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Malar J ; 20(1): 32, 2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422080


BACKGROUND: Malaria remains highly endemic in Cameroon. The rapid emergence and spread of drug resistance was responsible for the change from monotherapies to artemisinin-based combinations. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance markers within an evolving efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in Cameroon from January 1998 to August 2020. METHODS: The PRISMA-P and PRISMA statements were adopted in the inclusion of studies on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of P. falciparum anti-malarial drug resistance genes (Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfatp6, Pfcytb and Pfk13). The heterogeneity of the included studies was evaluated using the Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. The random effects model was used as standard in the determination of heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Out of the 902 records screened, 48 studies were included in this aggregated meta-analysis of molecular data. A total of 18,706 SNPs of the anti-malarial drug resistance genes were genotyped from 47,382 samples which yielded a pooled prevalence of 35.4% (95% CI 29.1-42.3%). Between 1998 and 2020, there was significant decline (P < 0.0001 for all) in key mutants including Pfcrt 76 T (79.9%-43.0%), Pfmdr1 86Y (82.7%-30.5%), Pfdhfr 51I (72.2%-66.9%), Pfdhfr 59R (76.5%-67.8%), Pfdhfr 108 N (80.8%-67.6%). The only exception was Pfdhps 437G which increased over time (30.4%-46.9%, P < 0.0001) and Pfdhps 540E that remained largely unchanged (0.0%-0.4%, P = 0.201). Exploring mutant haplotypes, the study observed a significant increase in the prevalence of Pfcrt CVIET mixed quintuple haplotype from 57.1% in 1998 to 57.9% in 2020 (P < 0.0001). In addition, within the same study period, there was no significant change in the triple Pfdhfr IRN mutant haplotype (66.2% to 67.3%, P = 0.427). The Pfk13 amino acid polymorphisms associated with artemisinin resistance were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This review reported an overall decline in the prevalence of P. falciparum gene mutations conferring resistance to 4-aminoquinolines and amino alcohols for a period over two decades. Resistance to artemisinins measured by the presence of SNPs in the Pfk13 gene does not seem to be a problem in Cameroon. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42020162620.

BMJ Open ; 9(11): e032289, 2019 11 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727659


BACKGROUND: Septic shock is a life-threatening infection frequently responsible for hospital admissions or may be acquired as nosocomial infection in hospitalized patients with resultant significant morbidity and mortality . There is a dearth of data on a résumé and meta-analysis on the global epidemiology of this potentially deadly condition. Therefore, we propose the first systematic review to synthesize existing data on the global incidence, prevalence and case fatality rate of septic shock worldwide. METHODS: We will include cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies reporting on the incidence, and case fatality rate of septic shock. Electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, WHO Global Health Library and Web of Science will be searched for relevant records published between 1 January 2000 and 31 August 2019. Independents reviewers will perform study selection and data extraction, as well as assessment of methodological quality of included studies. Appropriate meta-analysis will then be used to pool studies judged to be clinically homogenous. Egger's test and funnel plots will be used to detect publication bias. Findings will be reported and compared by human development level of countries. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Being a review, ethical approval is not required as it was obtained in the primary study which will make up the review. This review is expected to provide relevant data to help in evaluating the burden of septic shock in the general population. The overall findings of this research will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019129783.

Choque Séptico/epidemiología , Adulto , Niño , Consenso , Humanos , Incidencia , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Prevalencia , Proyectos de Investigación , Choque Séptico/mortalidad , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
Afr J AIDS Res ; 6(2): 157-63, 2007 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25866065


The study investigates the cognitive effect of knowledge and protective practices on the prevalence of HIV and some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female students of the University of Buea, Cameroon. A cross-sectional study involving the analysis of a questionnaire completed by 522 female students and the voluntary testing of 108 sexually active females for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia and gonorrhoea was carried out. Knowledge of the protective effects of abstinence, condom-use and fidelity were independent of sexual practices (OR = 0.86, p = 0.611, φ = 0.22; OR = 1.26, p = 0.213, φ = 0.05; and OR = 1.18, p = 0.344, φ = 0.029, respectively). The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia and gonorrhoea among the participants tested was 3.9%, 6.1%, 24.1% and 30.1%, respectively. We conclude that relatively high prevalence of STIs among female students of the University of Buea stems from inadequate knowledge of the major modes of STI/HIV transmission and inadequate use of preventive methods.