Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 39
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Tipo de estudio
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
J Oral Sci ; 62(4): 353-355, 2020 Sep 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741852

RESUMEN

Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorative materials have been widely used owing to a number of advantages, including stable quality of the materials, lower costs, and time-saving factors. Resin-based CAD/CAM materials for definitive restorations are classified into two groups: dispersed nanoparticle-filled composite resin and polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network materials. Resin-based CAD/CAM materials have been applied to single crown restorations as a monolithic structure for the posterior region. In addition, resin-based CAD/CAM restorations have been applied recently for the anterior area. This literature review summarizes clinical outcomes, such as survival rates and clinical complications of single crown restorations fabricated with resin-based CAD/CAM materials.


Asunto(s)
Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Coronas , Cerámica , Resinas Compuestas , Materiales Dentales , Porcelana Dental , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Ensayo de Materiales
2.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(8): 13602-13616, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604872

RESUMEN

Glycogen is the stored form of glucose and plays a major role in energy metabolism. Recently, it has become clear that enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) has biological functions, such as the macrophage-stimulating activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ESG on osteogenesis. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with ESG, and their cell proliferative activity and osteoblast differentiation were measured. An in vivo study was conducted in which ESG pellets with BMP-2 were grafted into mouse calvarial defects and histomorphometrically analyzed for the new bone formation. To confirm the effect of ESG on bone growth in vivo, ESG was orally administered to pregnant mice and the femurs of their pups were examined. We observed that ESG stimulated cell proliferation and enhanced messenger RNA expression of osteocalcin and osteopontin in MC3T3-E1 cells. ESG was taken up by the cells associated with GLUT-1 and activated the Akt/GSK-3ß pathway. In vivo, the new bone formation in the calvarial defect was significantly accelerated by ESG and the maternal administration of ESG promoted fetal bone growth. In conclusion, ESG stimulates cell proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblasts via the activation of Akt/GSK-3ß signaling and promotes new bone formation in vivo, suggesting that ESG could be a useful stimulant for osteogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Diferenciación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Glucógeno Sintasa Quinasa 3 beta/metabolismo , Glucógeno/farmacología , Osteoblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Osteogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animales , Diferenciación Celular/fisiología , Glucógeno/metabolismo , Ratones , Osteoblastos/fisiología , Osteogénesis/fisiología , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Transducción de Señal/fisiología
3.
J Prosthodont Res ; 63(2): 140-144, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446411

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of veneering material and framework design on fracture loads of implant-supported zirconia molar fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). METHODS: Sixty-six zirconia FDPs were manufactured onto two implants and classified as uniform thickness (UT) or anatomic design (AD). These framework design groups were then further divided into three subgroups (n=11): feldspathic porcelain-veneered zirconia FDPs (PVZ), indirect composite-veneered zirconia FDPs (IVZ), and metal-ceramic FDPs (MC). The FDPs were luted on the implant abutments and underwent fracture load testing. Significant differences were assessed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test (α=0.05). RESULTS: For UT group, median fracture load was significantly higher for the IVZ (1.87kN) and MC (1.90kN) specimens than for the PVZ specimens (1.38kN) (p<0.05). In the AD group, the IVZ specimens had the highest median fracture load (4.10kN) of the three groups tested. The AD group exhibited higher median fracture loads than the UT group in all subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect composite appears to be a useful alternative to feldspathic porcelain as the layering material for implant-supported zirconia FDPs. The AD group had higher fracture loads than UT group. In addition, implant-supported indirect composite-veneered zirconia-based FDPs appear to be clinically feasible.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Materiales Dentales , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Coronas con Frente Estético , Ensayo de Materiales , Diente Molar , Circonio , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Porcelana Dental , Humanos , Estrés Mecánico
4.
Environ Technol ; 40(22): 2906-2912, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575986

