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1.
Am Nat ; 195(2): 166-180, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017614

RESUMEN

Plant community response to climate change ranges from synchronous tracking to strong mismatch. Explaining this variation in climate change response is critical for accurate global change modeling. Here we quantify how closely assemblages track changes in climate (match/mismatch) and how broadly climate niches are spread within assemblages (narrow/broad ecological tolerance, or "filtering") using data for the past 21,000 years for 531 eastern North American fossil pollen assemblages. Although climate matching has been strong over the last 21 millennia, mismatch increased in 30% of assemblages during the rapid climate shifts between 14.5 and 10 ka. Assemblage matching rebounded toward the present day in 10%-20% of assemblages. Climate-assemblage mismatch was greater in tree-dominated and high-latitude assemblages, consistent with persisting populations, slower dispersal rates, and glacial retreat. In contrast, climate matching was greater for assemblages comprising taxa with higher median seed mass. More than half of the assemblages were climatically filtered at any given time, with peak filtering occurring at 8.5 ka for nearly 80% of assemblages. Thus, vegetation assemblages have highly variable rates of climate mismatch and filtering over millennial scales. These climate responses can be partially predicted by species' traits and life histories. These findings help constrain predictions for plant community response to contemporary climate change.

2.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 375(1794): 20190125, 2020 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983340

RESUMEN

Large-bodied mammalian herbivores can influence processes that exacerbate or mitigate climate change. Herbivore impacts are, in turn, influenced by predators that place top-down forcing on prey species within a given body size range. Here, we explore how the functional composition of terrestrial large-herbivore and -carnivore guilds varies between three mammal distribution scenarios: Present-Natural, Current-Day and Extant-Native Trophic (ENT) Rewilding. Considering the effects of herbivore species weakly influenced by top-down forcing, we quantify the relative influence keystone large-herbivore guilds have on methane emissions, woody vegetation expansion, fire dynamics, large-seed dispersal, and nitrogen and phosphorus transport potential. We find strong regional differences in the number of herbivores under weak top-down regulation between our three scenarios, with important implications for how they will influence climate change relevant processes. Under the Present-Natural non-ruminant, megaherbivore, browsers were a particularly important guild across much of the world. Megaherbivore extinction and range contraction and the arrival of livestock mean large, ruminant, grazers have become more dominant. ENT Rewilding can restore the Afrotropics and the Indo-Malay realm to the Present-Natural benchmark, but causes top-down forcing of the largest herbivores to become commonplace elsewhere. ENT Rewilding will reduce methane emissions, but does not maximize natural climate solution potential. This article is part of the theme issue 'Climate change and ecosystems: threats, opportunities and solutions'.

3.
Ambio ; 49(1): 231-244, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201614

RESUMEN

A variety of rewilding initiatives are being implemented across Europe, generally characterized by a more functionalist approach to nature management compared to the classic compositional approach. To address the increasing need for a framework to support implementation of rewilding in practical management, we present TRAAIL-Trophic Rewilding Advancement in Anthropogenically Impacted Landscapes. TRAAIL has been co-produced with managers and other stakeholders and provides managers with a framework to categorize rewilding initiatives and to link conventional nature management and rewilding by guiding steps towards a higher degree of self-regulation. Applying TRAAIL to data obtained in a Danish survey of rewilding-inspired initiatives we find that out of 44 initiatives there is no "Full rewilding" initiatives, 3 "Near-full rewilding" initiatives, 23 "Partial rewilding" initiatives, 2 "minimal rewilding" initiatives and 16 "Effort-intensive conservation management" initiatives. This study shows how TRAAIL can guide and inform trophic rewilding on a local and national scale.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad , Europa (Continente)
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 486-493, 2020 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871171

RESUMEN

Human activities currently play a dominant role in shaping and eroding Earth's biodiversity, but the historical dynamics leading to this situation are poorly understood and contentious. Importantly, these dynamics are often studied and discussed without an emphasis on cultural evolution, despite its potential importance for past and present biodiversity dynamics. Here, we investigate whether cultural filtering, defined as the impact of cultural evolution on species presence, has driven the range dynamics of five historically widespread megafauna taxa (Asiatic elephant, rhinoceroses, tiger, Asiatic black bear, and brown bear) across China over the past 2 millennia. Data on megafauna and sociocultural history were compiled from Chinese administrative records. While faunal dynamics in China are often linked to climate change at these time scales, our results reveal cultural filtering as the dominant driver of range contractions in all five taxa. This finding suggests that the millennia-long spread of agricultural land and agricultural intensification, often accompanied by expansion of the Han culture, has been responsible for the extirpation of these megafauna species from much of China. Our results suggest that cultural filtering is important for understanding society's role in the assembly of contemporary communities from historical regional species pools. Our study provides direct evidence that cultural evolution since ancient times has overshadowed climate change in shaping broadscale megafauna biodiversity patterns, reflecting the strong and increasing importance of sociocultural processes in the biosphere.

