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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 699, 2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622348

RESUMEN

In response to the Minamata Convention on Mercury, international organizations, governments, nonprofit organizations, and other institutions as well as individuals have worked to promote the development and implementation of safe and environmentally healthy practices, processes, and products. It is expected that the accumulation of mercury in the natural environment will decrease in volume each year. However, even after Hg ceases to be used, the Hg already accumulated in forests will continue to pose an ecological risk. Forest fires are serious events, partly because they release accumulated Hg from the environment. In this study, the effects of forest fires on the accumulation and chemical species of Hg in soil, related to the mobilization of Hg, were investigated. The research was conducted in secondary forests located near artisanal small-scale gold mining sites, where Hg is used for the amalgamation of gold in Camarines Norte, Philippines. The results showed that the original Hg accumulation level in the burned forest was not as high as that in the control forest, and that burn severity might have affected only the surface soil (0-5 cm). However, the proportion of water-soluble Hg, which was derived from ash, was increased by fire. Therefore, it is suggested that forest fires not only increase the release of Hg into the atmosphere but also increase the outflow risk to the aquatic system through rainfall.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Incendios Forestales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Oro , Humanos , Mercurio/análisis , Minería , Suelo
2.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117725, 2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271518

RESUMEN

Considerable uncertainty exists with regard to the effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O emissions as a result of changes caused in the belowground environment by tree cutting. To evaluate on the effects of changes in the belowground environment on N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction or slash falling near measurement chambers and measured N2O emission at distances of 50 and 150 cm from the tree stem (stump) before and after cutting. In addition, we inferred the effects of logging on the emission using a hierarchical Bayesian (HB) model. Our results showed that tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soil and that the increase in N2O emission depended on the distance from the stem (stump); increase in N2O emission was greater at 50 than at 150 cm from the stem. Tree cutting caused the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the stem to double (the % increase in N2O emission by tree cutting was 54%-213%, 95% predictive credible interval) when soil temperature was 25 °C and WFPS was 60%. Posterior simulation of the HB model predicted that 30% logging would cause a 57% (47%-67%) increase in N2O emission at our study site (2000 trees ha-1) considering only the effects of belowground changes by tree cutting during the measurement period.


Asunto(s)
Óxido Nitroso , Suelo , Teorema de Bayes , Óxido Nitroso/análisis , Temperatura
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 2): 142598, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065509

RESUMEN

Since the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents, extensive research has focused on the distribution and cycle of radiocesium in forest systems. Nevertheless, direct chemical speciation analyses of Cs by spectroscopic methods are limited by the low abundances of stable Cs as well as radiocesium in trees. In this study, we investigated coordination structures of Cs in 133Cs-doped bark, sapwood, heartwood, needle, and branch samples of trees collected in Fukushima by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We examined four representative tree species in Fukushima, Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Quercus serrata, and Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides. EXAFS spectra suggested that Cs was adsorbed as an outer-sphere complex on all parts of the four species, with electrostatic binding to negatively charged functional groups in components of tree tissues. These results were supported by extraction experiments where more than 98.5% of the sorbed Cs was desorbed from all parts of each tree species using 1 M CH3COONH4. Sorption experiments of Cs on cellulose, an important component of plant cell walls, were carried out in ultrapure water, NaCl, and KCl solutions. The Kd values for cellulose and solutions were not high enough to fix Cs, considering the composition of sap in trees. Overall, the results of this study are consistent with previous field observations indicating that radiocesium is translocated in mobile form to metabolically active tree parts.


Asunto(s)
Accidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoreo de Radiación , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo , Cesio , Radioisótopos de Cesio/análisis , Japón , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo/análisis , Árboles
4.
J Environ Radioact ; 213: 106137, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983446

RESUMEN

Radiocesium (137Cs) derived from the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant remains in forests. Although a large proportion of the 137Cs in forests has been transferred to soils, the rates of transfer to soils depend on the chemical form of 137Cs, which determines the mobility of 137Cs in plant tissues and subsequently during decomposition of leaf litter. In order to understand the dynamics of 137Cs in Sugi (Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica) forests, we identified the chemical forms, such as water soluble, ion-exchangeable, and residual of 137Cs, 133Cs, K, and Rb in needle-bearing Sugi branches of different ages across several years. Compared with the results for K and Rb, Cs (133Cs + 137Cs) tended to change from a water-soluble form to an immobilized form with aging of needle-bearing branch segments. In addition, it was observed that a larger proportion of the immobilized Cs were accumulated in the green outer portions of the stems through aging.


