA-encoding genomic interval with rs1875147 being an eQTL for the lncRNA. Since a genetic overlap between leprosy and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been detected, we evaluated if the shared genetic control could be traced to the T1R endophenotype. Employing the results of a recent IBD GWAS meta-analysis we found that 10.6% of IBD SNPs available in our dataset shared a common risk-allele with T1R (p = 2.4x10-4). This finding points to a substantial overlap in the genetic control of clinically diverse inflammatory disorders.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/genética , Lepra/genética , ARN Largo no Codificante/genética , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/complicaciones , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/patología , Lepra/complicaciones , Lepra/patología , Masculino , Degeneración Nerviosa/complicaciones , Degeneración Nerviosa/genética , Degeneración Nerviosa/patología , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo/genética , ARN Largo no Codificante/biosíntesis , Factores de Riesgo , Vietnam
14.
s.l; s.n; 2017. 16 p. ilus, tab, graf.
No convencional en Inglés | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1087674

RESUMEN

Leprosy Type-1 Reactions (T1Rs) are pathological inflammatory responses that afflict a sub-group of leprosy patients and result in peripheral nerve damage. Here, we employed a family-based GWAS in 221 families with 229 T1R-affect offspring with stepwise replication to identify risk factors for T1R. We discovered, replicated and validated T1R-specific associations with SNPs located in chromosome region 10p21.2. Combined analysis across the three independent samples resulted in strong evidence of association of rs1875147 with T1R (p = 4.5x10-8; OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.32-1.80). The T1R-risk locus was restricted to a lncRNA-encoding genomic interval with rs1875147 being an eQTL for the lncRNA. Since a genetic overlap between leprosy and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been detected, we evaluated if the shared genetic control could be traced to the T1R endophenotype. Employing the results of a recent IBD GWAS meta-analysis we found that 10.6% of IBD SNPs available in our dataset shared a common risk-allele with T1R (p = 2.4x10-4). This finding points to a substantial overlap in the genetic control of clinically diverse inflammatory disorders.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Lepra/genética , Lepra/patología , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , ARN Largo no Codificante/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162112, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27603317

RESUMEN

The Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) epidemic in Brazil is mainly driven by the subtype B pandemic lineage (BPANDEMIC), while Caribbean non-pandemic subtype B clades (BCAR) seem to account for a very low fraction of HIV-infections in this country. The molecular characteristics of the HIV-1 subtype B strains disseminated in the Northern and Northeastern Brazilian regions, however, have not been explored so far. In this study, we estimate the prevalence of the HIV-1 BPANDEMIC and BCAR clades across different Brazilian regions and we reconstruct the spatiotemporal dynamics of dissemination of the major Brazilian BCAR clades. A total of 2,682 HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences collected from 21 different Brazilian states from the five country regions between 1998 and 2013 were analyzed. Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed that the BCAR strains reached 16 out 21 Brazilian states here analyzed. The BCAR clades comprise a low fraction (<10%) of subtype B infections in most Brazilian states analyzed, with exception of Roraima (41%), Amazonas (14%) and Maranhão (14%). Bayesian phylogeographic analyses indicate that BCAR strains originally from the Hispaniola and Trinidad and Tobago were introduced at multiple times into different states from all Brazilian regions and a few of those strains, probably introduced into Roraima, Maranhão and São Paulo between the late 1970s and the early 1980s, established secondary outbreaks in the Brazilian population. These results support that the HIV-1 subtype B epidemics in some Brazilian states from the Northern and Northeastern regions display a unique molecular pattern characterized by the high prevalence of BCAR lineages, which probably reflects a strong epidemiological link with the HIV-1 epidemics in the Caribbean region.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , VIH-1/fisiología , Pandemias , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiología , Región del Caribe , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Funciones de Verosimilitud , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
16.
J Infect Dis ; 211(6): 968-77, 2015 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25320285

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Type 1 reactions (T1R) affect a considerable proportion of patients with leprosy. In those with T1R, the host immune response pathologically overcompensates for the actual infectious threat, resulting in nerve damage and permanent disability. Based on the results of a genome-wide association study of leprosy per se, we investigated the TNFSF15 chromosomal region for a possible contribution to susceptibility to T1R. METHODS: We performed a high-resolution association scan of the TNFSF15 locus to evaluate the association with T1R in 2 geographically and ethnically distinct populations: a family-based sample from Vietnam and a case-control sample from Brazil, comprising a total of 1768 subjects. RESULTS: In the Vietnamese sample, 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) overlapping TNFSF15 and the adjacent TNFSF8 gene were associated with T1R but not with leprosy. Of the 47 SNPs, 39 were cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) for TNFSF8 including SNPs located within the TNFSF15 gene. In the Brazilian sample, 18 of these cis-eQTL SNPs overlapping the TNFSF8 gene were validated for association with T1R. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results indicate TNFSF8 and not TNFSF15 as an important T1R susceptibility gene. Our data support the need for infection genetics to go beyond genes for pathogen control to explore genes involved in a commensurate host response.