5.
Sci Adv ; 5(11): eaaz0414, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807712

RESUMEN

A key feature of life's diversity is that some species are common but many more are rare. Nonetheless, at global scales, we do not know what fraction of biodiversity consists of rare species. Here, we present the largest compilation of global plant diversity to quantify the fraction of Earth's plant biodiversity that are rare. A large fraction, ~36.5% of Earth's ~435,000 plant species, are exceedingly rare. Sampling biases and prominent models, such as neutral theory and the k-niche model, cannot account for the observed prevalence of rarity. Our results indicate that (i) climatically more stable regions have harbored rare species and hence a large fraction of Earth's plant species via reduced extinction risk but that (ii) climate change and human land use are now disproportionately impacting rare species. Estimates of global species abundance distributions have important implications for risk assessments and conservation planning in this era of rapid global change.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843905

RESUMEN

Human activities have shaped large-scale distributions of many species, driving both range contractions and expansions. Species differ naturally in range size, with small-range species concentrated in particular geographic areas and potentially deviating ecologically from widespread species. Hence, species' responses to human activities may be influenced by their geographic range sizes, but if and how this happens are poorly understood. Here, we use a comprehensive distribution database and species distribution modeling to examine if and how human activities have affected the extent to which 9,701 vascular plants fill their climatic potential ranges in China. We find that narrow-ranged species have lower range filling and widespread species have higher range filling in the human-dominated southeastern part of China, compared with their counterparts distributed in the less human-influenced northwestern part. Variations in range filling across species and space are strongly associated with indicators of human activities (human population density, human footprint, and proportion of cropland) even after controlling for alternative drivers. Importantly, narrow-ranged and widespread species show negative and positive range-filling relationships to these human indicators, respectively. Our results illustrate that floras risk biotic homogenization as a consequence of anthropogenic activities, with narrow-ranged species becoming replaced by widespread species. Because narrow-ranged species are more numerous than widespread species in nature, negative impacts of human activities will be prevalent. Our findings highlight the importance of establishing more protected areas and zones of reduced human activities to safeguard the rich flora of China.

7.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1788): 20190219, 2019 Dec 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679484

RESUMEN

During periods of strong environmental change, some areas may serve as refugia, where components of biodiversity can find protection, persist and potentially expand from should conditions again become favourable. The refugia concept has previously been used in the context of climatic change, to describe climatically stable areas in which taxa survived past Quaternary glacial-interglacial oscillations, or where they might persist in the future under anthropogenic climate change. However, with the recognition that Earth has entered the Anthropocene, an era in which human activities are the dominant driving force on ecosystems, it is critical to also consider human pressures on the environment as factors limiting species distributions. Here, we present a novel concept, Anthropocene refugia, to refer to areas that provide spatial and temporal protection from human activities and that will remain suitable for a given taxonomic unit in the long-term. It integrates a deep-time perspective on species biogeography that provides information on the natural rather than current-day relictual distribution of species, with spatial information on modern and future anthropogenic threats. We define the concept and propose a methodology to effectively identify and map realized and potential current and future refugia, using examples for two megafaunal species as a proof of concept. We argue that identifying Anthropocene refugia will improve biodiversity conservation and restoration by allowing better prediction of key areas for conservation and potential for re-expansions today and in the future. More generally, it forms a new conceptual framework to assess and manage the impact of anthropogenic activities on past, current and future patterns of species distributions. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The past is a foreign country: how much can the fossil record actually inform conservation?'