Asunto(s)
Cryptomeria , Monitoreo de Radiación , Radioisótopos de Cesio , Bosques , Japón , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 687: 1176-1185, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412453

RESUMEN

Large areas of Fukushima's forests were contaminated with radiocesium (137Cs) after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Most of the contaminated forests have not been decontaminated, and bioavailable 137Cs is likely to circulate within the forest environment's food web. Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida) is a top predator in the forest arthropod community, and this web-building spider potentially consumes many arthropod species presented in the grazing and detrital food chains. We tested whether 137Cs in the spider could serve as a proxy for 137Cs contamination of these arthropod communities. We also examined whether N. clavata could serve as a proxy for soil bioavailable 137Cs. Nephila clavata was similarly or more contaminated with 137Cs compared with lower-trophic-level arthropods such as herbivores and other predators at the same trophic level. Thus, the 137Cs activity of N. clavata could represent the extent to which the arthropod community was contaminated with 137Cs. Data from nine 137Cs-contaminated sites in Fukushima showed a significant positive correlation between soil bioavailable 137Cs and N. clavata's 137Cs activity05 but the coefficient of determination was only moderate (R2 = 0.43), suggesting that N. clavata is only a weak proxy of soil bioavailable 137Cs. Our results also showed that the bioavailable fraction of 137Cs in Fukushima was strongly correlated with the total inventory and that the K and Na contents of the soil determined the soil-to-spider transfer factor for 137Cs and the 137Cs activity in N. clavata, respectively. These results improve our understanding of 137Cs transfer from the soil to arthropod species.


Asunto(s)
Radioisótopos de Cesio/análisis , Bosques , Accidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoreo de Radiación , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo/análisis , Arañas/química , Animales
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1954, 2019 02 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760819

RESUMEN

We observed the atmospheric resuspension of radiocaesium, derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, at Namie, a heavily contaminated area of Fukushima, since 2012. During the survey periods from 2012 to 2015, the activity concentrations of radiocaesium in air ranged from approximately 10-5 to 10-2 Bq per m3 and were higher in the warm season than in the cold season. Electron microscopy showed that the particles collected on filters in summer were predominantly of biological origin (bioaerosols), with which the observed radiocaesium activity concentration varied. We conducted an additional aerosol analysis based on fluorescent optical microscopic observation and high-throughput DNA sequencing technique to identify bioaerosols at Namie in 2015 summer. The concentrations of bioaerosols fluctuated the order of 106 particles per m3, and the phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota (true Fungi) accounted for approximately two-thirds of the bioaerosols. Moreover, the fungal spore concentration in air was positively correlated with the radiocaesium concentration at Namie in summer 2016. The bioaerosol emissions from Japanese mixed forests in the temperate zone predominately included fungal cells, which are known to accumulate radiocaesium, and should be considered an important scientific issue that must be addressed.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación Radiactiva del Aire/análisis , Radioisótopos de Cerio/análisis , Esporas Fúngicas/química , Contaminación Radiactiva del Aire/efectos adversos , Accidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Japón , Monitoreo de Radiación/métodos , Estaciones del Año
7.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 21(3): 217-223, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638063

RESUMEN

Gamblea innovans is a Cd- and Zn-accumulating deciduous tree widely distributed in the secondary forests of Japan. We aimed to understand the characteristics of Cd and Zn accumulation in G. innovans in order to effectively utilize the species for phytoremediation. To accomplish that, we studied the relationship between secondary metabolite concentrations and the accumulation and distributions of Cd and Zn in G. innovans leaves and basal stems using micro-X ray fluorescence (µ-XRF). Our results showed a negative correlation between Zn leaf concentrations and polyphenol/2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. This finding might be related to stress or the manifestation of a mechanism for tolerance to Cd and Zn accumulation. In addition, we observed that Cd accumulated primarily in the apoplastic region of surface tissues such as bark and the epidermis of leaves, whereas Zn accumulated in both apoplastic and symplastic regions. Thus, it might be possible that G. innovans can distinguish between Cd and Zn and control their translocation.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio , Contaminantes del Suelo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Japón , Polifenoles , Zinc
8.
Environ Pollut ; 228: 344-353, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28551564

