Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 87
Filtrar
1.
Anaesthesia ; 77(6): 640-648, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35254669

RESUMEN

We conducted an observational study of serious airway complications, using similar methods to the fourth UK National Audit Project (NAP4) over a period of 1 year across four hospitals in one region in the UK. We also conducted an activity survey over a week, using NAP4 methods to yield an estimate for relevant denominators to help interpret the primary data. There were 17 serious airway complications, defined as: failed airway management leading to cancellation of surgery (eight); airway management in recovery (five); unplanned intensive care admission (three); and unplanned emergency front of neck access (one). There were no reports of death or brain damage. This was an estimate of 0.028% (1 in 3600) complications using the denominator of 61,000 general anaesthetics per year in the region. Complications in patients with 'predicted easy' airways were rare (approximately 1 in 14,200), but 45 times more common in those with 'predicted difficult' airways (approximately 1 in 315). Airway management in both groups was similar (induction of anaesthesia followed by supraglottic airway or tracheal tube). Use of awake/sedation intubation, videolaryngoscopy and high-flow nasal oxygenation were uncommon even in the predicted difficult airway patients (in 2.7%, 32.4% and 9.5% of patients, respectively). We conclude that the incidence of serious airway complications is at least as high as it was during NAP4. Despite airway prediction being used, this is not informing subsequent management.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia , Laringoscopios , Manejo de la Vía Aérea/efectos adversos , Manejo de la Vía Aérea/métodos , Humanos , Intubación Intratraqueal/efectos adversos , Intubación Intratraqueal/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23626, 2021 Dec 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880294

RESUMEN

We show a method to control magnetic interfacial effects in multilayers with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) using helium (He[Formula: see text]) ion irradiation. We report results from SQUID magnetometry, ferromagnetic resonance as well as Brillouin light scattering results on multilayers with DMI as a function of irradiation fluence to study the effect of irradiation on the magnetic properties of the multilayers. Our results show clear evidence of the He[Formula: see text] irradiation effects on the magnetic properties which is consistent with interface modification due to the effects of the He[Formula: see text] irradiation. This external degree of freedom offers promising perspectives to further improve the control of magnetic skyrmions in multilayers, that could push them towards integration in future technologies.

3.
Anaesthesia ; 76(9): 1184-1189, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651914

RESUMEN

High-flow nasal oxygen therapy is increasingly used to improve peri-intubation oxygenation. However, it is unknown whether it may cause or exacerbate insufflation of gas into the stomach. High-flow nasal oxygen therapy is now standard practice in our hospital for adult patients undergoing percutaneous thermal ablation of liver cancer under general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation. We compared gastric gas volumes measured from computed tomography images that had been acquired immediately after intubation in two series of patients: 50 received peri-intubation high-flow nasal oxygen therapy and another 50 received conventional facemask pre-oxygenation and ventilation before intubation and before high-flow nasal oxygen therapy became standard practice in our unit. Median (IQR [range]) gastric gas volume was 24.0 (14.2-59.9 [3-167]) cm3 in the high-flow nasal oxygen therapy group and 23.8 (12.6-38.8 [0-185]) cm3 in the facemask group. There was no difference between the two groups in the volume of gastric gas measured by computed tomography imaging (Mann-Whitney U-test, U = 1136, p = 0.432, n1  = n2  = 50). Our results demonstrate that a small volume of gastric gas is commonly present after induction of anaesthesia, but that the use of peri-intubation high-flow nasal oxygen therapy for pre-oxygenation and during apnoea does not increase this volume compared with conventional facemask pre-oxygenation and ventilation. This is clinically relevant, as high-flow nasal oxygen therapy is increasingly being used in a peri-intubation context and in patients at higher risk of aspiration.


Asunto(s)
Contenido Digestivo/diagnóstico por imagen , Máscaras , Terapia por Inhalación de Oxígeno/instrumentación , Terapia por Inhalación de Oxígeno/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Administración Intranasal , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Insuflación , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estómago/diagnóstico por imagen
4.
Ann Oncol ; 31(8): 1065-1074, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442581