RESUMEN

Applying sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) into sediment can remediate the sediment; however, nutrient salts cannot be removed by SMFCs effectively. In this study, sediment mixed with steel-making slag is used a fuel in SMFCs for understanding the potential of steel-making slag in nutrient salt removal in SMFCs. To the best of our knowledge, no report related to the use of steel-making slag in SMFCs is found in the literature. The combination of SMFCs with steel-making slag is expected to make the individual efficiency of SMFCs and steel-making slag more reactive, and is another way to increase the benefit of using steel-making slag. Experimental results showed that steel-making slag was more effective for adsorbing nutrient salts in SMFCs. Interestingly, the combination of SMFCs with steel-making slag can increase the individual efficiency of SMFCs and steel-making slag.


Asunto(s)
Fuentes de Energía Bioeléctrica , Acero , Nutrientes , Cloruro de Sodio
5.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 29(4): 396-403, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484710

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate fracture loads of implant-supported zirconia-based prostheses fabricated with different veneer materials (resin-based material and lithium disilicate ceramics). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-four zirconia-based molar prostheses were fabricated on dental implants and divided into four groups (n = 11): zirconia-based prostheses veneered with feldspathic porcelain (ZVF), zirconia-based prostheses bonded with the lithium disilicate glass-ceramic veneer (ZBD), zirconia-based prostheses veneered with indirect composite resin (ZVC), and zirconia-based prostheses bonded with composite materials fabricated from a CAD/CAM resin block (ZBC). The zirconia-based prostheses and abutments were adhesively bonded with a dual-polymerized resin-based luting material. Fracture load was determined using compression load to the prostheses with a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD test (α = .05). RESULTS: The mean fracture load was significantly higher in the ZBC group (3.95 kN) than in the ZVC group (3.28 kN). No significant difference in fracture load was found among the ZVF (3.52 kN), ZBD (3.48 kN), and ZVC groups. CONCLUSIONS: The adhesively bonded veneering technique enhances fracture resistance of implant-supported zirconia-based prostheses fabricated with a resin-based material. All implant-supported zirconia-based restorations tested should resist physiologic masticatory forces in the oral environment.


Asunto(s)
Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Coronas con Frente Estético , Circonio , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Ensayo de Materiales
6.
Dent Mater J ; 37(1): 78-86, 2018 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28883302

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the effect of zirconia framework design on fracture load of implant-supported zirconia-based prostheses after thermal cycling and mechanical loading. Three different zirconia framework designs were investigated: uniform-thickness (UNI), anatomic (ANA), and supported anatomic (SUP) designs. Each framework was layered with feldspathic porcelain (ZAC group) or indirect composite material (ZIC group). The specimens then underwent fracture load testing after thermal cycling and cyclic loading. In the ZAC group, mean fracture load was significantly lower for UNI design specimens than for the other framework designs. In the ZIC group, there was no significant difference in mean fracture load between ANA design specimens and either UNI or SUP design specimens. To improve fracture resistance of implant-supported zirconia-based prostheses after artificial aging, uniformly thick layering material and appropriate lingual support with zirconia frameworks should be provided.


Asunto(s)
Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Circonio/química , Resinas Compuestas/química , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar , Materiales Dentales/química , Porcelana Dental/química , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Cementos de Ionómero Vitreo/química , Ensayo de Materiales
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(7): 1314-1319, 2017 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28156103

RESUMEN

Identification as well as a detailed analysis of glycogen in human milk has not been shown yet. The present study confirmed that glycogen is contained in human milk by qualitative and quantitative analyses. High-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and high-performance size exclusion chromatography with a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS) were used for qualitative analysis of glycogen in human milk. Quantitative analysis was carried out by using samples obtained from the individual milks. The result revealed that the concentration of human milk glycogen varied depending on the mother's condition-such as the period postpartum and inflammation. The amounts of glycogen in human milk collected at 0 and 1-2 months postpartum were higher than in milk collected at 3-14 months postpartum. In the milk from mothers with severe mastitis, the concentration of glycogen was about 40 times higher than that in normal milk.