RESUMEN

We investigated whether local-scale decontamination (removal of the litter layer, superficial soil layer, and understory) in a secondary forest contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reduced 137Cs contamination of the soil and litter. We also measured 137Cs concentrations in plants and in the web-building spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida), as an indicator species, to examine 137Cs contamination in arthropods. One month after decontamination, the total 137Cs contamination (soil + litter) was reduced by 20% (100 kBq·m-2) relative to that in an adjacent untreated (i.e., contaminated) area, which was however not statistically significant. Four months after decontamination, 137Cs in the decontaminated area had increased to a level similar to those in the untreated area, and the air radiation dose in the decontaminated area was about 2.1 µSv·h-1, significantly higher than that in the untreated area (1.9 µSv·h-1). This may have been attributed to a torrential rain event. Although no statistically significant reduction was observed, most spiders had a lower 137Cs contamination than that before the decontamination. This implied that the decontamination may have reduced 137Cs transfer from soil via litter to N. clavata through the detrital food chains, but may not have reduced the amount of 137Cs transfer through grazing food chains because the concentration of 137Cs in living tree leaves was not reduced by the decontamination. In autumn, about 2 kBq·m-2 of 137Cs was supplied from foliage to the ground by litterfall. The results suggested that removal of the litter and superficial soil layers in a contaminated forest may be ineffective. The present study suggests that the local-scale decontamination in a secondary forest had no effect on the reduction of 137Cs contamination in the treated area.


Asunto(s)
Descontaminación , Bosques , Accidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoreo de Radiación , Animales , Radioisótopos de Cesio/análisis , Japón , Plantas de Energía Nuclear , Hojas de la Planta/química , Suelo , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo/análisis , Arañas , Árboles
9.
Mycobiology ; 45(1): 15-19, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28435349

RESUMEN

This study proposed a rapid method to quantify the colonization rate of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant roots. The method involved the use of an image analysis software (WinRHIZO Pro). The colonization rate is defined as the ratio of the fungal body to the plant root area in a micrograph. Three seedlings of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides, a woody species that accumulates radiocesium, were collected from a secondary forest in the Yamakiya district of Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture during May-September 2014. The colonization of AMF structures was examined under a light microscope, and the percentage of colonization was determined using the WinRHIZO method. The superiority of the new method was verified by comparing with a modified grid-line intersect method. The colonization of AMF was confirmed in all the seedlings, and a significant coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.94) was found with both the methods. The results suggested that the WinRHIZO method is reliable for estimating the colonization of AMF in C. sciadophylloides.

10.
Plant Signal Behav ; 12(1): e1274483, 2017 01 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28010164

RESUMEN

Seedlings of three rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties (one indica, ARC5955; and two japonica, Nipponbare and Koshihikari) with or without pre-colonization by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae were transplanted into an upland field and grown to maturity. Pre-colonization had no effect on the yield of Nipponbare or Koshihikari. However, pre-colonized ARC5955 exhibited a strong tendency toward increased yield, which was accompanied by increases in the percentage of ripened grain and the 1000-grain weight. The rice roots were also colonized by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the field, but these had only limited effects on shoot biomass and grain yields. We speculate that F. mosseae may have exhibited priority effects, allowing it to dominate the rice roots. There was no significant difference in the contents of most mineral elements in the shoots of pre-colonized ARC5955 at harvest, indicating that some other factor is responsible for the observed yield increase.


Asunto(s)
Micorrizas/fisiología , Oryza/microbiología , Plantones/microbiología , Raíces de Plantas/microbiología , Simbiosis/fisiología
11.
J Environ Radioact ; 165: 286-295, 2016 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27835846

