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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250632, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909671

RESUMEN

This paper presents the research results of detecting gastric polyps with deep learning object detection method in gastroscopic images. Gastric polyps have various sizes. The difficulty of polyp detection is that small polyps are difficult to detect from the background. We propose a feature extraction and fusion module and combine it with the YOLOv3 network to form our network. This method performs better than other methods in the detection of small polyps because it can fuse the semantic information of high-level feature maps with low-level feature maps to help small polyps detection. In this work, we use a dataset of gastric polyps created by ourselves, containing 1433 training images and 508 validation images. We train and validate our network on our dataset. In comparison with other methods of polyps detection, our method has a significant improvement in precision, recall rate, F1, and F2 score. The precision, recall rate, F1 score, and F2 score of our method can achieve 91.6%, 86.2%, 88.8%, and 87.2%.

2.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667170

RESUMEN

This article investigates the adaptive event-triggered finite-time dissipative filtering problems for the interval type-2 (IT2) Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy Markov jump systems (MJSs) with asynchronous modes. By designing a generalized performance index, the H∞, L2-L∞, and dissipative fuzzy filtering problems with network transmission delay are addressed. The adaptive event-triggered scheme (ETS) is proposed to guarantee that the IT2 T-S fuzzy MJSs are finite-time boundedness (FTB) and, thus, lower the energy consumption of communication while ensuring the performance of the system with extended dissipativity. Different from the conventional triggering mechanism, in this article, the parameters of the triggering function are based on an adaptive law, which is obtained online rather than as a predefined constant. Besides, the asynchronous phenomenon between the plant and the filter is considered, which is described by a hidden Markov model (HMM). Finally, two examples are presented to show the availability of the proposed algorithms.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630740

RESUMEN

This article studies the prescribed performance fault-tolerant control problem for a class of uncertain nonlinear multi-input and multioutput systems. A learning-based fault-tolerant controller is proposed to achieve the asymptotic stability, without requiring a priori knowledge of the system dynamics. To deal with the prescribed performance, a new error transformation function is introduced to convert the constrained error dynamics into an equivalent unconstrained one. Under the actor-critic learning structure, a continuous-time long-term performance index is presented to evaluate the current control behavior. Then, a critic network is used to approximate the designed performance index and provide a reinforcement signal to the action network. Based on the robust integral of the sign of error feedback control method, an action network-based controller is developed. It is shown by the Lyapunov approach that the tracking error can converge to zero asymptotically with the prescribed performance guaranteed. Simulation results are provided to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

4.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635804

RESUMEN

The bionic flapping-wing robotic aircraft is inspired by the flight of birds or insects. This article focuses on the flexible wings of the aircraft, which has great advantages, such as being lightweight, having high flexibility, and offering low energy consumption. However, flexible wings might generate the unexpected deformation and vibration during the flying process. The vibration will degrade the flight performance, even shorten the lifespan of the aircraft. Therefore, designing an effective control method for suppressing vibrations of the flexible wings is significant in practice. The main purpose of this article is to develop an adaptive fault-tolerant control scheme for the flexible wings of the aircraft. Dynamic modeling, control design, and stability verification for the aircraft system are conducted. First, the dynamic model of the flexible flapping-wing aircraft is established by an improved rigid finite element (IRFE) method. Second, a novel adaptive fault-tolerant controller based on the fuzzy neural network (FNN) and nonsingular fast terminal sliding-mode (NFTSM) control scheme are proposed for tracking control and vibration suppression of the flexible wings, while successfully addressing the issues of system uncertainties and actuator failures. Third, the stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed through Lyapunov's direct method. Finally, co-simulations through MapleSim and MATLAB/Simulink are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed controller.

5.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147153

RESUMEN

This article develops a finite-dimensional dynamic model to describe a stand-alone tall building-like structure with an eccentric load by using the assumed mode method (AMM). To compensate for the dynamic uncertainties, a new neural-network (NN) control strategy is designed to suppress vibrations of the tall buildings. The output constraint on the angle of the pendulum is also considered, and such an angle can be ensured within the safety limit by incorporating a barrier Lyapunov function. The semiglobally uniform ultimate boundness (SGUUB) of the closed-loop system is proved via Lyapunov's stability. The simulation results reveal that the new NN strategy can effectively realize vibration suppression in the flexible beam and pendulum. The effectiveness of the new NN approach is further verified through the experiments on the Quanser smart structure.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941154

