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Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 2): 150838, 2022 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627900


During the COVID-19 pandemic, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been engaged to complement medical surveillance and in some cases to also act as an early diagnosis indicator of viral spreading in the community. Most efforts worldwide by the scientific community and commercial companies focus on the formulation of protocols for SARS-CoV-2 analysis in wastewater and approaches addressing the quantitative relationship between WBE and medical surveillance are lacking. In the present study, a mathematical model is developed which uses as input the number of daily positive medical tests together with the highly non-linear shedding rate curve of individuals to estimate the evolution of global virus shedding rate in wastewater along calendar days. A comprehensive parametric study by the model using as input actual medical surveillance and WBE data for the city of Thessaloniki (~700,000 inhabitants, North Greece) during the outbreak of November 2020 reveals the conditions under which WBE can be used as an early warning tool for predicting pandemic outbreaks. It is shown that early warning capacity is different along the days of an outbreak and depends strongly on the number of days apart between the day of maximum shedding rate of infected individuals in their disease cycle and the day of their medical testing. The present data indicate for Thessaloniki an average early warning capacity of around 2 days. Moreover, the data imply that there exists a proportion between unreported cases (asymptomatic persons with mild symptoms that do not seek medical advice) and reported cases. The proportion increases with the number of reported cases. The early detection capacity of WBE improves substantially in the presence of an increasing number of unreported cases. For Thessaloniki at the peak of the pandemic in mid-November 2020, the number of unreported cases reached a maximum around 4 times the number of reported cases.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Pandemias , Aguas Residuales , Monitoreo Epidemiológico Basado en Aguas Residuales
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23626, 2021 Dec 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880294


We show a method to control magnetic interfacial effects in multilayers with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) using helium (He[Formula: see text]) ion irradiation. We report results from SQUID magnetometry, ferromagnetic resonance as well as Brillouin light scattering results on multilayers with DMI as a function of irradiation fluence to study the effect of irradiation on the magnetic properties of the multilayers. Our results show clear evidence of the He[Formula: see text] irradiation effects on the magnetic properties which is consistent with interface modification due to the effects of the He[Formula: see text] irradiation. This external degree of freedom offers promising perspectives to further improve the control of magnetic skyrmions in multilayers, that could push them towards integration in future technologies.

Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2754-2761, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933741


BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nutrition education is not well represented in the medical curriculum. The aim of this original paper was to describe the Nutrition Education in Medical Schools (NEMS) Project of the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN). METHODS: On 19 January 2020, a meeting was held on this topic that was attended by 51 delegates (27 council members) from 34 countries, and 13 European University representatives. RESULTS: This article includes the contents of the meeting that concluded with the signing of the Manifesto for the Implementation of Nutrition Education in the Undergraduate Medical Curriculum. CONCLUSION: The meeting represented a significant step forward, moved towards implementation of nutrition education in medical education in general and in clinical practice in particular, in compliance with the aims of the ESPEN Nutrition Education Study Group (NESG).

Educación Médica/organización & administración , Ciencias de la Nutrición/educación , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Sociedades Científicas/organización & administración , Universidades/normas , Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 1): 142855, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199018


Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in sewage has been employed by several researchers as an alternative early warning indicator of virus spreading in communities, covering both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. A factor that can seriously mislead the quantitative measurement of viral copies in sewage is the adsorption of virus fragments onto the highly porous solids suspended in wastewater, making them inaccessible. This depends not only on the available amount of suspended solids, but also on the amount of other dissolved chemicals which may influence the capacity of adsorption. On this account, the present work develops a mathematical framework, at various degrees of spatial complexity, of a physicochemical model that rationalizes the quantitative measurements of total virus fragments in sewage as regards the adsorption of virus onto suspended solids and the effect of dissolved chemicals on it. The city of Thessaloniki in Greece is employed as a convenient case study to determine the values of model variables. The present data indicate the ratio of the specific absorption (UV254/DOC) over the dissolved oxygen (DO) as the parameter with the highest correlation with viral copies. This implies a strong effect on viral inaccessibility in sewage caused (i) by the presence of humic-like substances and (ii) by virus decay due to oxidation and metabolic activity of bacteria. The present results suggest days where many fold corrections in the measurement of viral copies should be applied. As a result, although the detected RNA load in June 2020 is similar to that in April 2020, virus shedding in the city is about 5 times lower in June than in April, in line with the very low SARS-CoV-2 incidence and hospital admissions for COVID-19 in Thessaloniki in June.

COVID-19 , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Grecia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Aguas Residuales