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cancer diagnostics and surgery have been disrupted by the response of health care services to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Progression of cancers during delay will impact on patients' long-term survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We generated per-day hazard ratios of cancer progression from observational studies and applied these to age-specific, stage-specific cancer survival for England 2013-2017. We modelled per-patient delay of 3 and 6 months and periods of disruption of 1 and 2 years. Using health care resource costing, we contextualise attributable lives saved and life-years gained (LYGs) from cancer surgery to equivalent volumes of COVID-19 hospitalisations. RESULTS: Per year, 94 912 resections for major cancers result in 80 406 long-term survivors and 1 717 051 LYGs. Per-patient delay of 3/6 months would cause attributable death of 4755/10 760 of these individuals with loss of 92 214/208 275 life-years, respectively. For cancer surgery, average LYGs per patient are 18.1 under standard conditions and 17.1/15.9 with a delay of 3/6 months (an average loss of 0.97/2.19 LYGs per patient), respectively. Taking into account health care resource units (HCRUs), surgery results on average per patient in 2.25 resource-adjusted life-years gained (RALYGs) under standard conditions and 2.12/1.97 RALYGs following delay of 3/6 months. For 94 912 hospital COVID-19 admissions, there are 482 022 LYGs requiring 1 052 949 HCRUs. Hospitalisation of community-acquired COVID-19 patients yields on average per patient 5.08 LYG and 0.46 RALYGs. CONCLUSIONS: Modest delays in surgery for cancer incur significant impact on survival. Delay of 3/6 months in surgery for incident cancers would mitigate 19%/43% of LYGs, respectively, by hospitalisation of an equivalent volume of admissions for community-acquired COVID-19. This rises to 26%/59%, respectively, when considering RALYGs. To avoid a downstream public health crisis of avoidable cancer deaths, cancer diagnostic and surgical pathways must be maintained at normal throughput, with rapid attention to any backlog already accrued.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/cirugía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Tiempo de Tratamiento/tendencias , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Femenino , Hospitalización/tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Malays Orthop J ; 14(3): 66-72, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403064

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Osteosynthesis by plate fixation of humeral shaft fractures as a gold standard for fracture fixation has been proven beyond doubt. However, during conventional anterolateral plating Radial nerve injury may occur which can be avoided by applying plate on the medial flat surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of application of plate on the flat medial surface of humerus rather than the conventional anterolateral surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted between Oct 2010 to Dec 2015. One-hundred-fifty fracture shafts of the humerus were treated with the anteromedial plating through the anterolateral approach. RESULTS: One-hundred-fifty patients with a fracture shaft of the humerus were treated with anteromedial plating. Twenty were female (mean ±SD,28 years±4.5) and 130 were male (mean ± SD, 38 years±5.6). One hundred and forty-eight out of 150 (98.6%) patients achieved union at 12 months. Two of three patients developed a superficial infection, both of which were treated successfully by antibiotics and one developed a deep infection, which was treated by wound debridement, prolonged antibiotics with the removal of the plate and subsequently by delayed plating and bone grafting. CONCLUSION: In the present study, we applied plate on the anteromedial flat surface of humerus using the anterolateral approach. It is an easier and quicker fixation as compared to anterolateral plating because later involved much more dissection than a medial application of the plate and this application of plate on a medial flat surface, does not required Radial nerve exposure and palsy post-operatively. The significant improvement in elbow flexion without brachialis dissection is also a potential benefit of this approach. Based on our results, we recommend the application of an anteromedial plate for treatment of midshaft fractures humerus.

6.
Andrology ; 7(4): 555-564, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310061

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) is highly heritable but > 50% of the genetic risk remains unexplained. Epidemiological observation of greater relative risk to brothers of men with TGCT compared to sons has long alluded to recessively acting TGCT genetic susceptibility factors, but to date none have been reported. Runs of homozygosity (RoH) are a signature indicating underlying recessively acting alleles and have been associated with increased risk of other cancer types. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether RoH are associated with TGCT risk. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide RoH analysis using GWAS data from 3206 TGCT cases and 7422 controls uniformly genotyped using the OncoArray platform. RESULTS: Global measures of homozygosity were not significantly different between cases and controls, and the frequency of individual consensus RoH was not significantly different between cases and controls, after correction for multiple testing. RoH at three regions, 11p13-11p14.3, 5q14.1-5q22.3 and 13q14.11-13q.14.13, were, however, nominally statistically significant at p < 0.01. Intriguingly, RoH200 at 11p13-11p14.3 encompasses Wilms tumour 1 (WT1), a recognized cancer susceptibility gene with roles in sex determination and developmental transcriptional regulation, processes repeatedly implicated in TGCT aetiology. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Overall, our data do not support a major role in the risk of TGCT for recessively acting alleles acting through homozygosity, as measured by RoH in outbred populations of cases and controls.