Asunto(s)
Ligando CD30/genética , Lepra/genética , Mapeo Cromosómico , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Humanos , Lepra/inmunología , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Miembro 15 de la Superfamilia de Ligandos de Factores de Necrosis Tumoral/genética
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 92(1): 108-14, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25448239

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to ascertain risk factors for complications (reactions or neuritis) in leprosy patients at the time of diagnosis in three leprosy-endemic countries. Newly diagnosed patients were enrolled in Brazil, the Philippines, and Nepal, and risk factors for reactions and neuritis were assessed using a case-control approach: "cases" were patients with these complications, and controls were patients without complications. Of 1,972 patients enrolled in this study, 22% had complications before treatment. Type 1 reaction was diagnosed in 13.7% of patients, neuritis alone in 6.9.%, and type 2 reaction in 1.4%. The frequency of these complications was higher in Nepal, in lepromatous patients, in males, and in adults versus children. Reactions and neuritis were seen in patients at diagnosis, before treatment was started. Reactions were seen in adults and children, even in patients with only a single lesion. Neuritis was often present without other signs of reaction. Reactions and neuritis were more likely to occur in lepromatous patients, and were more likely to be seen in adults than in children.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Endémicas , Lepra/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nepal/epidemiología , Filipinas/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
18.
s.l; s.n; 2015. 10 p. ilus, tab, graf.
No convencional en Inglés | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1095300

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Type 1 reactions (T1R) affect a considerable proportion of patients with leprosy. In those with T1R, the host immune response pathologically overcompensates for the actual infectious threat, resulting in nerve damage and permanent disability. Based on the results of a genome-wide association study of leprosy per se, we investigated the TNFSF15 chromosomal region for a possible contribution to susceptibility to T1R. METHODS: We performed a high-resolution association scan of the TNFSF15 locus to evaluate the association with T1R in 2 geographically and ethnically distinct populations: a family-based sample from Vietnam and a case-control sample from Brazil, comprising a total of 1768 subjects. RESULTS: In the Vietnamese sample, 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) overlapping TNFSF15 and the adjacent TNFSF8 gene were associated with T1R but not with leprosy. Of the 47 SNPs, 39 were cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) for TNFSF8 including SNPs located within the TNFSF15 gene. In the Brazilian sample, 18 of these cis-eQTL SNPs overlapping the TNFSF8 gene were validated for association with T1R. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results indicate TNFSF8 and not TNFSF15 as an important T1R susceptibility gene. Our data support the need for infection genetics to go beyond genes for pathogen control to explore genes involved in a commensurate host response.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Mapeo Cromosómico , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Ligando CD30/genética , Miembro 15 de la Superfamilia de Ligandos de Factores de Necrosis Tumoral/genética , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Lepra/genética , Lepra/inmunología
19.
Infect Immun ; 82(9): 3979-85, 2014 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25024362

RESUMEN

Despite the dramatic reduction in the number of leprosy cases worldwide in the 1990s, transmission of the causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, is still occurring, and new cases continue to appear. New strategies are required in the pursuit of leprosy elimination. The cross-application of vaccines in development for tuberculosis may lead to tools applicable to elimination of leprosy. In this report, we demonstrate that the chimeric fusion proteins ID83 and ID93, developed as antigens for tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidates, elicited gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses from both TB and paucibacillary (PB) leprosy patients and from healthy household contacts of multibacillary (MB) patients (HHC) but not from nonexposed healthy controls. Immunization of mice with either protein formulated with a Toll-like receptor 4 ligand (TLR4L)-containing adjuvant (glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in a stable emulsion [GLA-SE]) stimulated antigen-specific IFN-γ secretion from pluripotent Th1 cells. When immunized mice were experimentally infected with M. leprae, both cellular infiltration into the local lymph node and bacterial growth at the site were reduced relative to those of unimmunized mice. Thus, the use of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis candidate vaccines ID83/GLA-SE and ID93/GLA-SE may confer cross-protection against M. leprae infection. Our data suggest these vaccines could potentially be used as an additional control measure for leprosy.


Asunto(s)
Lepra/inmunología , Lepra/prevención & control , Mycobacterium leprae/inmunología , Vacunas contra la Tuberculosis/inmunología , Tuberculosis/inmunología , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos , Animales , Antígenos Bacterianos/inmunología , Proteínas Bacterianas/inmunología , Humanos , Interferón gamma/inmunología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/inmunología , Células TH1/inmunología , Receptor Toll-Like 4/inmunología
20.
Vaccine ; 31(5): 813-9, 2013 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23228811

RESUMEN

Despite the advances toward the elimination of leprosy through widespread provision of multi-drug therapy to registered patients over the last 2 decades, new case detection rates have stabilized and leprosy remains endemic in a number of localized regions. A vaccine could overcome the inherent limitations of the drug treatment program by providing protection in individuals who are not already harboring the Mycobacterium leprae bacilli at the time of administration and effectively interrupt the transmission cycle over a wider timespan. In this report we present data validating the production of 73f, a chimeric fusion protein incorporating the M. leprae antigens ML2028, ML2346 and ML2044. The 73f protein was recognized by IgG in multibacillary (MB) leprosy patient sera and stimulated IFNγ production within whole blood assays of paucibacillary (PB) leprosy patient and healthy household contacts of MB patients (HHC). When formulated with a TLR4L-containing adjuvant (GLA-SE), 73f stimulated a strong and pluripotent Th1 response that inhibited M. leprae-induced inflammation in mice. We are using these data to develop new vaccine initiatives for the continued and long-term control of leprosy.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Bacterianos/inmunología , Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Lepra/prevención & control , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Antígenos Bacterianos/genética , Vacunas Bacterianas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Bacterianas/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Interferón gamma/metabolismo , Lepra/inmunología , Leucocitos Mononucleares/inmunología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium leprae/inmunología , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusión/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusión/inmunología , Células TH1/inmunología , Vacunas Sintéticas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Sintéticas/genética , Vacunas Sintéticas/inmunología , Adulto Joven
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