Asunto(s)
Glucógeno/análisis , Leche Humana/química , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Espectrometría de Masas
8.
Nano Lett ; 16(9): 5770-8, 2016 09 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27501388

RESUMEN

The enhancement of multiphoton emission from a single colloidal nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) interacting with a plasmonic nanostructure was investigated using a silver-coated atomic force microscopy tip (AgTip) as the plasmonic nanostructure. Using the AgTip, which exhibited a well-defined localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance band, we controlled the spectral overlap and the distance between the single NQD and the AgTip. The emission behavior of the single NQD when approaching the AgTip at the nanometer scale was measured using off-resonance (405 nm) and resonance (465 nm) excitation of the LSP. We directly observed the conversion of the single-photon emission from a single NQD to multiphoton emission with reduction of the emission lifetime at both excitation wavelengths as the NQD-AgTip distance decreased, whereas a decrease and increase in the emission intensity were observed at 405 and 465 nm excitation, respectively. By combining theoretical analysis and the numerical simulation of the AgTip, we deduced that the enhancement of the multiphoton emission was caused by the quenching of the single-exciton state due to the energy transfer from the NQD to the AgTip and that the emission intensity was increased by enhancement of the excitation rate due to the electric field of the LSP on the AgTip. These results provide evidence that the photon statistics and the photon flux from the single NQD can be manipulated by the plasmonic nanostructure through control of the spectral overlap and the distance.

9.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst ; 16(2): 311-20, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23736171

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor exerts pro-atherogenic action by augmenting oxidative stress, whereas the Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2)-mediated effect on atherosclerosis remains controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AT2 transgenic (AT2-Tg) mice, which overexpress AT2 in their vascular smooth muscle cells, were crossed with apoE-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice to generate AT2 transgenic apoE(-/-) mice (AT2-Tg/apoE(-/-)). RESULTS: A subpressor dose of Ang II infusion exaggerated atherosclerosis development in apoE(-/-) mice, which was markedly suppressed in AT2-Tg/apoE(-/-) mice. Inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (L-NAME) or bradykinin type 2 receptor completely abolished AT2-mediated anti-atherogenic actions. The vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression levels and degree of monocyte/macrophage accumulation in the intima were also considerably reduced in AT2-Tg/apoE(-/-) mice; these phenomena were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment. Ang II infusion significantly enhanced the accumulation of dihydroethidium-positive mononuclear cells in the intima and mRNA expression levels of Nox2, a phagocytic cell-type NADPH oxidase subunit in apoE(-/-) mice, which was completely inhibited in AT2-Tg/apoE(-/-) mice. CONCLUSIONS: Vascular AT2 stimulation exerts anti-atherogenic actions in an endothelial kinin/NO-dependent manner, and its anti-oxidative effect is likely to be exerted by inhibiting the accumulation of superoxide-producing mononuclear leukocytes.


Asunto(s)
Aorta/metabolismo , Aterosclerosis/metabolismo , Quininas/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Receptor de Angiotensina Tipo 2/metabolismo , Angiotensina II , Animales , Aorta/efectos de los fármacos , Aorta/patología , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiencia , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Aterosclerosis/patología , Bradiquinina/análogos & derivados , Bradiquinina/metabolismo , Bradiquinina/farmacología , Calcio/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Transgénicos , Monocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Monocitos/metabolismo , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adhesión Celular Vascular/metabolismo
10.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst ; 16(4): 936-46, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25487979

