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1.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34061

RESUMEN

Para comprender el proceso de reforma del sector salud en el Ecuador, es necesario partir del marco normativo e ideológico sobre el cual se basa la transformación sanitaria de la última década. A partir del año 2008 Ecuador reconoce en su Constitución el derecho a la salud con una visión sistémica, vinculándolo con el ejercicio de otros derechos. La Carta Magna del 2008 establece al Estado como garante del derecho a la salud a través de la formulación de políticas, planes y programas orientados a brindar acceso a servicios de promoción y atención integral bajo los principios de equidad, universalidad, solidaridad, interculturalidad, calidad, eficiencia, eficacia, precaución y bioética, con enfoque de género y generacional (1). De este modo, el mandato constitucional determina la necesidad de iniciar el proceso de reforma y define el ámbito en el cual se conduciría dicho proceso para lograr que el Estado cumpla con las nuevas obligaciones establecidas en la Constitución [...] El sistema de salud ecuatoriano sin duda se ha fortalecido con el profundo y ambicioso proceso de reforma, el cual ha sido posible gracias a un apoyo político explícito y sostenido, expresado en la priorización de la salud como un derecho de todos y de todas. No obstante, existen grandes retos aún pendientes, entre los cuales se destacan la implementación de un modelo de financiamiento sostenible con un fondo mancomunado para el sistema público, que permita una mayor eficiencia en el gasto en salud y garantice la sostenibilidad del sistema en el mediano plazo; el fortalecimiento de la vigilancia epidemiológica y del sistema de información en salud, a fin de detectar de manera temprana y oportuna los brotes epidémicos y las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles evitando que éstas se transformen en enfermedades catastróficas; la consolidación de las estrategias de prevención y control –las cuales requieren fortalecerse en el marco del proceso de reforma–; la implementación del MAIS y su materialización en rutinas de atención para los enfermos agudos pero sobre todo para los portadores de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, a fin de asegurar la continuidad de los cuidados; y la construcción efectiva de redes integradas de provisión de servicios de salud con mecanismos estables y eficientes de referencia y contrarreferencia. Estas son las tareas a abordar en el futuro inmediato como parte de la consolidación de la reforma sanitaria, y como parte de la ruta del sistema de salud ecuatoriano hacia la salud universal.


Asunto(s)
Ecuador , Reforma de la Atención de Salud , Cobertura de los Servicios de Salud , Políticas Públicas de Salud
3.
Vaccine ; 31 Suppl 3: C114-22, 2013 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23777684

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Countries in Latin America were among the first developing countries to introduce new vaccines, particularly rotavirus (RV) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), into their national immunization schedules. Experiences and lessons learned from these countries are valuable to donors, immunization partners, and policy makers in other countries wishing to make informed decisions on vaccine introduction. OBJECTIVES: In order to enhance knowledge and promote understanding of the process of new vaccine introduction in the Latin American Region, with particular focus on RV and PCV, we conducted a systematic qualitative assessment. We evaluated the decision-making process, documented the structure in place, and reviewed key factors pertaining to new vaccine introduction. These include country morbidity and mortality data available prior to vaccine introduction, funding sources and mechanisms for vaccine introduction, challenges of implementation, and assessment of vaccine impact. METHODS: From March 2010 to April 2011, we evaluated a subset of countries that had introduced RV and/or PCV in the past five years through interviews with key informants at the country level and through a systematic review of published data, gray literature, official technical documents, and country-specific health indicators. Countries evaluated were Bolivia, Brazil, Nicaragua, Peru, and Venezuela. RESULTS: In all countries, the potential of new vaccines to reduce mortality, as established by Millennium Development Goal 4, was an important consideration leading to vaccine introduction. Several factors-the availability of funds, the existence of sufficient evidence for vaccine introduction, and the feasibility of sustainable financing-were identified as crucial components of the decision-making process in the countries evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The decision making process regarding new vaccine introduction in the countries evaluated does not follow a systematic approach. Nonetheless, existing evidence on efficacy, potential impact, and cost-effectiveness of vaccine introduction, even if not local data, was important in the decision making process for vaccine introduction.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones en la Organización , Documentación , Programas de Inmunización , Bolivia , Brasil , Costo de Enfermedad , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Política de Salud , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización/economía , Nicaragua , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , Perú , Vacunas Neumococicas , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Vacunas contra Rotavirus , Vacunas Conjugadas , Venezuela
4.
J Infect Dis ; 205 Suppl 1: S120-5, 2012 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22315379

RESUMEN

Vaccination Week in the Americas (VWA) is an initiative of the countries and territories of the Americas that works to advance equity and access to vaccination. The initiative focuses on reaching populations with limited access to regular health services and promotes solidarity among countries. As the Expanded Program on Immunization is one of the world's best-established health programs, integrating other interventions with immunization services has been highly promoted. Using data available from the Pan American Health Organization, we explored the extent of integration of other interventions with immunization in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries as part of VWA. At least 14 countries or territories have integrated other interventions with immunization during VWA. The most common integrated intervention is vitamin A supplementation, followed by deworming. However, a variety of other interventions have been integrated, such as educational activities, supplementation with vitamins and minerals, and provision of health services. Data on coverage of integrated interventions are limited. Integration of other interventions with immunization in LAC countries is widespread, and its impact and lessons learned merit further examination.