RESUMEN

We conducted an experiment to investigate the potential of phytoremediation by soil amendments in a forest area. To desorb radiocesium (137Cs) from variable charges in the soil, ammonium sulfate (NH4+) and elemental sulfur (S) (which decrease soil pH) were applied to forest soil collected from contaminated area at a rate of 40 and 80 g/m2, respectively. A control condition with no soil treatment was also considered. We defined four groups of aboveground conditions: planted with Quercus serrata, planted with Houttuynia cordata, covered with rice straw as litter, and unplanted/uncovered (control). Cultivation was performed in a greenhouse with a regular water supply for four months. Following elemental sulfur treatment, soil pH values were significantly lower than pH values following ammonium sulfate treatment and no treatment. During cultivation, several plant species germinated from natural seeds. No clear differences in aboveground tissue 137Cs concentrations in planted Q. serrata and H. cordata were observed among the treatments. However, aboveground tissue 137Cs concentration values in the germinated plants following elemental sulfur treatment were higher than the values following the ammonium sulfate treatment and no treatment. Although biomass values for Q. serrata, H. cordata, and germinated plants following elemental sulfur treatment tended to be low, the total 137Cs activities in the aboveground tissue of germinated plants were higher than those following ammonium sulfate treatment and no treatment in rice straw and unplanted conditions. Although no significant differences were observed, 137Cs concentrations in rice straw following ammonium sulfate and elemental sulfur treatments tended to be higher than those in the control case. The results of this study indicate that elemental sulfur lowers the soil pH for a relatively long period and facilitates 137Cs translocation to newly emerged and settled plants or litter, but affects plant growth in large concentrations and/or anaerobic conditions. Combining elemental sulfur application with forest management practices, such as mowing and thinning, could be a suitable method of decontamination of the forest environment.


Asunto(s)
Radioisótopos de Cesio/análisis , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental/métodos , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo/análisis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Descontaminación , Bosques , Monitoreo de Radiación , Suelo
12.
J Environ Radioact ; 160: 8-24, 2016 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27116401

RESUMEN

Radiocesium ((137)Cs) transfer to plants immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated by collecting newly emerged leaf and soil samples between May 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in the Fukushima prefecture. Radiocesium concentrations in leaf and soil samples were measured to calculate concentration ratios (CR). Woody plants exhibited high CR values because (137)Cs deposited on stems and/or leaves were transferred to newly emerging tissues. The CR values in 2012 declined as compared to that in 2011. Exchangeable (137)Cs rates in soil (extraction rate) samples were measured at five sites. These rates decreased at four sites in 2012 and depended on environmental conditions and soil type. Both CR values and extraction rates decreased in 2012. However, CR values reflected the changes in extraction rates and characteristics of each species. Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Polygonaceae, which had been identified as Cs accumulators, presented no clear (137)Cs accumulation ability. In 2012, the perennial plant Houttuynia cordata and deciduous trees Chengiopanax sciadophylloides and Acer crataegifolium displayed high CR values, indicating that these species are (137)Cs accumulators and may be considered as potential species for phytoremediation.


Asunto(s)
Radioisótopos de Cesio/análisis , Accidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Magnoliopsida/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo/análisis , Japón , Monitoreo de Radiación
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 553: 643-649, 2016 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26990074

RESUMEN

We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium.


Asunto(s)
Cedrus/química , Radioisótopos de Cesio/análisis , Hojas de la Planta/química , Monitoreo de Radiación , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo/análisis , Accidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Ceniza Radiactiva/análisis
14.
J Environ Radioact ; 151 Pt 1: 250-257, 2016 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26536624

RESUMEN

Through the assessments of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, it has been reported that some sprouts of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav.) at the site contained radiocesium (((134),)(137)Cs) at higher concentrations than the other plants. To assess the phytoremediation properties of C. sciadophylloides for (137)Cs decontamination, we aimed to quantify the (137)Cs accumulation in C. sciadophylloides. We measured the (137)Cs concentrations in various organs of C. sciadophylloides collected from the forest in the town of Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture, together with the concentrations of other elements [potassium (K), rubidium, (133)Cs, calcium, strontium, and manganese] present. In addition, we compared the foliar concentrations of these elements in C. sciadophylloides with those in four different deciduous tree species. The mean of foliar (137)Cs concentration in C. sciadophylloides was 28.1 kBq kg(-1) DW, one order of magnitude higher than that found in the other species. The (137)Cs concentrations were in the order of leaves > bark > wood. The wood of the treetop, leaf scars, and roots contained higher amounts of (137)Cs than that of the trunk. From the distribution of (137)Cs in C. sciadophylloides, we confirmed that (137)Cs tends to accumulate in the young growing parts. The difference in the distribution of (137)Cs and (133)Cs indicated that surface uptake of (137)Cs occurs. A significant correlation between K and (137)Cs concentrations in each organ was found, which suggested that (137)Cs in the plant body is transferred through the same pathway as K. On the other hand, there was no correlation between foliar K and (137)Cs concentrations, implying that the uptake ratio of K to (137)Cs was different for each individual. To determine the factors driving specific (137)Cs accumulation and/or the variability of the ratio between K and (137)Cs, the distribution of (137)Cs and the root in soil, the difference of the expression of transporter, and the existence of mycorrhizal fungi should be considered. However, further research is required.