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow (BM) Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis development; however, the effect of BM Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor on atherogenesis remains undefined. METHODS AND RESULTS: We generated BM chimera apoE-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice whose BM cells were repopulated with AT2-deficient (Agtr2(-/-)) or wild-type (Agtr2(+/+)) cells. After 2 months of a high-cholesterol diet, the atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly increased in the apoE(-/-)/BM-Agtr2(-/-) mice compared with the apoE(-/-)/BM-Agtr2(+/+) mice (51%, P < 0.05), accompanied by an augmented accumulation of lesion macrophages. Although phenotypic polarization in BM-derived macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophages (TGPMs) were not affected by AT2-deficiency, mRNA and protein expression levels of macrophage liver X receptor ß (LXRß) were significantly decreased in Agtr2(-/-) TGPMs compared with Agtr2(+/+) TGPMs. Anti-inflammatory effects of LXR agonist (GW3965) were markedly inhibited in Agtr2(-/-) TGPMs. Furthermore, the expression levels of ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 and CCR7 were much lower in Agtr2(-/-) TGPMs than Agtr2(+/+) TGPMs, accompanied by a significantly reduced cholesterol efflux. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that BM-AT2 deficiency aggravates atherosclerosis, at least in part, by eliminating the anti-atherogenic properties of macrophages elicited by LXRß activation.


Asunto(s)
Aterosclerosis/metabolismo , Aterosclerosis/patología , Médula Ósea/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneales/metabolismo , Receptores Nucleares Huérfanos/metabolismo , Receptor de Angiotensina Tipo 2/deficiencia , Transportador 1 de Casete de Unión a ATP/genética , Transportador 1 de Casete de Unión a ATP/metabolismo , Animales , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiencia , Aterosclerosis/genética , Transporte Biológico , Médula Ósea/efectos de los fármacos , Polaridad Celular , Colesterol/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Inflamación/patología , Receptores X del Hígado , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Fenotipo , Receptor de Angiotensina Tipo 2/metabolismo , Receptores CCR7/genética , Receptores CCR7/metabolismo , Tioglicolatos
11.
Nutr Res ; 33(9): 743-52, 2013 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24034574

RESUMEN

Based on a recent study indicating that enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) possesses a dietary, fiber-like action, we hypothesized that ESG can reduce the risk of obesity. In this study, the antiobesity effects of ESG were investigated in a model of diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups and fed a normal or high-fat diet, with or without 20% ESG, for 4 weeks. Body weight, food intake, lipid deposition in the white adipose tissues and liver, fecal lipid excretion, and plasma lipid profiles were measured. At week 3, the body fat mass was measured using an x-ray computed tomography system, which showed that ESG significantly suppressed the high-fat diet-induced lipid accumulation. Similar results were observed in the weight of the adipose tissue after the experiment. Moreover, ESG significantly suppressed the lipid accumulation in the liver but increased fecal lipid excretion. The plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol and nonesterified fatty acid were lowered after a high-fat diet, whereas the total bile acid concentration was increased by ESG. However, the hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of enzymes related to lipid metabolism were not affected by ESG. Conversely, the mRNA levels of long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase were up-regulated by ESG in the muscle. These results suggest that the combined effects of increased fecal lipid excretion, increased mRNA levels of enzymes that oxidize fatty acids in the muscle, and increased total bile acid concentration in the plasma mediate the inhibitory effect of ESG on lipid accumulation.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Antiobesidad/administración & dosificación , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Glucógeno/administración & dosificación , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Obesidad/prevención & control , Acil-CoA Deshidrogenasa/genética , Acil-CoA Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Acil-CoA Deshidrogenasa de Cadena Larga/genética , Acil-CoA Deshidrogenasa de Cadena Larga/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo/efectos de los fármacos , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animales , Ácidos y Sales Biliares/sangre , Glucemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos no Esterificados/sangre , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/enzimología , Masculino , Obesidad/etiología , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Tomógrafos Computarizados por Rayos X , Triglicéridos/sangre , Regulación hacia Arriba
12.
Food Funct ; 4(9): 1387-93, 2013 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23872795

