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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23626, 2021 Dec 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880294

RESUMEN

We show a method to control magnetic interfacial effects in multilayers with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) using helium (He[Formula: see text]) ion irradiation. We report results from SQUID magnetometry, ferromagnetic resonance as well as Brillouin light scattering results on multilayers with DMI as a function of irradiation fluence to study the effect of irradiation on the magnetic properties of the multilayers. Our results show clear evidence of the He[Formula: see text] irradiation effects on the magnetic properties which is consistent with interface modification due to the effects of the He[Formula: see text] irradiation. This external degree of freedom offers promising perspectives to further improve the control of magnetic skyrmions in multilayers, that could push them towards integration in future technologies.

2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9339, 2018 Jun 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921938

RESUMEN

In thin magnetic films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, a periodic "up-down" stripe-domain structure can be originated at remanence, on a mesoscopic scale (~100 nm) comparable with film thickness, by the competition between short-range exchange coupling and long-range dipolar interaction. However, translational order is perturbed because magnetic edge dislocations are spontaneously nucleated. Such topological defects play an important role in magnetic films since they promote the in-plane magnetization reversal of stripes and, in superconductor/ferromagnet hybrids, the creation of superconducting vortex clusters. Combining magnetic force microscopy experiments and micromagnetic simulations, we investigated the motion of two classes of magnetic edge dislocations, randomly distributed in an [Formula: see text]-implanted Fe film. They were found to move in opposite directions along straight trajectories parallel to the stripes axis, when driven by a moderate dc magnetic field. Using the approximate Thiele equation, analytical expressions for the forces acting on such magnetic defects and a microscopic explanation for the direction of their motion could be obtained. Straight trajectories are related to the presence of a periodic stripe domain pattern, which imposes the gyrotropic force to vanish even if a nonzero, half-integer topological charge is carried by the defects in some layers across the film thickness.

3.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(46): 465803, 2017 11 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29067917

RESUMEN

The resonant eigenmodes of an α'-FeN thin film characterized by weak stripe domains are investigated by Brillouin light scattering and broadband ferromagnetic resonance experiments, assisted by micromagnetic simulations. The spectrum of the dynamic eigenmodes in the presence of the weak stripes is very rich and two different families of modes can be selectively detected using different techniques or different experimental configurations. Attention is paid to the evolution of the mode frequencies and spatial profiles under the application of an external magnetic field, of variable intensity, in the direction parallel or transverse to the stripes. The different evolution of the modes with the external magnetic field is accompanied by a distinctive spatial localization in specific regions, such as the closure domains at the surface of the stripes and the bulk domains localized in the inner part of the stripes. The complementarity of BLS and FMR techniques, based on different selection rules, is found to be a fruitful tool for the study of the wealth of localized magnetic excitations generally found in nanostructures.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(14): 147201, 2017 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28430498

RESUMEN

We report the observation of a Pt layer thickness dependence on the induced interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in ultrathin Pt(d_{Pt})/CoFeB films. Taking advantage of the large spin-orbit coupling of the heavy metal, the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is quantified by Brillouin light scattering measurements of the frequency nonreciprocity of spin waves in the ferromagnet. The magnitude of the induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya coupling is found to saturate to a value of 0.45 mJ/m^{2} for Pt thicknesses larger than ∼2 nm. The experimental results are explained by analytical calculations based on the three-site indirect exchange mechanism that predicts a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at the interface between a ferromagnetic thin layer and a heavy metal. Our findings open up a way to control and optimize chiral effects in ferromagnetic thin films through the thickness of the heavy-metal layer.

5.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(7): 073001, 2017 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28008880

RESUMEN

Magnonic crystals, materials with periodic modulation of their magnetic properties, represent the magnetic counterpart of photonic, phononic and plasmonic crystals, and have been largely investigated in recent years because of the possibility of using spin waves as a new means for carrying and processing information over a very large frequency bandwidth. Here, we review recent Brillouin light scattering studies of 2D magnonic crystals consisting of single- and bi-component arrays of interacting magnetic dots or antidot lattices. In particular, we discuss the principal properties of the magnonic band diagram of such systems, with emphasis given to its dependence on both magnetic and the geometrical parameters. Thanks to the possibility of tailoring their band structure by means of several degrees of freedom, planar magnonic crystals offer a good opportunity to design an innovative class of nanoscale microwave devices.

6.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 11(6): 545-551, 2016 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26950242

RESUMEN

The search for novel tools to control magnetism at the nanoscale is crucial for the development of new paradigms in optics, electronics and spintronics. So far, the fabrication of magnetic nanostructures has been achieved mainly through irreversible structural or chemical modifications. Here, we propose a new concept for creating reconfigurable magnetic nanopatterns by crafting, at the nanoscale, the magnetic anisotropy landscape of a ferromagnetic layer exchange-coupled to an antiferromagnetic layer. By performing localized field cooling with the hot tip of a scanning probe microscope, magnetic structures, with arbitrarily oriented magnetization and tunable unidirectional anisotropy, are reversibly patterned without modifying the film chemistry and topography. This opens unforeseen possibilities for the development of novel metamaterials with finely tuned magnetic properties, such as reconfigurable magneto-plasmonic and magnonic crystals. In this context, we experimentally demonstrate spatially controlled spin wave excitation and propagation in magnetic structures patterned with the proposed method.