RESUMEN

We aim at the optimization of the tracking control of a robot to improve the robustness, under the effect of unknown nonlinear perturbations. First, an auxiliary system is introduced, and optimal control of the auxiliary system can be seen as an approximate optimal control of the robot. Then, neural networks (NNs) are employed to approximate the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equation under the frame of adaptive dynamic programming. Next, based on the standard gradient attenuation algorithm and adaptive critic design, NNs are trained depending on the designed updating law with relaxing the requirement of initial stabilizing control. In light of the Lyapunov stability theory, all the error signals can be proved to be uniformly ultimately bounded. A series of simulation studies are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed control.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870800

RESUMEN

Matching and registration between aerial images and prestored road landmarks are critical techniques to enhance unmanned aerial system (UAS) navigation in the global positioning system (GPS)-denied urban environments. Current registration processes typically consist of two separate stages of road extraction and road registration. These two-stage registration approaches are time-consuming and less robust to noise. To that end, in this article, we, for the first time, investigate the problem of end-to-end Aerial-Road registration. Using deep learning, we develop a novel attention-based neural network architecture for Aerial-Road registration. In this model, we construct two-branch neural networks with shared weights to map two input images into a common embedding space. Besides, considering that road features are sparsely distributed in images, we incorporate a novel multibranch attention module to filter out false descriptor matches from the indiscriminative background in order to improve registration accuracy. Finally, the results from extensive experiments show that compared with state-of-the-art approaches, the mean absolute errors of our approach in rotation angle and the translations in the x- and y-directions are reduced down by a factor of 1.24, 1.38, and 1.44, respectively. Furthermore, as a byproduct, our experimental results prove the feasibility of a neural network multitask learning approach to simultaneously achieve accurate Aerial-Road matching and registration, thus providing an efficient and accurate UAS geolocalization.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833647

RESUMEN

In this article, a model-free online adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) approach is developed for solving the optimal control problem of nonaffine nonlinear systems. Combining the off-policy learning mechanism with the parallel paradigm, multithread agents are employed to collect the transitions by interacting with the environment that significantly augments the number of sampled data. On the other hand, each thread agent explores the environment with different initial states under its own behavior policy that enhances the exploration capability and alleviates the correlation between the sampled data. After the policy evaluation process, only one step update is required for policy improvement based on the policy gradient method. The stability of the system under iterative control laws is guaranteed. Moreover, the convergence analysis is given to prove that the iterative Q-function is monotonically nonincreasing and finally converges to the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. For implementing the algorithm, the actor-critic (AC) structure is utilized with two neural networks (NNs) to approximate the Q-function and the control policy. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified by two numerical examples.

9.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649288

RESUMEN

In this article, the optimal control problem for robotic manipulators (RMs) with prescribed constraints is addressed. Considering the environmental conditions and requirements of practical applications, prescribed constraints are imposed on the system states to guarantee the control performance and normal operation of the robotic system. Accordingly, an error transformation function is adopted to cope with the prescribed constraints and generate an equivalent unconstrained error for the convenience of the intelligent control design. In order to improve the learning ability and optimize the control performance, critic learning (CL) is introduced to the control design of the constrained RM based on the transformed equivalent unconstrained system. In addition, the stability analysis is given to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed CL-based control. Finally, simulations are conducted on a two-degree-of-freedom (DOF)-constrained RM to further validate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692681

RESUMEN

This article proposes an adaptive neural network (NN) distributed control algorithm for a group of high-order nonlinear agents with nonidentical unknown control directions (UCDs) under signed time-varying topologies. An important lemma on the convergence property is first established for agents with antagonistic time-varying interactions, and then by using Nussbaum-type functions, a new class of NN distributed control algorithms is proposed. If the signed time-varying topologies are cut-balanced and uniformly in time structurally balanced, then convergence is achieved for a group of nonlinear agents. Moreover, the proposed algorithms are adopted to achieve the bipartite consensus of high-order nonlinear agents with nonidentical UCDs under signed graphs, which are uniformly quasi-strongly δ-connected. Finally, simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the NN distributed control algorithms.

11.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584776

RESUMEN

This article addresses the team-triggered fixed-time consensus problems for a class of double-integrator agents subject to uncertain disturbance. Compared with the finite-time results, the convergence time of the fixed-time results is independent of the initial conditions. Furthermore, a novel team-triggered control (TTC) strategy is presented. This control strategy incorporates the event-triggered control (ETC) and self-triggered control (STC). The ETC and STC are proposed to achieve the fixed-time consensus of second-order multiagent systems (MASs), and no Zeno behavior occurs. The TTC scheme, derived by combining the ETC scheme and the STC scheme, is able to relax the requirement of continuous communication and thus lowering the energy consumption of communication while ensuring the performance of the system. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is validated by numerical simulations.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554331

RESUMEN

In this article, we study cooperative multiagent systems (MASs) with multiple tasks by using reinforcement learning (RL)-based algorithms. The target for a single-agent RL system is represented by its scalar reward signals. However, for an MAS with multiple cooperative tasks, the holistic reward signal consists of multiple parts to represent the tasks, which makes the problem complicated. Existing multiagent RL algorithms search distributed policies with holistic reward signals directly, making it difficult to obtain an optimal policy for each task. This article provides efficient learning-based algorithms such that each agent can learn a joint optimal policy to accomplish these multiple tasks cooperatively with other agents. The main idea of the algorithms is to decompose the holistic reward signal for each agent into multiple parts according to the subtasks, and then the proposed algorithms learn multiple value functions with the decomposed reward signals and update the policy with the sum of distributed value functions. In addition, this article presents a theoretical analysis of the proposed approach. Finally, the simulation results for both discrete decision-making and continuous control problems have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

13.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203048

RESUMEN

In this article, a solver-critic (SC) architecture is developed for optimal control problems of discrete-time (DT)-constrained-input systems. The proposed design consists of three parts: 1) a critic network; 2) an action solver; and 3) a target network. The critic network first approximates the action-value function using the sum-of-squares (SOS) polynomial. Then, the action solver adopts the SOS programming to obtain control inputs within the constraint set. The target network introduces the soft update mechanism into policy evaluation to stabilize the learning process. By using the proposed architecture, the constrained-input control problem can be solved without adding the nonquadratic functionals into the reward function. In this article, the theoretical analysis of the convergence property is presented. Besides, the effects of both different initial Q-functions and different discount factors are investigated. It is proven that the learned policy converges to the optimal solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Four numerical examples are provided to validate the theoretical analysis and also demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(3)2020 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050470

RESUMEN

The question of how to estimate the state of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in real time in multi-environments remains a challenge. Although the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) has been widely applied, drones cannot perform position estimation when a GNSS signal is not available or the GNSS is disturbed. In this paper, the problem of state estimation in multi-environments is solved by employing an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm to fuse the data from multiple heterogeneous sensors (MHS), including an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a magnetometer, a barometer, a GNSS receiver, an optical flow sensor (OFS), Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), and an RGB-D camera. Finally, the robustness and effectiveness of the multi-sensor data fusion system based on the EKF algorithm are verified by field flights in unstructured, indoor, outdoor, and indoor and outdoor transition scenarios.

15.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst ; 31(11): 5029-5037, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905152

RESUMEN

This brief addresses the fixed-time event/self-triggered leader-follower consensus problems for networked multi-agent systems subject to nonlinear dynamics. First, we present an event-triggered control strategy to achieve the fixed-time consensus, and a new measurement error is designed to avoid Zeno behavior. Then, two new self-triggered control strategies are presented to avoid continuous triggering condition monitoring. Moreover, under the proposed self-triggered control strategies, a strictly positive minimal triggering interval of each follower is given to exclude Zeno behavior. Compared with the existing fixed-time event-triggered results, we propose two new self-triggered control strategies, and the nonlinear term is more general. Finally, the performances of the consensus tracking algorithms are illustrated by a simulation example.

16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940531

RESUMEN

Conventional multi-view re-ranking methods usually perform asymmetrical matching between the region of interest (ROI) in the query image and the whole target image for similarity computation. Due to the inconsistency in the visual appearance, this practice tends to degrade the retrieval accuracy particularly when the image ROI, which is usually interpreted as the image objectness, accounts for a smaller region in the image. Since Privileged Information (PI), which can be viewed as the image prior, is able to characterize well the image objectness, we are aiming at leveraging PI for further improving the performance of multi-view re-ranking in this paper. Towards this end, we propose a discriminative multi-view re-ranking approach in which both the original global image visual contents and the local auxiliary PI features are simultaneously integrated into a unified training framework for generating the latent subspaces with sufficient discriminating power. For the on-the-fly re-ranking, since the multi-view PI features are unavailable, we only project the original multi-view image representations onto the latent subspace, and thus the re-ranking can be achieved by computing and sorting the distances from the multi-view embeddings to the separating hyperplane. Extensive experimental evaluations on the two public benchmarks, Oxford5k and Paris6k, reveal that our approach provides further performance boost for accurate image re-ranking, whilst the comparative study demonstrates the advantage of our method against other multi-view re-ranking methods.