RESUMEN

Previously, we developed enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) from starch, and showed its immunomodulatory and dietary fiber-like activities. In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ESG and its immunomodulatory activity using differentiated Caco-2 cells as a model of the intestinal barrier. In a co-culture system consisting of differentiated Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages, mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß and BAFF cytokines was up-regulated in Caco-2 cells and IL-8 production in basolateral medium was induced after 24 h apical treatment with 5 mg ml(-1) of ESG. The mRNA level of iNOS was also up-regulated in RAW264.7 macrophages. After characterization of the binding of anti-glycogen monoclonal antibodies (IV58B6 and ESG1A9) to ESG and its digested metabolite resistant glycogen (RG), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system was developed to quantify ESG and RG. Using this system, we investigated the metabolism of ESG in differentiated Caco-2 cells. When ESG (7000 kDa, 5 mg ml(-1)) was added to the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers, ESG disappeared and RG (about 3000 kDa, 3.5 mg ml(-1)) appeared in the apical solution during a 24 h incubation. Neither ESG nor RG was detected in the basolateral solution. In addition, both ESG and RG were bound to TLR2 in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, we suggest that ESG is metabolized to a RG-like structure in the intestine, and this metabolite activates the immune system via stimulation of the intestinal epithelium, although neither ESG nor its metabolite could permeate the intestinal cells under our experimental conditions. These results provide evidence for the beneficial function of ESG as a food ingredient.


Asunto(s)
Diferenciación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Fibras de la Dieta/farmacología , Glucógeno/síntesis química , Glucógeno/farmacocinética , Inmunomodulación/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Células CACO-2 , Línea Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultivo , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/citología , Mucosa Intestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citología , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Ratones , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Receptor Toll-Like 2/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 2/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Arriba
13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 305(5): H667-75, 2013 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23812390

RESUMEN

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. The perivascular adipose tissue is closely implicated in the development of atherosclerosis; however, the contribution to CKD-associated atherogenesis remains undefined. Eight-week-old apoE-deficient mice were uninephrectomized and fed a high-cholesterol diet starting at 12 wk of age. The atherosclerotic lesion area in the thoracic aorta was comparable in 16-wk-old uninephrectomized (UNX) mice and sham control mice; however, the lesion area was markedly exaggerated in 20-wk-old UNX mice compared with the control (54%, P < 0.05). While the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages and the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the thoracic periaortic adipose tissue (PAT) did not differ between the two groups, angiotensinogen (AGT) mRNA expression and the angiotensin II (ANG II) concentration in the PAT were significantly higher in 16-wk-old UNX mice than in the control (1.9- and 1.5-fold increases vs. control, respectively; P < 0.05). ANG II concentrations in both the plasma and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) were comparable between the two groups, suggesting that PAT-specific activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is primarily involved in CKD-associated atherogenesis. The homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and plasma insulin level after glucose loading were significantly elevated in 16-wk-old UNX mice. In vitro stimulation of preadipocytes with insulin exaggerated the AGT mRNA expression along with increased mRNA expression of PPARγ. These findings suggest that PAT-specific RAS activation probably primarily contributes in accelerating atherosclerotic development in UNX mice and could thus represent a therapeutic target for preventing CKD-associated atherogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo/fisiopatología , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatología , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiencia , Aterosclerosis/fisiopatología , Nefrectomía/efectos adversos , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/fisiopatología , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiología , Adipocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Adipocitos/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Angiotensinógeno/metabolismo , Animales , Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Aterosclerosis/etiología , Aterosclerosis/metabolismo , Colesterol en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Insulina/farmacología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , PPAR gamma/metabolismo , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/etiología
14.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 94(6): 2120-2, 2012 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23176930

RESUMEN

A 67-year-old man presented with dyspnea, general fatigue, and leg edema. Echocardiography demonstrated a large pericardial effusion with a 5 cm × 3 cm, dense hetero-echogenic tumor in the right atrium. At the time of the operation, the tumor was composed of soft but tough, yellowish, smaller smooth processes, and fragile, reddish, bigger nodules. Pathologic examination revealed that the yellow processes were xanthoma and that the reddish nodules were B-cell lymphoma. This case strongly supports the theory that normolipemic xanthomatosis is a secondary event in the lymphoid tissue neoplasm.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Cardíacas/complicaciones , Linfoma de Células B/complicaciones , Xantomatosis/etiología , Anciano , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ecocardiografía , Cardiopatías/diagnóstico , Cardiopatías/etiología , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cardíacas/cirugía , Ventrículos Cardíacos , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células B/cirugía , Masculino , Xantomatosis/diagnóstico , Xantomatosis/cirugía
15.
Carbohydr Res ; 350: 49-54, 2012 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22277540