Asunto(s)
Araliaceae/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Cesio/metabolismo , Monitoreo de Radiación , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo/metabolismo , Accidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Japón
15.
J Environ Radioact ; 152: 28-34, 2016 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26630038

RESUMEN

Vast forest areas in eastern Japan have been contaminated with radio-isotopes by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Radiocesium (radioCs) is known to remain bioavailable in forest ecosystems for a long time, and it is necessary to terminate the cycling process to decontaminate the forest ecosystem. We observed radiocesium concentrations of leaf litter during decomposition on a forest floor where radiocesium ((137)Cs) contamination was ∼155 kBq/m(2). Litter bag experiments were conducted with newly fallen mixed deciduous leaf litter in a deciduous forest (alt. 610 m) about 50 km from the FDNPP. Litter bags were retrieved in April, June, August, October, and December 2012. Fresh litter (137)Cs concentration was ∼3000 Bq/kg in December 2011. During the decomposition process on the forest floor, litter (137)Cs concentration increased rapidly and exceeded 25,000 Bq/kg after 6 months, whereas potassium (K) concentration in the litter was rather stable, indicating that radiocesium and K showed contrasting dynamics during the early decomposition phase. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and (137)Cs contents were positively correlated to fungal biomass, evaluated by phospholipid fatty acids in the litter during decomposition. The increase of radiocesium concentration mainly occurred during from April to October, when fungal growth peaked. Therefore, this suggests fungal translocation of nutrients from outside the litter substrate (immobilization) is the mechanism to increase radiocesium in the decomposing litter. The amount of (137)Cs contained in the 1-year-old decomposed leaf litter was estimated to be 4% per area of the soil-contaminated (137)Cs.


Asunto(s)
Radioisótopos de Cesio/metabolismo , Hongos/metabolismo , Monitoreo de Radiación , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo/metabolismo , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biomasa , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Bosques , Accidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Japón , Fosfolípidos/análisis , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo
16.
Environ Geochem Health ; 38(2): 437-48, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26119806

RESUMEN

The young leaves of Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc, which is a deciduous tree species found in secondary forests widely in Japan, are used in spring as a local traditional food by local populations, and the bark of this plant is also preferred by sika deer, Cervus nippon. However, C. barbinervis has been known to accumulate heavy metals in its leaves. Then, we aimed to clarify the characteristics of microelement contents in C. barbinervis and to discuss the value of this species as food for humans and animals through the analysis of seasonal changes and distribution in various organs of C. barbinervis growing under two different geological conditions. We found that C. barbinervis is an accumulating and tolerant plant for Ni, Co and Mn. It accumulates Ni from serpentine soil containing Ni at high concentration, and Co and Mn from acidic soils based on crystalline schist. The seasonal variation in element concentrations in leaves indicates that the young leaves contain Cu at high concentration and that eating them in spring season may be advantageous to humans, due to the associated increase in Cu intake. The high concentrations of Cu and Zn in the bark of C. barbinervis might explain why deer prefer to eat the bark of this species.


Asunto(s)
Clethraceae/química , Alimentos , Geología , Metales Pesados/análisis , Animales , Humanos
17.
J Environ Qual ; 44(6): 1800-8, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26641332

RESUMEN

Quantification of sulfur (S) deposition is critical to deciphering the environmental archive of S in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we propose a mixing model that quantifies S deposition based on the S isotope ratio (δS) in tree rings. We collected samples from Japanese cedar ( D. Don) stumps from two sites: one near Yokkaichi City (YOK), which is well known for having the heaviest S air pollution in the world, and one at Inabu-cho (INA) in central Japan, which has been much less affected by air pollution. The δS profiles at both sites are consistent with S air pollution and contributions of anthropogenic S. The minimum value in YOK is lower than the δS values of anthropogenic S or any other possible source. Because the δS in the tree rings is affected by fractionation in the forest ecosystems, we used a mixing model to account for the isotope effects and to distinguish the sources of S. Based on the model results, we infer that the peak of S emissions at YOK occurred sometime between the late 1960s and early 1970s (489 mmol m yr). This estimated value is comparable with the highest reported values in Europe. This is the first quantitative estimate of anthropogenic input of S in forest systems based on δS in tree rings. Our results suggest that tree ring data can be used when monitoring stations of atmospheric S are lacking and that estimates of S deposition using δS in tree rings will advance our understanding of the local-scale S dynamics and the effect of human activities on it.

18.
J Environ Radioact ; 150: 228-35, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26378957

RESUMEN

The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant seriously contaminated a large area in northeast Japan with a large amount of radioactive material. Consequently, various organisms, including arthropods, in the ecosystem have been contaminated with radiocesium ((137)Cs) through the food chain. We previously showed that the web spider Nephila clavata was contaminated with (137)Cs and that the level of contamination, which varied among spider individuals, was independent of the amount of prey consumed. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms that could determine the level of (137)Cs contamination in N. clavata. We first demonstrated the patterns of contents of over 30 elements in N. clavata that were collected at two forest sites (PS and ES) in Fukushima and then focused on the relationships between the contents of the alkali metals Li, Na, K, and Rb and the accumulation of (137)Cs in the spiders; Cs is an alkali metal and is expected to act similarly to Li, Na, K, and Rb. We also focused on the content of the non-alkali element, Cu, which is an essential element for oxygen transport in spiders. We found that Na content correlated positively with (137)Cs accumulation at both sites, which suggested that (137)Cs accumulation in N. clavata was related with the dynamics of Na. The K-, Rb-, and Cu-(137)Cs relationships were site specific; the relationships were significant at site PS, but not significant at site ES. Factors causing the site specific relationships and the probable pathway for (137)Cs transfer from soil to plants and then to higher trophic levels are discussed in terms of the transfer processes of the alkali metals.


Asunto(s)
Radioisótopos de Cesio/metabolismo , Metales Alcalinos/metabolismo , Contaminantes Radiactivos/metabolismo , Arañas/metabolismo , Animales , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Japón , Monitoreo de Radiación
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 16(9): 21378-91, 2015 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26370968

RESUMEN

Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc. accumulates Nickel (Ni) and Cobalt (Co) at high concentrations., We hypothesized that C. barbinervis cannot distinguish between Ni and Co because of the similar chemical properties of these two elements. To confirm this hypothesis and understand the role of these elements in C. barbinervis, we conducted a hydroponic split-root experiment using Ni and Co solutions. We found that the bioconcentration factor (BCF; metal concentration of each tissue/metal concentrations of each treatment solution) of Ni and Co did not significantly differ in the roots, but the BCF for Co was higher than that for Ni in the leaves. The leaves of C. barbinervis accumulated Ni or Co at high concentrations. We also found the simultaneous accumulation of Ni and Co by the multiple heavy metal treatments (Ni and Co) at high concentrations similar to those for the single treatments (Ni or Co). Elevated sulfur concentrations occurred in the roots and leaves of Co-treated seedlings but not in Ni. This result indicates that S was related to Co accumulation in the leaves. These results suggest that C. barbinervis distinguishes between Ni and Co during transport and accumulation in the leaves but not during root uptake.


Asunto(s)
Clethraceae/metabolismo , Cobalto/metabolismo , Níquel/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Biomasa , Clethraceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 187(7): 459, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26104652

RESUMEN

We characterized the sulfur deposition history over the period of industrialization in Japan based on the sulfur isotope ratio (δ(34)S) in tree rings of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) stumps. We analyzed and compared δ(34)S values in the rings from two types of disk samples from 170-year-old stumps that had been cut 5 years earlier (older forest stand) and from 40-year-old living trees (younger forest stand) in order to confirm the validity of using stump disks for δ(34)S analysis. No differences in δ(34)S values by age were found between the sample types, indicating that stump disks can be used for δ(34)S analysis. The δ(34)S profile in tree rings was significantly correlated with anthropogenic SO2 emissions in Japan (r = -0.76, p < 0.05) and, thus, tree rings serve as a record of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. In addition, the values did not change largely from pre-industrialization to the 1940s (+4.2 to +6.1‰). The values before the 1940s are expected to reflect the background sulfur conditions in Japan and, thus, disks containing rings formed before the 1940s contain information about the natural environmental sulfur, which is useful for biogeochemical studies.


Asunto(s)
Cryptomeria/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Desarrollo Industrial , Azufre/análisis , Bosques , Geología , Japón , Dióxido de Azufre/análisis , Isótopos de Azufre/análisis , Factores de Tiempo
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