7.
Sci Rep ; 5: 10367, 2015 May 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26012863

RESUMEN

In the emerging field of magnon-spintronics, spin waves are exploited to encode, carry and process information in materials with periodic modulation of their magnetic properties, named magnonic crystals. These enable the redesign of the spin wave dispersion, thanks to its dependence on the geometric and magnetic parameters, resulting in the appearance of allowed and forbidden band gaps for specific propagation directions. In this work, we analyze the spin waves band structure of two-dimensional magnonic crystals consisting of permalloy square antidot lattices with different geometrical parameters. We show that the frequency of the most intense spin-wave modes, measured by Brillouin light scattering, exhibits a universal dependence on the aspect ratio (thickness over width) of the effective nanowire enclosed between adjacent rows of holes. A similar dependence also applies to both the frequency position and the width of the main band gap of the fundamental (dispersive) mode at the edge of the first Brillouin zone. These experimental findings are successfully explained by calculations based on the plane-wave method. Therefore, a unified vision of the spin-waves characteristics in two-dimensional antidot lattices is provided, paving the way to the design of tailored nanoscale devices, such as tunable magnonic filters and phase-shifters, with predicted functionalities.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(13): 137202, 2012 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23030117

RESUMEN

The spin-wave band structure of a two-dimensional bicomponent magnonic crystal, consisting of Co nanodisks partially embedded in a Permalloy thin film, is experimentally investigated along a high-symmetry direction by Brillouin light scattering. The eigenfrequencies and scattering cross sections are interpreted using plane wave method calculations and micromagnetic simulations. At the boundary of both the first and the second Brillouin zones, we measure a forbidden frequency gap whose width depends on the magnetic contrast between the constituent materials. The modes above and below the gap exhibit resonant spin-precession amplitudes in the complementary regions of periodically varying magnetic parameters. Our findings are key to advance both the physics and the technology of band gap engineering in magnonics.

9.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 24(23): 236006, 2012 Jun 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22576333

RESUMEN

It is well known that Fe films deposited on a c(2 × 2)-reconstructed ZnSe(001) surface show a strong in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. Here, the effect of the substrate reconstruction on the magnetic anisotropy of Fe has been studied by in situ Brillouin light scattering. We found that the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy is strongly reduced for Fe films grown on a (1 × 1)-unreconstructed ZnSe substrate while the in-plane biaxial one is nearly unaffected by the substrate reconstruction. Calculations of magnetic anisotropy energies within the framework of ab initio density functional theory reveal that the strong suppression of anisotropy at the (1 × 1) interface occurs due to complex atomic relaxations as well as the competing effects originating from magnetocrystalline anisotropy and dipole-dipole interactions. For both sharp and intermixed c(2 × 2) interfaces, the magnetic anisotropy is enhanced compared to the (1 × 1) case due to the further lowering of symmetry. The theoretical results are in agreement with the experimental findings.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(12): 127204, 2011 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22026795

RESUMEN

The dispersion curves of collective spin-wave excitations in a magnonic crystal consisting of a square array of interacting saturated nanodisks have been measured by Brillouin light scattering along the four principal directions of the first Brillouin zone. The experimental data are successfully compared to calculations of the band diagram and of the Brillouin light scattering cross section, performed through the dynamical matrix method extended to include the dipolar interaction between the disks. We found that the fourfold symmetry of the geometrical lattice is reduced by the application of the external field and therefore equivalent directions of the first Brillouin zone are characterized by different dispersion relations of collective spin waves. The dispersion relations are explained through the introduction of a bidimensional effective wave vector that characterizes each mode in this magnonic metamaterial.

11.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 6(10): 635-8, 2011 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21873993

RESUMEN

Spin torque oscillators with nanoscale electrical contacts are able to produce coherent spin waves in extended magnetic films, and offer an attractive combination of electrical and magnetic field control, broadband operation, fast spin-wave frequency modulation, and the possibility of synchronizing multiple spin-wave injection sites. However, many potential applications rely on propagating (as opposed to localized) spin waves, and direct evidence for propagation has been lacking. Here, we directly observe a propagating spin wave launched from a spin torque oscillator with a nanoscale electrical contact into an extended Permalloy (nickel iron) film through the spin transfer torque effect. The data, obtained by wave-vector-resolved micro-focused Brillouin light scattering, show that spin waves with tunable frequencies can propagate for several micrometres. Micromagnetic simulations provide the theoretical support to quantitatively reproduce the results.


Asunto(s)
Campos Electromagnéticos , Hierro , Membranas Artificiales , Nanoestructuras , Níquel
12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(6): 067208, 2010 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20868008

RESUMEN

All-electrical spin-wave spectroscopy, Brillouin light scattering, as well as the magneto-optical Kerr effect are combined to study spin-wave propagation through a magnetic antidot lattice nanopatterned into a Ni(80)Fe(20) thin film. The propagation velocities and, in particular, the relaxation are found to depend characteristically on the applied in-plane magnetic field. We explain the observed anisotropies by magnetic field-controlled spin-wave guiding in a network of interconnected nanowires which takes place over distances of up to 20 µm.