Asunto(s)
Homocigoto , Neoplasias de Células Germinales y Embrionarias/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Genoma , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Factores de Riesgo
7.
J Child Orthop ; 12(6): 566-574, 2018 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607203

RESUMEN

Purpose: We assessed the pattern of relapse as well as the correlation between the number of casts required for correction and Pirani and Dimeglio scores at presentation, and age at presentation. We hypothesized that the Ponseti method would be effective in treatment of relapsed clubfoot as well. Methods: We evaluated 115 idiopathic clubfeet in 79 children presenting with relapse following treatment by the Ponseti method. The mean age was 33.8 months with mean follow-up of 24 months. All patients were assessed for various patterns of relapsed deformities. Quantification of deformities was done using the Pirani and Dimeglio scores. All relapsed feet were treated by a repeat Ponseti protocol. Results: Non-compliance to a foot abduction brace was observed to be the main contributing factor in relapse, in 99 clubfeet (86%). Combination of three static deformities (equinus, varus and adduction) together was observed most commonly (38.3% feet). Overall, relapse of equinus deformity was noted most commonly followed by adduction. A painless plantigrade foot was obtained in all 115 feet with a mean of five casts. In all, 71 feet (61.7%) underwent percutaneous tenotomy. A total of 15 feet (13%) required tibialis anterior tendon transfer. Re-relapse rate in group 1 was 21% compared with 12.6% in group 2 and overall 16.5%. Conclusion: We conclude that the Ponseti method is effective and the preferred initial treatment modality for relapsed clubfeet. Surgical intervention should be reserved for residual deformity only after a fair trial of Ponseti cast treatment. Regular follow-up and strict adherence to brace protocol may reduce future relapse rates. Further research is required to identify high-risk feet and develop individualized bracing protocol. Level of evidence: IV.

8.
Andrology ; 5(5): 914-922, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28804972

RESUMEN

Observational studies have suggested anthropometric traits, particularly increased height are associated with an elevated risk of testicular cancer (testicular germ cell tumour). However, there is an inconsistency between study findings, suggesting the possibility of the influence of confounding factors. To examine the association between anthropometric traits and testicular germ cell tumour using an unbiased approach, we performed a Mendelian randomisation study. We used genotype data from genome wide association studies of testicular germ cell tumour totalling 5518 cases and 19,055 controls. Externally weighted polygenic risk scores were created and used to evaluate associations with testicular germ cell tumour risk per one standard deviation (s.d) increase in genetically-defined adult height, adult BMI, adult waist hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI), adult hip circumference adjusted for BMI (HIPadjBMI), adult waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCadjBMI), birth weight (BW) and childhood obesity. Mendelian randomisation analysis did not demonstrate an association between any anthropometric trait and testicular germ cell tumour risk. In particular, despite good power, there was no global evidence for association between height and testicular germ cell tumour. However, three SNPs for adult height individually showed association with testicular germ cell tumour (rs4624820: OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.41-1.55, p = 2.7 × 10-57 ; rs12228415: OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.22, p = 3.1 × 10-10 ; rs7568069: OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07-1.18, p = 1.1 × 10-6 ). This Mendelian randomisation analysis, based on the largest testicular germ cell tumour genome wide association dataset to date, does not support a causal etiological association between anthropometric traits and testicular germ cell tumour aetiology. Our findings are more compatible with confounding by shared environmental factors, possibly related to prenatal growth with exposure to these risk factors occurring in utero.


Asunto(s)
Estatura , Neoplasias de Células Germinales y Embrionarias , Neoplasias Testiculares , Adulto , Estatura/genética , Índice de Masa Corporal , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estadísticos , Neoplasias de Células Germinales y Embrionarias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Distribución Aleatoria , Factores de Riesgo , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Relación Cintura-Cadera
9.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 42(8): 881-886, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748571

RESUMEN

Porokeratosis, a disorder of keratinisation, is clinically characterized by the presence of annular plaques with a surrounding keratotic ridge. Clinical variants include linear, disseminated superficial actinic, verrucous/hypertrophic, disseminated eruptive, palmoplantar and porokeratosis of Mibelli (one or two typical plaques with atrophic centre and guttered keratotic rim). All of these subtypes share the histological feature of a cornoid lamella, characterized by a column of 'stacked' parakeratosis with focal absence of the granular layer, and dysmaturation (prematurely keratinised cells in the upper spinous layer). In recent years, a proposed new subtype, follicular porokeratosis (FP_, has been described, in which the cornoid lamella are exclusively located in the follicular ostia. We present four new cases that showed typical histological features of FP.