RESUMEN

For immunological experiments on glycogens, anti-glycogen antibodies are indispensable to capture, detect, and visualize sugar molecules. An anti-glycogen monoclonal antibody (IV58B6) and newly constructed antibody (ESG1A9mAb) have a common immunoglobulin type (IgM) and binding ability to glycogens, but overall possess different binding features. Therefore, they may prove useful for the construction of an advanced system of quantitative ELISA based on their molecular structures. For this purpose, detailed information on the carbohydrate-specificities of ESG1A9mAb and IV58B6 is first required, but their fine specificities for various types of glycogens have not been elucidated. To overcome this problem, we performed interaction analysis by ELISA of ESG1A9mAb and IV58B6 toward 15 glucose polymers, that is, 5 enzymatically-synthesized glycogens (ESGs), 6 natural source glycogens (NSGs), 3 enzymatically digested glycogens (EDGs), and soluble starch. To provide a more detailed analysis, we determined the association constants (K(a)) of the two antibodies toward these glycogens by surface plasmon resonance. The results indicated that the carbohydrate-binding properties toward NSGs of ESG1A9mAb and IV58B6 were similar, but markedly differed for ESGs and EDGs. ESG1A9mAb showed significant affinity for all the ESGs and NSGs tested, whereas IV58B6 had only slight affinity for ESGs, although the affinities were increased when the ESGs were enzymatically digested. This information should be helpful for the design of both in vitro and in vivo immunological assays.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales/inmunología , Especificidad de Anticuerpos , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Glucógeno/inmunología , Resonancia por Plasmón de Superficie/métodos , Animales , Bovinos , Glucógeno/metabolismo , Conejos , alfa-Amilasas/metabolismo
16.
Dev Biol ; 363(1): 52-61, 2012 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22226978

RESUMEN

Glucose is an essential source of energy for body metabolism and is transported into cells by glucose transporters (GLUTs). Well-characterized class I GLUT is subdivided into GLUTs1-4, which are selectively expressed depending on tissue glucose requirements. However, there is no available data on the role of GLUTs during tooth development. This study aims to clarify the functional significance of class I GLUT during murine tooth development using immunohistochemistry and an in vitro organ culture experiment with an inhibitor of GLUTs1/2, phloretin, and Glut1 and Glut2 short interfering RNA (siRNA). An intense GLUT1-immunoreaction was localized in the enamel organ of bud-stage molar tooth germs, where the active cell proliferation occurred. By the bell stage, the expression of GLUT1 in the dental epithelium was dramatically decreased in intensity, and subsequently began to appear in the stratum intermedium at the late bell stage. On the other hand, GLUT2-immunoreactivity was weakly observed in the whole tooth germs throughout all stages. The inhibition of GLUTs1/2 by phloretin in the bud-stage tooth germs induced the disturbance of primary enamel knot formation, resulting in the developmental arrest of the explants and the squamous metaplasia of dental epithelial cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of GLUTs1/2 in cap-to-bell-stage tooth germs reduced tooth size in a dose dependent manner. These findings suggest that the expression of GLUT1 and GLUT2 in the dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells seems to be precisely and spatiotemporally controlled, and the glucose uptake mediated by GLUT1 plays a crucial role in the early tooth morphogenesis and tooth size determination.


