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Afr J Disabil ; 8: 576, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745461


Background: Many patients with Down syndrome (PWDS) have poor cardiometabolic risk profiles, aerobic capacities and weak hypotonic muscles, primarily because of physical inactivity and poor diet. Objectives: This study discusses the benefits of exercise therapy on body composition, aerobic capacity, muscle strength, proprioception and cardiometabolic profiles of PWDS. Methods: A literature review using the Crossref metadatabase, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), focusing on the period 2007-2018, was undertaken. Each record was judged adopting the modified Downs and Black Appraisal Scale. The literature investigation identified 15 701 records. Records were excluded if they were published before 2007, pertained to the impact of exercise on intellectual disabilities beyond Down syndrome or the impact of medical, pharmaceutical, nutrition and psychological interventions among PWDS and were published in languages besides English. Nineteen articles were synthesised into this commentary. Results: PWDS have a heightened cardiometabolic risk profile and high oxidative stress associated with elevated insulin resistance, poor insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and hypertension. PWDS have low aerobic capacity (VO2max), peak heart rates, muscle strength, agility and balance. Regular physical activity is beneficial to improve their VO2max and muscle strength. Moreover, regular physical activity reduces lipid peroxidation and arterial cell wall damage, the pathogenesis of atheroma is limited. Conclusion: Exercise therapy compliance seems to have a positive impact on the cardiometabolic risk profile, muscle strength and aerobic work capacity of PWDS. Nonetheless, additional vigorous experimental investigations are necessary to better understand the effect of exercise therapy on the aerobic, strength, proprioception and cardiometabolic risk profile of PWDS.

J Interprof Care ; 33(3): 298-307, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777493


The need for interprofessional education (IPE) in health science disciplines is a current global trend. However, despite international support and demand, IPE is still new to many health professions curricula in South Africa. Furthermore, while ample existing academic literature addresses commonly encountered barriers to IPE, there is still a need to investigate the dynamics and challenges associated with the process of implementing IPE at universities. IPE is not yet part of the formal curriculum at a faculty of health sciences at a South African Higher Education Institute, so a pilot project was conducted to investigate the experiences of an IPE process by students from different health professions toward informing the planning and implementation of IPE in the formal curriculum. To this effect, a multi-layered IPE project was piloted across pharmacy, nursing, social work, psychology, dietetics, and human movement sciences within this Faculty of Health Sciences. The aim of this research was to determine the dynamics between the different health professions by exploring and describing the students' experiences of the IPE process. Theoretical case studies were presented to third-year students, who were grouped into interprofessional teams from the six different health professions at the Higher Education Institute's health sciences faculty. Data were gathered from reflective journals over a five-week period and a questionnaire was administered at the end of the project. Data were analysed and evaluated based on the interprofessional learning domains listed in the IPE framework of the World Health Organization. All participating health professions students felt positive about the project and agreed that it provided them with valuable IPE experiences. However, their long-term participation and commitment presented difficulty in an already demanding curriculum. The interprofessional dynamics were influenced by the relevance of the scenarios presented in the case studies to the different professions, the students' personalities and their previous experiences. Although the nursing students took initial leadership, contributions from the other professions became more prominent as the case studies unfolded. The findings indicated that the inclusion of different health professions in an interprofessional team should be guided by the specific scenarios incorporated to simulate interprofessional cooperation. The availability of the students and their scope of practice at third-year level should also be taken into account.

Empleos en Salud/educación , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Curriculum , Proyectos Piloto , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
Int Q Community Health Educ ; 39(2): 127-132, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482096


The mortality of South African noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is rising. One of its primary contributors is physical inactivity. Therefore, South African National Health Plan included exercise therapy as part of their strategy to inhibit the NCDs upsurge. This study aimed to determine whether the number of South African exercise therapists is sufficient to equitably manage this NCD epidemic. The 2013 and 2017 Health Professions Council of South Africa reports identified the number of physiotherapists, biokineticists, and their respective students-in-training. In 2012, 10,623,820 people were identified with NCDs; however, South African Department of Health only treated 6,058,186 patients (57.0%) ( p < .05). South African Health Review has estimated a 28.7% increase in the number of NCDs patients treated from 2012 (6,058,186) to 2025 (7,799,770) ( p < .05). The average yearly growth of practicing physiotherapists (3.4%) and the physiotherapy student-in-training (2.2%) is inequitable to manage this NCD epidemic. In 2012, the extrapolated physiotherapist-to-NCD patient ratio was 1:5667. The South African Department of Health should consider including biokineticists to aid in the management of the NCD epidemic.

Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia , Fisioterapeutas/provisión & distribución , Femenino , Política de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
Afr J Disabil ; 7(0): 450, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850439


Background: Many patients with spinal cord injury (PWSCI) lead sedentary lifestyles, experiencing poor quality of life and medical challenges. PWSCI don't like to participate in land-based-exercises because it's tedious to perform the same exercises, decreasing their rehabilitative compliance and negatively impacting their well-being. An alternative exercise environment and exercises may alleviate boredom, enhancing compliance. Objectives: Discuss the benefits of hydrotherapy to PWSCI concerning underwater gait-kinematics, thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses and spasticity. Methodology: A literature surveillance was conducted between 1998 and 2017, through the Crossref meta-database and Google Scholar, according to the PRISMA procedures. Key search words were water-therapy, aquatic-therapy, hydrotherapy, spinal cord injury, rehabilitation, human, kinematics, underwater gait, cardiorespiratory, thermoregulation and spasticity. The quality of each paper was evaluated using a modified Downs and Black Appraisal Scale. The participants were records pertaining to PWSCI and hydrotherapy. The outcomes of interest were: hydrotherapy interventions, the impact of hydrotherapy on gait-kinematics, thermoregulation during water submersion and cardiorespiratory function of PWSCI. Omitted records included: non-English publications from before 1998 or unrelated to hydrotherapy and PWSCI. The record screening admissibility was performed as follows: the title screen, the abstract screen and the full text screen. Results: Literature search identified 1080 records. Upon application of the exclusion criteria, 92 titles, 29 abstracts and 17 full text records were eligible. Only 15 records were selected to be included in this clinical commentary. Evidence shows a paucity of randomised control trials (RCT) conducted in this field. Conclusion: Hydrotherapy improves PWSCI underwater gait-kinematics, cardiorespiratory and thermoregulatory responses and reduces spasticity.

Afr J Disabil ; 6: 337, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936414


BACKGROUND: There are approximately 1 billion people living with chronic lower limb disability, many of whom are wheelchair users. OBJECTIVES: Review cardiometabolic and neuromuscular risk profiles of wheelchair users, benefits of regular exercise and the causes of neuromuscular upper limb and hip injuries that hinder regular adherence. METHOD: Literature published between 2013 and 2017 was adopted according to the standard practices for systematic reviews (PRISMA) through Crossref Metadata and Google Scholar searches. Individual paper quality was evaluated using a modified Downs and Black Appraisal Scale. RESULTS: The literature search identified 16 600 papers which were excluded if they were non-English, non-peer-reviewed or published before 2013. Finally, 25 papers were accepted, indicating that sedentary wheelchair users have poor cardiometabolic risk profiles (PCMRP) because of a lack of physical activity, limiting their quality of life, characterised by low self-esteem, social isolation and depression. Their predominant mode of physical activity is through upper limb exercises, which not only improves their cardiometabolic risk profiles but also precipitates neuromuscular upper limb overuse injuries. The primary cause of upper limb injuries was attributed to poor wheelchair propulsion related to incorrect chair setup and poor cardiorespiratory fitness. CONCLUSION: Wheelchair users have a high body mass index, body fat percentage and serum lipid, cholesterol and blood glucose concentrations. Empirical investigations illustrate exercise improves their PCMRP and cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Although literature encourages regular exercise, none discusses the need to individualise chair setup in order to eliminate wheelchair pathomechanics and upper limb neuromuscular injuries. Wheelchair users must be encouraged to consult a biokineticist or physiotherapist to review their wheelchair setup so as to eliminate possible incorrect manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanics and consequent overuse injuries.