Asunto(s)
Folículo Piloso/patología , Poroqueratosis/patología , Piel/patología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Lentigo/complicaciones , Lentigo/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Poroqueratosis/clasificación , Poroqueratosis/complicaciones
11.
Bone Joint J ; 98-B(1): 88-96, 2016 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26733520

RESUMEN

AIMS: We reviewed 34 consecutive patients (18 female-16 male) with isthmic spondylolysis and grade I to II lumbosacral spondylolisthesis who underwent in situ posterolateral arthodesis between the L5 transverse processes and the sacral ala with the use of iliac crest autograft. Ten patients had an associated scoliosis which required surgical correction at a later stage only in two patients with idiopathic curves unrelated to the spondylolisthesis. METHODS: No patient underwent spinal decompression or instrumentation placement. Mean surgical time was 1.5 hours (1 to 1.8) and intra-operative blood loss 200 ml (150 to 340). There was one wound infection treated with antibiotics but no other complication. Radiological assessment included standing posteroanterior and lateral, Ferguson and lateral flexion/extension views, as well as CT scans. RESULTS: A solid posterolateral fusion was confirmed in all patients at mean latest follow-up of 4.7 years (3.4 to 9.8) beyond skeletal maturity into early adult life. Fusion of the isthmic lesion was documented in nine patients bilaterally and eight patients unilaterally. The poor fusion rate across the spondylolysis has not affected the excellent functional results of the procedure, which in our series depended on achieving a stable lumbosacral junction. CONCLUSION: Quality of life assessment demonstrated significant improvement in all functional scores and high patient satisfaction with 28 patients returning to previous sports activities at an elite competitive level. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Posterolateral arthrodesis in situ with autologous iliac crest bone without instrumentation has achieved a solid fusion between the L5 transverse processes and the sacral ala in patients with grade I to II isthmic lumbosacral spondylolisthesis and this has produced excellent clinical outcomes and high patient satisfaction.


Asunto(s)
Vértebras Lumbares/cirugía , Fusión Vertebral/métodos , Espondilolistesis/cirugía , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo Operativo , Cuidados Posoperatorios/métodos , Calidad de Vida , Espondilolistesis/diagnóstico por imagen , Espondilolistesis/fisiopatología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Resultado del Tratamiento
12.
J Mol Endocrinol ; 49(3): 267-75, 2012 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23018678

RESUMEN

3-M syndrome is a primordial growth disorder caused by mutations in CUL7, OBSL1 or CCDC8. 3-M patients typically have a modest response to GH treatment, but the mechanism is unknown. Our aim was to screen 13 clinically identified 3-M families for mutations, define the status of the GH-IGF axis in 3-M children and using fibroblast cell lines assess signalling responses to GH or IGF1. Eleven CUL7, three OBSL1 and one CCDC8 mutations in nine, three and one families respectively were identified, those with CUL7 mutations being significantly shorter than those with OBSL1 or CCDC8 mutations. The majority of 3-M patients tested had normal peak serum GH and normal/low IGF1. While the generation of IGF binding proteins by 3-M cells was dysregulated, activation of STAT5b and MAPK in response to GH was normal in CUL7(-/-) cells but reduced in OBSL1(-/-) and CCDC8(-/-) cells compared with controls. Activation of AKT to IGF1 was reduced in CUL7(-/-) and OBSL1(-/-) cells at 5 min post-stimulation but normal in CCDC8(-/-) cells. The prevalence of 3-M mutations was 69% CUL7, 23% OBSL1 and 8% CCDC8. The GH-IGF axis evaluation could reflect a degree of GH resistance and/or IGF1 resistance. This is consistent with the signalling data in which the CUL7(-/-) cells showed impaired IGF1 signalling, CCDC8(-/-) cells showed impaired GH signalling and the OBSL1(-/-) cells showed impairment in both pathways. Dysregulation of the GH-IGF-IGF binding protein axis is a feature of 3-M syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Portadoras/genética , Proteínas Cullin/genética , Proteínas del Citoesqueleto/genética , Enanismo/genética , Enanismo/metabolismo , Hipotonía Muscular/genética , Hipotonía Muscular/metabolismo , Niño , Preescolar , Enanismo/sangre , Enanismo/patología , Femenino , Hormona del Crecimiento/sangre , Humanos , Lactante , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Hipotonía Muscular/sangre , Hipotonía Muscular/patología , Mutación , Transducción de Señal/genética , Transducción de Señal/fisiología , Columna Vertebral/anomalías , Columna Vertebral/metabolismo , Columna Vertebral/patología
13.
Transfus Med ; 22(4): 251-6, 2012 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22519365