Asunto(s)
Transportador de Glucosa de Tipo 1/metabolismo , Glucosa/farmacocinética , Diente Molar/metabolismo , Odontogénesis , Animales , Transporte Biológico/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Órgano del Esmalte/embriología , Órgano del Esmalte/crecimiento & desarrollo , Órgano del Esmalte/metabolismo , Epitelio/embriología , Epitelio/crecimiento & desarrollo , Epitelio/metabolismo , Femenino , Regulación del Desarrollo de la Expresión Génica , Transportador de Glucosa de Tipo 1/genética , Transportador de Glucosa de Tipo 2/genética , Transportador de Glucosa de Tipo 2/metabolismo , Inmunohistoquímica , Hibridación in Situ , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Diente Molar/embriología , Diente Molar/crecimiento & desarrollo , Floretina/farmacología , Embarazo , Interferencia de ARN , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Factores de Tiempo , Técnicas de Cultivo de Tejidos , Germen Dentario/embriología , Germen Dentario/crecimiento & desarrollo , Germen Dentario/metabolismo
17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 12(1): 80-7, 2012 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22080051

RESUMEN

Natural killer (NK) cells, innate immune effectors that mediate rapid responses to various antigens, play an important role in potentiating host defenses through the clearance of tumor cells and virally infected cells. By using enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) with the same characteristics as natural glycogen, we examined whether orally administered glycogen enhances the innate defense of tumor-implanted mice and the cytotoxicity of NK cells. Oral administration of ESG led to the suppression of tumor proliferation and the prolongation of survival times of tumor-bearing mice. Splenic NK activities of BALB/c mice treated orally with ESG were significantly higher than those of water-treated mice, which were used as a negative control. In addition, intraduodenal injections of ESG gradually and markedly lowered splenic sympathetic nerve activity, which has an inverse correlation with NK activity. Furthermore, ESG activated Peyer's patch cells to induce the production of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) from these cells. These results demonstrated that orally administrated glycogen significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of NK cells by acting on Peyer's patch cells and autonomic nerves, and eventually induced the potentiation of host defenses. We propose that glycogen functions not only as an energy source for life support but also as an oral adjuvant for immunopotentiation.


Asunto(s)
Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Glucógeno/uso terapéutico , Células Asesinas Naturales/efectos de los fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/farmacología , Animales , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Quimiocina CXCL2/inmunología , Glucógeno/farmacología , Interleucina-6/inmunología , Células Asesinas Naturales/inmunología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Trasplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/patología , Ganglios Linfáticos Agregados/efectos de los fármacos , Ganglios Linfáticos Agregados/inmunología , Ratas , Nervios Esplácnicos/efectos de los fármacos , Nervios Esplácnicos/fisiología , Bazo/efectos de los fármacos , Bazo/inmunología , Bazo/inervación , Carga Tumoral/efectos de los fármacos
18.
Glycobiology ; 22(1): 146-59, 2012 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21873606

RESUMEN

We prepared enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) with the same characteristics as natural glycogen and investigated whether the macrophage-stimulating activity of glycogen was related to Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are important receptors for innate immunity. ESG induced no nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity in TLR4/MD-2/CD14-expressed human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) reporter cells, whereas this polysaccharide did activate peritoneal exude cells (PECs) derived from TLR4-deficient mice at the same level as those from wild-type (WT) mice. Similarly, ESG did not activate HEK293 cells expressing TLR3, 5, 7, 8 or 9, suggesting that these TLRs were irrelevant to the activity of ESG. In contrast, ESG enhanced the NF-κB activity of TLR2-expressed HEK293 reporter cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the cell-stimulating activity of ESG was remarkably lower for PECs from TLR2-deficient mice compared with those from WT mice. The activity of ESG completely disappeared after treatment with a glycogen-degrading enzyme, indicating that the activity derived from ESG itself and not from contamination with canonical TLR2 ligands such as bacterial lipopeptides. Moreover, it was clarified by ELISA that ESG was directly bound to TLR2. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TLR2 directly recognizes glycogen and that the recognition activates immunocytes such as macrophages to enhance the production of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines. In addition, it was suggested that TLR2 could be involved in the glycogen activity in vivo. We propose that glycogen act as an activator to potentiate the host defense through TLR2 on the macrophage.