13.
Langmuir ; 25(10): 5910-7, 2009 May 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19366238

RESUMEN

The formation of aggregates in polyion-induced charged colloidal particles in aqueous suspension is characterized, under appropriate conditions, by two complementary effects, known as re-entrant condensation and charge inversion, which are considered as proof for the existence of a cluster phase. In this paper, we extend our previous investigation to a set of aqueous colloidal particle suspensions, such as polystyrene spheres, colloidal gold particles, and polylactic acid particles. These systems are characterized by the evolution of the average size of the aggregates and their surface electrical charge (charge inversion) by means of dynamic light-scattering measurements and laser Doppler electrophoretic techniques. The results, together with the previous ones concerning liposome particles, support the notion of a common behavior of this group of complex colloids characterized by short-ranged attractive interactions. The study provides some insights into these structures, which are potentially useful in biotechnological applications, such as multicompartmental carriers in nonviral drug delivery.

14.
Mol Endocrinol ; 22(3): 729-36, 2008 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18032695

RESUMEN

During development, many neurons display calcium-dependent migration, but the role of this messenger in regulating gene expression leading to this event has not yet been elucidated. Among the decoders of calcium signals is calcineurin, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin serine/threonine phosphatase that has been involved in both short-term and long-term cellular changes. By using immortalized GnRH-secreting neurons, we now show that, in vitro, Ca(2+)-dependent gene expression, proceeding via calcineurin and the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells, is a key player controlling the chemomigratory potential of developing GnRH-secreting neurons. Furthermore, our data highlight the switch nature of this phosphatase, whose activation or inactivation guides cells to proceed from one genetic program to the next.


Asunto(s)
Calcineurina/fisiología , Quimiotaxis/fisiología , Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina/fisiología , Neuronas/fisiología , Sistemas Neurosecretores/fisiología , Transporte Biológico , Inhibidores de la Calcineurina , Señalización del Calcio , Línea Celular , Ciclosporina/farmacología , Activación Enzimática , Humanos , Microscopía Fluorescente , Factores de Transcripción NFATC/fisiología , Neuronas/enzimología , Sistemas Neurosecretores/citología , Sistemas Neurosecretores/enzimología , Sirolimus/farmacología , Tacrolimus/farmacología
15.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 19(24): 246221, 2007 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21694064

RESUMEN

Spin wave excitations in a magnetic structure consisting of a series of long permalloy stripes of a rectangular cross section magnetized along the stripe length and situated above a continuous permalloy film are studied both experimentally and theoretically. Stripes and continuous film are coupled by dipole-dipole interaction across 10 nm thick Cu spacers. Experimental measurements made using the Brillouin light scattering technique (with the light wavevector oriented along the stripe width) provide evidence for one dispersive spin wave mode associated with the continuous film and several discrete non-dispersive modes resonating within the finite width of the stripes.To interpret the experimental spectra, an analytic theory based on the spin wave formalism for finite-width magnetic stripes has been developed, achieving a good qualitative and partly quantitative description of the experimentally observed spin wave spectrum of the system. In particular, it is explained why the presence of a continuous magnetic film near the magnetic stripe leads to a substantial decrease of the frequencies of the discrete dipolar spin wave modes localized within the stripes. A more quantitative description of the measured frequencies and of the spatial profiles of the spin wave eigenmodes has been obtained by numerical calculations performed using a finite element method.

16.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 19(40): 406229, 2007 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22049127

RESUMEN

The eigenmode spectrum of elongated permalloy rings with relatively wide arms is investigated by combined Brillouin light scattering and ferromagnetic resonance measurements as a function of the applied field intensity, encompassing both vortex and onion ground states. To reproduce the frequencies and the spatial profiles of the measured modes we performed micromagnetic simulations which solve the discretized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in the time domain and calculate locally the Fourier transform. This allowed us to correlate the field dependence of different modes to their localization inside different portions of the rings. With the rings in the vortex ground state, in addition to radial, fundamental, and azimuthal modes, a localized mode, existing in the element portions where the internal field assumes its minima, has been measured and identified. This latter mode, whose frequency decreases for increasing field intensity, becomes soft near the transition from vortex to onion state and determines the change in symmetry of the magnetic ground state. After the transition, it is replaced by two edge modes, localized on the internal and external boundary of the rings, respectively.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 97(24): 247203, 2006 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17280314

RESUMEN

We present a Brillouin light scattering investigation of the eigenmode spectrum of nanometric permalloy rings as a function of the applied magnetic field. In particular, different splitting effects induced by the applied magnetic field on the radial and azimuthal excitations have been observed and explained in terms of either mode localization or symmetry. The dynamical matrix approach has been used to calculate the whole set of eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the system, in both the vortex and saturated states.

18.
Nurs Stand ; 45(3): 38, 1989 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2505143
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