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is one of the major areas where serious clinical consequences, even death, related to patient misidentification can occur. In the UK, healthcare professional compliance with pre-transfusion checking procedures which help to prevent misidentification errors is poor. Involving patients at a number of stages in the transfusion pathway could help prevent the occurrence of these incidents. OBJECTIVES: To investigate patients' willingness to be involved and healthcare professionals' willingness to support patient involvement in pre-transfusion checking behaviours. MEASURES: A cross-sectional design was employed assessing willingness to participate in pre-transfusion checking behaviours (patient survey) and willingness to support patient involvement (healthcare professional survey) on a scale of 1-7. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and ten patients who had received a transfusion aged between 18 and 93 (60 male) and 123 healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses and midwives) involved in giving blood transfusions to patients. RESULTS: Mean scores for patients' willingness to participate in safety-relevant transfusion behaviours and healthcare professionals' willingness to support patient involvement ranged from 4.96-6.27 to 4.53-6.66, respectively. Both groups perceived it most acceptable for patients to help prevent errors or omissions relating to their hospital identification wristband. Neither prior experience of receiving a blood transfusion nor professional role of healthcare staff had an effect on attitudes towards patient participation. CONCLUSION: Overall, both patients and healthcare professionals view patient involvement in transfusion-related behaviours quite favourably and appear in agreement regarding the behaviours patients should adopt an active role in. Further work is needed to determine the effectiveness of this approach to improve transfusion safety.


Asunto(s)
Transfusión Sanguínea , Personal de Salud , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Seguridad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
14.
Transfus Med ; 22(3): 167-72, 2012 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22520031

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients should be informed about the risks and benefits of blood transfusion and their consent should be documented. However, this is not routinely practised in the UK, and there have been few studies to investigate patients' and healthcare professionals' attitudes towards this process. OBJECTIVES: To investigate patients' and healthcare professionals' attitudes towards the information patients are provided with about transfusion and obtaining consent for transfusion. MEASURES: A cross-sectional qualitative survey design was employed. Attitudes towards transfusion-related information and consenting to transfusion were assessed using a patient survey and healthcare professional survey. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and ten patients who had received a transfusion aged between 18 and 93 (60 males and 50 females) and 123 healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses and midwives) involved in administering transfusions. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients recalled consenting transfusion. The majority said they were just told they needed a transfusion (N = 67) and only 1 patient said a full discussion about the risks and the benefits of the transfusion took place. However, although 82 patients said they were satisfied with the information, 22 patients reported they would have liked to have been given more details. The majority of healthcare professionals (N = 83) felt that patients were often not given sufficient information about transfusion. CONCLUSION: Greater efforts should be made to provide information to patients about the risks and benefits of blood transfusions. Future research should explore the most effective ways of delivering this information to patients in an appropriate and timely manner.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Transfusión Sanguínea , Personal de Salud/psicología , Consentimiento Informado/psicología , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Pacientes/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Hospitales Públicos , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Partería , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Folletos , Satisfacción del Paciente , Médicos/psicología , Riesgo , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
15.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 35(6): 690-5, 2012 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22257079

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A survey of journals published in the field of Gastroenterology conducted 5 years ago showed marked variability in reporting of conflicts of interest or funding sources in these journals. AIM: To re-examine reporting of conflicts of interest and funding sources for original articles and editorials in Gastroenterology and Hepatology journals. METHODS: We evaluated all original articles and editorials in 15 leading journals (determined by impact factor-Thomson Reuter Science Citation Index) devoted to Gastroenterology and Hepatology for disclosures of conflicts and for editor's self disclosures. We examined each journal's editorial policy by contacting the journal directly if the information was not revealed on the Web site or print versions of the journal. RESULTS: Of the 1574 articles evaluated, a total of 1207 (77%) reported the presence or absence of a potential conflict of interest and 1047 (67%) reported the presence or absence of funding sources. A total of 3 of the 15 (20%) journals (American Journal of Gastroenterology, Gastroenterology, and Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics reported the presence or absence of funding sources in all their published original articles. Only 5 of 15 (33%) journals (Gut, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, American Journal of Gastroenterology, Neurogastroenterology & Motility and Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics) publicly disclosed the conflicts of interest of the editors. CONCLUSIONS: (i) Funding sources and conflicts of interest are still reported variably in the GI literature. (ii) Editorials and review articles are influential, but have poor reporting of conflicts of interest. (iii) Editors of many journals still do not report their conflicts of interest.


Asunto(s)
Conflicto de Intereses , Revelación/normas , Gastroenterología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/ética , Apoyo a la Investigación como Asunto/economía , Investigación Biomédica/economía , Políticas Editoriales , Humanos , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/normas , Publicaciones/ética , Publicaciones/normas , Apoyo a la Investigación como Asunto/ética
16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 17(2): 306-11, 2011 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20384699

RESUMEN

Skull-base osteomyelitis (SBO) occurs secondary to invasive bacterial and fungal infection. Distinguishing between fungal and bacterial aetiologies of SBO has significant therapeutic implications. An 18-year (1990-2007) retrospective review of patients with SBO presenting to Westmead Hospital was performed. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and radiology data were collated. Twenty-one patients (median age 58 years) with SBO were identified: ten (48%) had bacterial and 11 (52%) had fungal SBO. Diabetes mellitus (57%) and chronic otitis externa (33%) were the most frequent co-morbidities; immunosuppression was present in five cases (24%). Cranial nerve deficits occurred in ten (48%) patients. The commonest pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (50% bacterial SBO) and a zygomycete (55% fungal SBO). Compared to bacterial SBO, fungal SBO was more frequently associated with underlying chronic sinusitis, sinonasal pain, facial/periorbital swelling and nasal stuffiness or discharge and the absence of purulent ear discharge (all p <0.05). Bacterial SBO was more frequently associated with deafness, ear pain or ear discharge (all p <0.05). Median time to presentation was longer in patients with bacterial SBO (26.3 weeks vs. 8.1 weeks, p 0.08). Overall 6-month survival was 88% (14/18 patients). All four deaths occurred in patients with fungal SBO. Immunosuppression was a risk factor for death (p <0.05). Early diagnostic sampling is recommended in patients at increased risk of fungal SBO to enable optimal antimicrobial and surgical management.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Micosis/diagnóstico , Micosis/epidemiología , Osteomielitis/epidemiología , Osteomielitis/microbiología , Base del Cráneo/microbiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Hongos/clasificación , Hongos/aislamiento & purificación , Hospitales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Micosis/microbiología , Micosis/patología , Osteomielitis/diagnóstico , Osteomielitis/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Base del Cráneo/patología , Análisis de Supervivencia
17.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 37(6): 976-82, 2009 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20014605

RESUMEN

This study reports the incidence, risk factors and mortality associated with a positive Enterococcus spp. isolate during admission to two tertiary intensive care units participating in an antibiotic cycling study. Incidence was low, with only 4.2% of admissions (36/852) at Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital and 2.8% (31/1104) at Westmead Hospital developing a positive Enterococcus spp. isolate (P=0.087). A positive enterococcal isolate, while not an independent predictor of mortality (odds ratio [OR]=1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80 to 3.2, P=0.18), may be a marker of the underlying severity of illness with higher unadjusted in-hospital mortality (26% or 17/66 vs 14% or 250/1855, P=0.007). Independent risk factors for a positive isolate were use of meropenem/imipenem (OR=5.7, 95% CI 2.4 to 14, P <0.001) and cefepime (OR=2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.3, P=0.017) within 48 hours of intensive care unit admission, the presence of a nasogastric tube (OR=4.1, 95% CI 1.3 to 14, P=0.018), renal replacement therapy (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.7, P=0.046), operative intervention (OR=1.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.2, P=0.035) and age (OR=1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5, P=0.009). None of these factors, except for the need for renal replacement therapy (OR=6.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 27, P=0.015), was associated with increased mortality. Enterococci-directed empiric therapy in the treatment of sepsis remains of unproven value, although this negative finding must be evaluated against other higher powered studies.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Enterococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Femenino , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/etiología , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/microbiología , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Incidencia , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Intubación Gastrointestinal/efectos adversos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Queensland/epidemiología , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
18.
Mol Vis ; 14: 1319-26, 2008 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18648523