Asunto(s)
Glucógeno/farmacología , Activación de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 2/fisiología , Animales , Citocinas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inactivación de Genes , Genes Reporteros , Glucógeno/síntesis química , Glucógeno/fisiología , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Inmunidad Innata , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Luciferasas de Renilla/biosíntesis , Luciferasas de Renilla/genética , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/inmunología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fosforilación , Unión Proteica , Receptor Toll-Like 2/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 2/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 4/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 4/metabolismo
19.
Food Funct ; 2(3-4): 183-9, 2011 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21779577

RESUMEN

We developed a new process for enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG), which is equivalent in physicochemical properties to natural-source glycogen (NSG) except its resistant property to degradation by α-amylase in vitro. In this study the metabolic fates of orally administered ESG in rats were investigated by a single oral administration test and a 2 week ingestion test. The glycemic index of ESG was 79. After the 2 week ingestion of ESG, the cecal content and production of short chain fatty acids were significantly increased, the pH value of cecal content was lowered, and the counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in feces were significantly increased. Additionally, plasma levels of triacylglycerol and total cholesterol were significantly reduced by ESG. In contrast, NSG did not affect these parameters at all. The results collectively suggest that around 20% of orally administered ESG was transferred to the cecum in the form of polymer and assimilated into short chain fatty acids by microbiota and the polymer affected lipid metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Glucógeno/biosíntesis , Glucógeno/metabolismo , alfa-Amilasas/metabolismo , Administración Oral , Animales , Bifidobacterium/aislamiento & purificación , Ciego/química , Ciego/microbiología , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/análisis , Heces/química , Heces/microbiología , Fermentación , Glucosa/análisis , Glucógeno/administración & dosificación , Lactobacillus/aislamiento & purificación , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Masculino , Metagenoma , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
20.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 57(2): 170-6, 2011.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21697637

RESUMEN

Enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) has high solubility and its solution has low osmotic pressure. Therefore ESG solution could be rapidly absorbed and could be adequate for water rehydration and carbohydrate supplementation during exercise. The object of this study was to evaluate the gastric emptying time and plasma glucose elevation after an administration of ESG solution in comparison with another carbohydrate solution by using a laboratory animal. Male BALB/c mice were administered 10% w/v solution of glucose, maltodextrin, starch, naturally synthesized glycogen (NSG) and ESG at a dose of 20 µL/g body weight for the measurement of gastric emptying rate (Experiment 1) and 10 µL/g body weight for the measurement of plasma glucose elevation (Experiment 2). The osmolarity of gastric content was lower in the ESG and maltodextrin group than the other carbohydrate group. Weight of gastric fluid was significantly lower in the ESG and water group than the glucose group (p<0.01). Plasma glucose level was significantly lower in the ESG group than the glucose group from 0 to 60 min after administration (p<0.01), whereas plasma glucose level was same from 60 to 120 min for the ESG and glucose group (p=0.948). In Experiment 3, BALB/c mice ran on a treadmill for 2 h and were administered 8% of ESG or glucose solution (1.75, 3.5 or 7.0 µL/g body weight) every 20 min during running. There was no difference in post-exercise muscle glycogen level. These data suggest that 1) ESG beverage does not disturb water absorption because of its short gastric emptying time and 2) ESG slowly elevates plasma glucose level and maintains it for a prolonged time compared to the glucose solution.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/metabolismo , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/farmacología , Fluidoterapia/métodos , Glucógeno/farmacología , Carrera/fisiología , Estómago/efectos de los fármacos , Agua/metabolismo , Animales , Bebidas , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Vaciamiento Gástrico/efectos de los fármacos , Jugo Gástrico/metabolismo , Glucosa/farmacología , Glucógeno/metabolismo , Absorción Intestinal , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Concentración Osmolar , Condicionamiento Físico Animal/fisiología , Polisacáridos/farmacología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA