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2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(48): 30096-30100, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723823

RESUMEN

Preventing discrimination requires that we have means of detecting it, and this can be enormously difficult when human beings are making the underlying decisions. As applied today, algorithms can increase the risk of discrimination. But as we argue here, algorithms by their nature require a far greater level of specificity than is usually possible with human decision making, and this specificity makes it possible to probe aspects of the decision in additional ways. With the right changes to legal and regulatory systems, algorithms can thus potentially make it easier to detect-and hence to help prevent-discrimination.

3.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(11): 1102-1109, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541771

RESUMEN

Public opinion is shaped in significant part by online content, spread via social media and curated algorithmically. The current online ecosystem has been designed predominantly to capture user attention rather than to promote deliberate cognition and autonomous choice; information overload, finely tuned personalization and distorted social cues, in turn, pave the way for manipulation and the spread of false information. How can transparency and autonomy be promoted instead, thus fostering the positive potential of the web? Effective web governance informed by behavioural research is critically needed to empower individuals online. We identify technologically available yet largely untapped cues that can be harnessed to indicate the epistemic quality of online content, the factors underlying algorithmic decisions and the degree of consensus in online debates. We then map out two classes of behavioural interventions-nudging and boosting- that enlist these cues to redesign online environments for informed and autonomous choice.

4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(7): 677-687, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581299

RESUMEN

Governments around the world have implemented measures to manage the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While the majority of these measures are proving effective, they have a high social and economic cost, and response strategies are being adjusted. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that communities should have a voice, be informed and engaged, and participate in this transition phase. We propose ten considerations to support this principle: (1) implement a phased approach to a 'new normal'; (2) balance individual rights with the social good; (3) prioritise people at highest risk of negative consequences; (4) provide special support for healthcare workers and care staff; (5) build, strengthen and maintain trust; (6) enlist existing social norms and foster healthy new norms; (7) increase resilience and self-efficacy; (8) use clear and positive language; (9) anticipate and manage misinformation; and (10) engage with media outlets. The transition phase should also be informed by real-time data according to which governmental responses should be updated.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Participación de la Comunidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Gobierno , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Política Pública , Betacoronavirus , Comunicación , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Autoeficacia , Normas Sociales , Estigma Social , Confianza
5.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(5): 460-471, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355299

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive global health crisis. Because the crisis requires large-scale behaviour change and places significant psychological burdens on individuals, insights from the social and behavioural sciences can be used to help align human behaviour with the recommendations of epidemiologists and public health experts. Here we discuss evidence from a selection of research topics relevant to pandemics, including work on navigating threats, social and cultural influences on behaviour, science communication, moral decision-making, leadership, and stress and coping. In each section, we note the nature and quality of prior research, including uncertainty and unsettled issues. We identify several insights for effective response to the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight important gaps researchers should move quickly to fill in the coming weeks and months.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Coronavirus , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Actividades Humanas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena , Adaptación Psicológica , Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Toma de Decisiones , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Salud Global , Humanos , Liderazgo , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Salud Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Estrés Psicológico
6.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(1): 14-19, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932690

RESUMEN

Immense amounts of information are now accessible to people, including information that bears on their past, present and future. An important research challenge is to determine how people decide to seek or avoid information. Here we propose a framework of information-seeking that aims to integrate the diverse motives that drive information-seeking and its avoidance. Our framework rests on the idea that information can alter people's action, affect and cognition in both positive and negative ways. The suggestion is that people assess these influences and integrate them into a calculation of the value of information that leads to information-seeking or avoidance. The theory offers a framework for characterizing and quantifying individual differences in information-seeking, which we hypothesize may also be diagnostic of mental health. We consider biases that can lead to both insufficient and excessive information-seeking. We also discuss how the framework can help government agencies to assess the welfare effects of mandatory information disclosure.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Motivación , Humanos , Teoría Psicológica
7.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(1): 3-7, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854853

RESUMEN

Do people think better in a foreign language? In some ways, yes. There is considerable evidence to this effect, at least to the extent that they are less likely to rely on intuitions that can lead to serious errors. This finding reinforces, and makes more plausible, a central claim in regulatory policy, which involves the value of cost-benefit analysis. In a sense, cost-benefit analysis is a foreign language, and it reduces the risk that people will rely on intuitions that cause serious errors.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Multilingüismo , Humanos
8.
Cognition ; 188: 74-84, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342868

RESUMEN

On political questions, many people prefer to consult and learn from those whose political views are similar to their own, thus creating a risk of echo chambers or information cocoons. We test whether the tendency to prefer knowledge from the politically like-minded generalizes to domains that have nothing to do with politics, even when evidence indicates that politically like-minded people are less skilled in those domains than people with dissimilar political views. Participants had multiple opportunities to learn about others' (1) political opinions and (2) ability to categorize geometric shapes. They then decided to whom to turn for advice when solving an incentivized shape categorization task. We find that participants falsely concluded that politically like-minded others were better at categorizing shapes and thus chose to hear from them. Participants were also more influenced by politically like-minded others, even when they had good reason not to be. These results replicate in two independent samples. The findings demonstrate that knowing about others' political views interferes with the ability to learn about their competency in unrelated tasks, leading to suboptimal information-seeking decisions and errors in judgement. Our findings have implications for political polarization and social learning in the midst of political divisions.


Asunto(s)
Juicio , Aprendizaje , Política , Percepción Social , Adulto , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
10.
J Behav Med ; 41(3): 398-405, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411272

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding factors that influence public support for "nudging" policies, like pictorial cigarette pack warnings, may offer insight about how to increase such support. We sought to examine factors that influence smokers' support for requiring pictorial warnings on cigarette packs. METHODS: In 2014 and 2015, we randomly assigned 2149 adult US smokers to receive either pictorial warnings or text-only warnings on their cigarette packs for 4 weeks. The outcome examined in the current study was support for a policy requiring pictorial warnings on cigarette packs in the US. RESULTS: Support for pictorial warnings was high at baseline (mean: 3.2 out of 4). Exposure to pictorial warnings increased policy support at week 4 (ß = .05, p = .03). This effect was explained by increases in perceived message effectiveness (p < .001) and reported conversations about policy support (p < .001). Message reactance (i.e., an oppositional reaction to the warning) partially diminished the impact of pictorial warnings on policy support (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Exposing people to a new policy through implementation could increase public support for that policy by increasing perceived effectiveness and by prompting conversations about the policy. Reactance may partially weaken the effect of policy exposure on public support.


Asunto(s)
Etiquetado de Productos , Opinión Pública , Política Pública , Fumadores/psicología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
11.
J Risk Uncertain ; 54(3): 187-202, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29070920

RESUMEN

Human beings are often faced with a pervasive problem: whether to make their own decision or to delegate the decision task to someone else. Here, we test whether people are inclined to forgo monetary rewards in order to retain agency when faced with choices that could lead to losses and gains. In a simple choice task, we show that participants choose to pay in order to control their own payoff more than they should if they were to maximize monetary rewards and minimize monetary losses. This tendency cannot be explained by participants' overconfidence in their own ability, as their perceived ability was elicited and accounted for. Nor can the results be explained by lack of information. Rather, the results seem to reflect an intrinsic value for choice, which emerges in the domain of both gains and of losses. Moreover, our data indicate that participants are aware that they are making suboptimal choices in the normative sense, but do so anyway, presumably for psychological gains.

13.
Psychol Sci ; 28(8): 1041-1055, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28581899

RESUMEN

Governments are increasingly adopting behavioral science techniques for changing individual behavior in pursuit of policy objectives. The types of "nudge" interventions that governments are now adopting alter people's decisions without coercion or significant changes to economic incentives. We calculated ratios of impact to cost for nudge interventions and for traditional policy tools, such as tax incentives and other financial inducements, and we found that nudge interventions often compare favorably with traditional interventions. We conclude that nudging is a valuable approach that should be used more often in conjunction with traditional policies, but more calculations are needed to determine the relative effectiveness of nudging.


Asunto(s)
Ciencias de la Conducta , Programas de Gobierno , Gobierno , Políticas , Humanos
14.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 21(8): 600-606, 2017 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28552378

RESUMEN

In recent years, governments have become keenly interested in behavioral science; new findings in psychology and behavioral economics have led to bold initiatives in areas that involve poverty, consumer protection, savings, health, the environment, and much more. Private institutions have used behavioral findings as well. But there is a pervasive and insufficiently explored question: when is it best to ask people to make active choices, and when is it best to use a default rule, which means that people need not make any choice at all? The answer depends on a form of cost-benefit analysis, which means that it is necessary to investigate whether choosing is a burden or a pleasure, whether learning is important, and whether a default rule would satisfy the informed preferences or all of most people.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Ambiente , Aprendizaje , Humanos
15.
Am J Bioeth ; 16(11): 1-2, 2016 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749176
16.
Annu Rev Psychol ; 67: 713-37, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26393867

RESUMEN

Findings in behavioral science, including psychology, have influenced policies and reforms in many nations. Choice architecture can affect outcomes even if material incentives are not involved. In some contexts, default rules, simplification, and social norms have had even larger effects than significant economic incentives. Psychological research is helping to inform initiatives in savings, finance, highway safety, consumer protection, energy, climate change, obesity, education, poverty, development, crime, corruption, health, and the environment. No nation has yet created a council of psychological advisers, but the role of behavioral research in policy domains is likely to grow in the coming years, especially in light of the mounting interest in promoting ease and simplification ("navigability"); in increasing effectiveness, economic growth, and competitiveness; and in providing low-cost, choice-preserving approaches.


Asunto(s)
Comités Consultivos , Investigación Conductal , Psicología , Humanos
17.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 10(6): 764-7, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26581733
18.
N Engl J Med ; 372(22): 2150-1, 2015 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25970008
19.
Duke Law J ; 64(1): 1-52, 2014 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25330554

RESUMEN

Choice can be an extraordinary benefit or an immense burden. In some contexts, people choose not to choose, or would do so if they were asked. In part because of limitations of "bandwidth," and in part because of awareness of their own lack of information and potential biases, people sometimes want other people to choose for them. For example, many people prefer not to make choices about their health or retirement plans; they want to delegate those choices to a private or public institution that they trust (and may well be willing to pay a considerable amount to those who are willing to accept such delegations). This point suggests that however well accepted, the line between active choosing and paternalism is often illusory. When private or public institutions override people's desire not to choose and insist on active choosing, they may well be behaving paternalistically, through a form of choice-requiring paternalism. Active choosing can be seen as a form of libertarian paternalism, and a frequently attractive one, if people are permitted to opt out of choosing in favor of a default (and in that sense permitted not to choose); it is a form of nonlibertarian paternalism insofar as people are required to choose. For both ordinary people and private or public institutions, the ultimate judgment in favor of active choosing, or in favor of choosing not to choose, depends largely on the costs of decisions and the costs of errors.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Autonomía Personal , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Paternalismo , Estados Unidos
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