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Primary open-angle glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. We previously identified a region on chromosome 20p12 associated with juvenile-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) that was designated GLC1K. The aim of this study is to refine the boundaries of the GLC1K region and to screen selected candidate genes located within the refined region for biologically significant mutations. METHODS: Four JOAG families (44 individuals) with linkage to GLC1K were used for this study. Informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers located throughout the previously defined region were used for haplotype analysis. Four candidate genes within the refined region were screened for biologically significant mutations using direct genomic sequencing: bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2); phospholipase C beta 1 (PLCB1); phospholipase C beta 4 (PLCB4); and BTB POZ domain containing 3 (BTBD3). RESULTS: Haplotype analysis identified a new critical interval of 12.7 Mb using a combination of SNPs and microsatellite markers. This analysis extended the region of GLC1K from D20S846 to rs6081603 in affected individuals, and the region was further reduced to 9 Mb if unaffected recombinant individuals were included in the analysis. Biologically significant DNA sequence variants were not identified in the BMP2, PLCB1, PLCB4, or BTBD3 genes in these families. CONCLUSIONS: Using recombinant breakpoint mapping and haplotypes based on a combination of SNP and microsatellite markers, the GLC1K region has been reduced to a maximum of 12.7 Mb and a minimum of 9 Mb. Four genes that are located within the refined region with attractive ocular expression and function have been excluded as causative genes for JOAG.


Asunto(s)
Cromosomas Humanos Par 20/genética , Glaucoma de Ángulo Abierto/genética , Mapeo Físico de Cromosoma , Femenino , Haplotipos , Humanos , Masculino , Mutación/genética , Linaje
19.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) ; 15(1): 15-21, 2007 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17429111

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate results of open reduction for late-presenting (more than 3 weeks) posterior dislocation of the elbow in 10 patients. METHOD: Elbow stiffness was the main indication for surgery. The mean age of the patients was 34 (range, 13-65) years; the mean time since injury was 4 (range, 2-6) months. All patients had non-functional elbow movement for any activity of daily living. Three patients had associated fractures around the elbow joint. RESULTS: At a mean follow-up of 19 (range, 11-28) months, 8 patients regained a functional range of movement for activities of daily living and maintained a median arc of flexion of 100 degrees and a supination-pronation arc of 140 degrees. According to the Mayo Elbow Performance Index, the results of 5 patients were excellent, 3 were good, and 2 were poor. Complications included pin site infection (n=2), ulnar neuritis (n=1), and delayed wound healing (n=1). CONCLUSION: In patients with late-presenting, unreduced elbow dislocation occurring up to 6 months earlier, open reduction is effective in restoring the joint to a painless, stable and functional state.


Asunto(s)
Articulación del Codo/lesiones , Luxaciones Articulares/cirugía , Procedimientos Ortopédicos/métodos , Accidentes por Caídas , Accidentes de Tránsito , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Hilos Ortopédicos , Articulación del Codo/cirugía , Femenino , Humanos , Luxaciones Articulares/rehabilitación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recuperación de la Función , Factores de Tiempo
20.
Br J Biomed Sci ; 62(2): 81-4, 2005.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15997882

RESUMEN

Toxoplasma gondii is an important opportunistic infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients as it causes fatal encephalitis. In the present study, antibody response to T. gondii is assessed in saliva samples from 100 HIV-seropositive patients and 25 HIV-negative healthy controls by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sensitivity and specificity for detection of IgG and IgM in saliva is calculated using a positive antibody response in serum samples (from an earlier study) as the gold standard. IgG and IgM antibodies were found in 20% and 25% patients, respectively. One control subject showed the presence of IgM antibody. Sensitivity for IgG and IgM antibodies was 64% and 81.25%, respectively, while specificity was 94.67% and 85.71%, respectively. This study indicates that saliva samples can be used as an alternative to serum samples to detect anti-toxoplasma antibodies, particularly IgM, for the diagnosis of toxoplasma encephalitis in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/inmunología , Saliva/inmunología , Toxoplasmosis/inmunología , Animales , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina M/inmunología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Toxoplasma/inmunología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...