8.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0198308, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697680

RESUMEN

Recently, several wild or semi-wild herds of European bison have been reintroduced across Europe. It is essential for future successful bison reintroductions to know how the European bison use different habitats, which environmental parameters drive their habitat selection, and whether their habitat use and behavioural patterns in new reintroduction sites differ from habitats where European bison have been roaming freely for a long time. Here, we address these questions for a 40-ha enclosed site that has been inhabited by semi-free ranging European bison since 2012. The site, Vorup Meadows, is adjacent to the Gudenå river in Denmark and consists of human-modified riparian meadows. During 2013 we monitored the behavioural pattern and spatial use of the 11 bison present and in parallel carried out floristic analyses to assess habitat structure and food quality in the enclosure. We tested habitat use and selection against environmental parameters such as habitat characteristics, plant community traits, topography, and management area (release area vs. meadow area) using linear regression and spatial models. The bison herd had comparable diurnal activity patterns as observed in previous studies on free-roaming bison herds. Topography emerged as the main predictor of the frequency of occurrence in our spatial models, with high-lying drier areas being used more. Bison did not prefer open areas over areas with tree cover when accounting for habitat availability. However, they spent significantly more time in the release area, a former agricultural field with supplementary fodder, than expected from availability compared to the rest of the enclosure, a meadow with tree patches. We wish to increase awareness of possible long-term ethological effects of the release site and the management protocols accomplished here that might reduce the ecological impact by the bison in the target habitat, and thereby compromise or even oppose the conservation goals of the conservation efforts.

9.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699630

RESUMEN

High exposure to green space and natural environments has previously been associated with lower schizophrenia rates possibly through low air pollution and improved psychological restoration. Exposure to natural environments could explain the negative urban-rural gradient of schizophrenia, but it is unclear if all natural environments are associated with schizophrenia rates. We investigated the association between schizophrenia and growing up surrounded by environments classified as mainly urban, agricultural, near-natural green space, and blue space. Vegetation density and air pollution were assessed as potential pathways. We used the Danish population (943 027 people) and remotely-sensed environmental data to determine land cover exposure and vegetation density around each individual's residence. Effect sizes were estimated using Cox regression and adjusted for air pollution, socioeconomic status, and urbanization. Our results show that growing up surrounded by non-urban environments is associated with lower schizophrenia rates. Firstly, growing up surrounded by non-built-up areas (agricultural areas, near-natural green and blue space) is associated with lower schizophrenia rates compared to urban areas. Secondly, rates decrease with vegetation density in a dose-response relationship for urban and agricultural areas. Air pollution mitigation more strongly explained the protective association in near-natural green spaces, implying that restorative pathways together with air pollution mitigation may explain lower rates in natural environments. This study suggests that ensuring access to natural environments during childhood may be important for schizophrenia prevention, whilst being the first study to show that natural environments may influence schizophrenia rates through multiple pathways.

10.
New Phytol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665816

RESUMEN

Determining where species diversify (cradles) and persist (museums) over evolutionary time is fundamental to understanding the distribution of biodiversity and for conservation prioritization. Here, we identify cradles and museums of angiosperm generic diversity across tropical Africa, one of the most biodiverse regions on Earth. Regions containing nonrandom concentrations of young (neo-) and old (paleo-) endemic taxa were identified using distribution data of 1719 genera combined with a newly generated time-calibrated mega-phylogenetic tree. We then compared the identified regions with the current network of African protected areas (PAs). At the generic level, phylogenetic diversity and endemism are mainly concentrated in the biogeographically complex region of Eastern Africa. We show that mountainous areas are centres of both neo- and paleo-endemism. By contrast, the Guineo-Congolian lowland rain forest region is characterized by widespread and old lineages. We found that the overlap between centres of phylogenetic endemism and PAs is high (> 85%). We show the vital role played by mountains acting simultaneously as cradles and museums of tropical African plant biodiversity. By contrast, lowland rainforests act mainly as museums for generic diversity. Our study shows that incorporating large-scale taxonomically verified distribution datasets and mega-phylogenies lead to an improved understanding of tropical plant biodiversity evolution.

12.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 178, 2019 09 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551423

RESUMEN

Plant traits are critical to plant form and function -including growth, survival and reproduction- and therefore shape fundamental aspects of population and ecosystem dynamics as well as ecosystem services. Here, we present a global species-level compilation of key functional traits for palms (Arecaceae), a plant family with keystone importance in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. We derived measurements of essential functional traits for all (>2500) palm species from key sources such as monographs, books, other scientific publications, as well as herbarium collections. This includes traits related to growth form, stems, armature, leaves and fruits. Although many species are still lacking trait information, the standardized and global coverage of the data set will be important for supporting future studies in tropical ecology, rainforest evolution, paleoecology, biogeography, macroecology, macroevolution, global change biology and conservation. Potential uses are comparative eco-evolutionary studies, ecological research on community dynamics, plant-animal interactions and ecosystem functioning, studies on plant-based ecosystem services, as well as conservation science concerned with the loss and restoration of functional diversity in a changing world.

13.
J Environ Manage ; 247: 633-643, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279140

RESUMEN

Nitrogen (N) leaching from agricultural areas in the form of nitrate (NO3-) is one of the most dominant sources of eutrophication in coastal waters. This environmental pressure is expected to intensify with the predicted increase in food demand, highlighting the need for developing novel ways to reduce N loads from agriculture. This may be achieved by exploiting the spatial variation in N removal through denitrification in groundwater and surface water systems. Thus, agricultural intensification should occur in areas characterized by high N removal potential, whereas effective N-reduction measures such as setting aside agricultural land (set-aside) should be targeted towards areas characterized by low N removal. Simultaneously, setting aside agricultural land can potentially strengthen local nature areas. To reach the water quality targets defined by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), the Danish region has defined individual coastal N reduction goals for each of the existing Danish water catchments. With set-aside as an effective N-reduction measure the study aims were to: 1) evaluate the effect of targeting areas to set aside versus using no targeting and 2) evaluate whether different prioritization for targeting set-aside areas enhances multi-functionality of the landscape, while efficiently achieving the required N load reduction. Areas were selected according to three priority values: 1) high contribution to coastal N loads, 2) high nature value, and 3) low agricultural land rent. The combination of these three values per area defined three multifunctional scenarios: (GreenEnvi - N load dominates, TerreEco - nature dominates, AgroEcon - land rent dominates). Results indicate, that targeting areas with high N loads for set-aside is more beneficial (effective) for achieving multiple goals than blanket policies for entire countries (no targeting). Targeting requires only 23% of agricultural land compared to 35% when not targeting, leaving more land available for satisfying food demand. Moreover, multiple benefits can be achieved in surrounding environments by increasing set-aside to 25% according to the GreenEnvi scenario. The GreenEnvi scenario is also cheaper compared to targeting for only land rent.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Agricultura , Dinamarca , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Nitrógeno
14.
J Hum Evol ; 132: 215-226, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203848

RESUMEN

Baboons (genus Papio) have been proposed as a possible analogous phylogeographic model for intra-African dispersal of hominins during the Pleistocene. Previous studies of the genus reveal complex evolutionary dynamics including introgressive hybridization and, as for hominins, it has been hypothesized that past climate change has been a major driver in their evolutionary history. However, how historical climate changes affected the distribution and extent of baboon habitats is not clear. We therefore employed three ecological niche modeling algorithms (maximum entropy model: MaxEnt; general additive model: GAM; gradient boosting model: GBM) to map suitable habitat of baboons at both genus and species levels under two extreme late-Quaternary climates: current (warm period) and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, cold period). The three model algorithms predicted habitat suitabilities for the baboon species with high accuracy, as indicated by AUC values of 0.83-0.85 at genus level and ≥0.90 for species. The results suggest that climate change from LGM to current affected the distribution and extent of suitable habitats for the genus Papio only slightly (>80% of the habitat remained suitable). However, and in contrast to our expectation for ecological generalists, individual species have been differentially affected. While P. ursinus and P. anubis lost some of their suitable habitats (net loss 25.5% and 13.3% respectively), P. kindae and P. papio gained large portions (net gain >62%), and P. cynocephalus and P. hamadryas smaller portions (net gain >20%). Overlap among the specific realized climate niches remained small, suggesting only slight overlap of suitable habitat among species. Results of our study further suggest that shifts of suitable habitats could have led to isolation and reconnection of populations which most likely affected gene flow among them. The impact of historic climate changes on baboon habitats might have been similar for other savanna living species, such as hominins.

15.
Ecol Lett ; 22(7): 1126-1135, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066203

RESUMEN

Latitudinal and elevational richness gradients have received much attention from ecologists but there is little consensus on underlying causes. One possible proximate cause is increased levels of species turnover, or ß diversity, in the tropics compared to temperate regions. Here, we leverage a large botanical dataset to map taxonomic and phylogenetic ß diversity, as mean turnover between neighboring 100 × 100 km cells, across the Americas and determine key climatic drivers. We find taxonomic and tip-weighted phylogenetic ß diversity is higher in the tropics, but that basal-weighted phylogenetic ß diversity is highest in temperate regions. Supporting Janzen's 'mountain passes' hypothesis, tropical mountainous regions had higher ß diversity than temperate regions for taxonomic and tip-weighted metrics. The strongest climatic predictors of turnover were average temperature and temperature seasonality. Taken together, these results suggest ß diversity is coupled to latitudinal richness gradients and that temperature is a major driver of plant community composition and change.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Plantas , Temperatura Ambiental , Filogenia
18.
Ecol Appl ; 29(5): e01907, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002436

RESUMEN

Effective planning and nature management require spatially accurate and comprehensive measures of the factors important for biodiversity. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can provide exactly this, and is therefore a promising technology to support future nature management and related applications. However, until now studies evaluating the potential of LIDAR for this field have been highly limited in scope. Here, we assess the potential of LIDAR to estimate the local diversity of four species groups in multiple habitat types, from open grasslands and meadows over shrubland to forests and across a large area (~43,000 km2 ), providing a crucial step toward enabling the application of LIDAR in practice, planning, and policy-making. We assessed the relationships between the species richness of macrofungi, lichens, bryophytes, and plants, respectively, and 25 LIDAR-based measures related to potential abiotic and biotic diversity drivers. We used negative binomial generalized linear modeling to construct 19 different candidate models for each species group, and leave-one-region-out cross validation to select the best models. These best models explained 49%, 31%, 32%, and 28% of the variation in species richness (R2 ) for macrofungi, lichens, bryophytes, and plants, respectively. Three LIDAR measures, terrain slope, shrub layer height and variation in local heat load, were important and positively related to the richness in three of the four species groups. For at least one of the species groups, four other LIDAR measures, shrub layer density, medium-tree layer density, and variations in point amplitude and in relative biomass, were among the three most important. Generally, LIDAR measures exhibited strong associations to the biotic environment, and to some abiotic factors, but were poor measures of spatial landscape and temporal habitat continuity. In conclusion, we showed how well LIDAR alone can predict the local biodiversity across habitats. We also showed that several LIDAR measures are highly correlated to important biodiversity drivers, which are notoriously hard to measure in the field. This opens up hitherto unseen possibilities for using LIDAR for cost-effective monitoring and management of local biodiversity across species groups and habitat types even over large areas.


Asunto(s)
Briófitas , Líquenes , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Bosques
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5636, 2019 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948774

RESUMEN

Ensuring the persistence of biodiversity and ecosystem services represents a global challenge that need to be addressed with high urgency. Global priority areas can only be identified by means of an integrated prioritization approach that would not only preserve species numbers and ecosystem services, but also the evolutionary and functional components of diversity. In this study we combine global datasets on the distribution of mammals and birds with species traits and phylogenetic data and we identify conservation priorities for taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity, as well as for three ecosystem services, including potential for carbon sequestration, pollination potential and groundwater recharge. We show that, when priority areas are identified based only on individual, e.g. functional diversity, or any combination of the three biodiversity components, these areas do not allow a sufficient protection of the three ecosystem services. However, an integrated approach whereby prioritization is based on all biodiversity components and ecosystem services would allow to identify areas that maximize protection of all ecosystem services with a minimal loss in biodiversity coverage. Our results highlight the need for an integrated conservation planning framework in order to optimally allocate resources and achieve the long-term preservation of the multiple dimensions of biodiversity and ecosystems services.

20.
Science ; 364(6438)2019 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023897

RESUMEN

The practice of rewilding has been both promoted and criticized in recent years. Benefits include flexibility to react to environmental change and the promotion of opportunities for society to reconnect with nature. Criticisms include the lack of a clear conceptualization of rewilding, insufficient knowledge about possible outcomes, and the perception that rewilding excludes people from landscapes. Here, we present a framework for rewilding that addresses these concerns. We suggest that rewilding efforts should target trophic complexity, natural disturbances, and dispersal as interacting processes that can improve ecosystem resilience and maintain biodiversity. We propose a structured approach to rewilding projects that includes assessment of the contributions of nature to people and the social-ecological constraints on restoration.


Asunto(s)
Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Vida Silvestre , Animales
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