17.
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell ; 42(2): 460-474, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418897

RESUMEN

In recent years, visual question answering (VQA) has become topical. The premise of VQA's significance as a benchmark in AI, is that both the image and textual question need to be well understood and mutually grounded in order to infer the correct answer. However, current VQA models perhaps 'understand' less than initially hoped, and instead master the easier task of exploiting cues given away in the question and biases in the answer distribution [1]. In this paper we propose the inverse problem of VQA (iVQA). The iVQA task is to generate a question that corresponds to a given image and answer pair. We propose a variational iVQA model that can generate diverse, grammatically correct and content correlated questions that match the given answer. Based on this model, we show that iVQA is an interesting benchmark for visuo-linguistic understanding, and a more challenging alternative to VQA because an iVQA model needs to understand the image better to be successful. As a second contribution, we show how to use iVQA in a novel reinforcement learning framework to diagnose any existing VQA model by way of exposing its belief set: the set of question-answer pairs that the VQA model would predict true for a given image. This provides a completely new window into what VQA models 'believe' about images. We show that existing VQA models have more erroneous beliefs than previously thought, revealing their intrinsic weaknesses. Suggestions are then made on how to address these weaknesses going forward.

18.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 50(12): 5035-5046, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170088

RESUMEN

In this paper, we investigate the adaptive cooperative control problem with guaranteed convergence for a class of nonlinear multiagent systems with unknown control directions and time-varying topologies. A key lemma is first derived which involves dynamically changing interaction topologies, and then a new kind of distributed control algorithms with Nussbaum-type functions are proposed based on this lemma. It is proven that if the topologies are time varying with integral weight uniform upper bound and reciprocity, then convergence is guaranteed with the proposed algorithms for nonlinear multiagent systems with nonidentical unknown control directions. An important feature of this paper is that, under time-varying topologies, the designed algorithms can deal with nonidentical unknown control directions by using classical Nussbaum-type functions. Moreover, with the proposed algorithms, we extend the adaptive cooperative control results to the case of δ -connected graphs. In particular, the adaptive leaderless consensus of high-order nonlinear agents with nonidentical unknown control directions and a directed graph having a spanning tree is also tackled as a special case. Finally, theoretical results are illustrated by a group of Genesio-Tesi systems with distributed control algorithms under time-varying topologies and some special network topologies.

19.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725402

RESUMEN

In this article, the semiglobal cluster consensus problem is investigated for heterogeneous generic linear systems with input saturation. A general case in a leaderless framework is studied first, and then in order to broaden the scope of application, we consider a special case in which the leader nodes are pinned intermittently. To tackle the above problems, we propose a linear control scheme by using the low-gain feedback technique under the assumptions that each node is asymptotically null controllable and the underlying topology of each cluster (the extended cluster under the intermittent pinning control) has a directed spanning tree. The Lyapunov-based method and the low-gain feedback technique are developed for convergence analysis. It is shown that for both cases, the convergence rate is explicitly specified, which depends on the low-gain parameter and system matrices. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the theoretical findings.

20.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545762

RESUMEN

In this article, we investigate optimal transmission power allocation at a sensor equipped with the energy-harvesting technology for remote state estimation in wireless cyber-physical systems. The sensor has access to an energy harvester, which can collect energy from the external environment and is an everlasting but unreliable energy source compared with conventional batteries. For the wireless dropping communication channel, the packet dropout rates depend on both the signal-to-noise ratio and the transmission power used by the sensor. We formulate the problem of the optimal transmission power allocation to minimize the remote estimation error covariances as a Markov decision processes (MDPs) subject to energy constraint of the sensor. By analyzing the MDP algorithm, we show that an optimal deterministic and stationary transmission power policy exists. Moreover, we show that the optimal policy has a threshold-type structure. A numerical simulation is provided to illustrate the performance of the transmission power allocation algorithm.

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