Asunto(s)
Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud , Vacunación , Humanos , Organización Panamericana de la Salud
5.
J Infect Dis ; 204 Suppl 2: S571-8, 2011 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21954249

RESUMEN

In 2003, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) adopted a resolution calling for rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) elimination in the Americas by the year 2010. To accomplish this goal, PAHO advanced a rubella and CRS elimination strategy including introduction of rubella-containing vaccines into routine vaccination programs accompanied by high immunization coverage, interruption of rubella transmission through mass vaccination of adolescents and adults, and strengthened surveillance for rubella and CRS. The rubella elimination strategies were aligned with the successful measles elimination strategies. By the end of 2009, all countries routinely vaccinated children against rubella, an estimated 450 million people had been vaccinated against measles and rubella in supplementary immunization activities, and rubella transmission had been interrupted. This article describes how the region eliminated rubella and CRS.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Síndrome de Rubéola Congénita/epidemiología , Síndrome de Rubéola Congénita/prevención & control , Vacuna contra la Rubéola/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Américas/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Cooperación Internacional , Vacunación Masiva , Vacuna contra la Rubéola/administración & dosificación , Factores de Tiempo
6.
J Infect Dis ; 204 Suppl 2: S683-9, 2011 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21954267

RESUMEN

In the region of the Americas, goals for the elimination of endemic measles and rubella/congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) by the year 2000 and 2010, respectively were established. The successful implementation of measles elimination strategies in the region of the Americas resulted in the interruption of endemic measles transmission in 2002 and tremendous progress toward rubella and CRS elimination. In October 2007, the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference adopted Resolution CSP27.R2 urging member states to begin documenting and verifying the interruption of endemic transmission of the measles and rubella viruses in the Americas. To ensure a standardized approach for the process of documentation and verification, the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) developed a regional plan of action to guide countries and their national commissions as they prepare and consolidate evidence of the interruption of endemic measles and rubella transmission. This article summarizes the plan of action including the essential criteria and components of the guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Documentación/métodos , Documentación/normas , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/prevención & control , Síndrome de Rubéola Congénita/epidemiología , Síndrome de Rubéola Congénita/prevención & control , Américas/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional
7.
J Infect Dis ; 204 Suppl 1: S270-8, 2011 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21666172

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Region of the Americas set a goal of interrupting endemic measles virus transmission by the end of 2000. This decision was primarily based on rapid decreases in measles disease burden in pioneering countries that implemented Pan American Health Organization-recommended vaccination and surveillance strategies. Review of these strategies may inform measles elimination efforts in other regions. METHODS: Results from the implementation of the measles elimination strategy in the Americas were compiled and analyzed over a 30-year period, which was divided into 4 phases: the early years of the Expanded Program on Immunization (1980-1986); the start-up phase for elimination (1987-1994); the elimination phase (1995-2002); and the postelimination phase (2003-2010). Factors that contributed to elimination and the challenges confronted during the postelimination phase are discussed. RESULTS: An analysis of vaccination strategies over time highlights the transition from monovalent measles vaccine to the incorporation of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine administered in the routine program. Regional vaccination coverage increased during the period 1987-2010, sustained at ≥90% since 1998. Measles elimination efforts led to the implementation of 157 national vaccination campaigns, vaccinating a total of 440 million persons. Endemic measles virus transmission was interrupted in 2002. After elimination, measles importations and associated outbreaks occurred. Measles incidence has remained at <1 case per 1 million population since 2002. CONCLUSIONS: The success of measles elimination strategies in the Americas suggests that global measles eradication is attainable.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Salud Global , Vacuna Antisarampión/administración & dosificación , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/prevención & control , Américas/epidemiología , Genotipo , Humanos , Virus del Sarampión/clasificación , Virus del Sarampión/genética , Factores de Tiempo
8.
J Infect Dis ; 204 Suppl 1: S279-83, 2011 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21666173

RESUMEN

Countries in the World Health Organization Region of the Americas successfully interrupted endemic measles virus transmission 8 years after setting a regional measles elimination goal and have sustained this achievement since 2002. The vast experience from the region clearly demonstrates that measles elimination can be accomplished and maintained over time. This brief report summarizes the lessons learned and the best practices that evolved in the Americas during 3 measles elimination phases (ie, preelimination, elimination, and postelimination phases), as well as the contribution of rubella elimination to strengthening and maintaining measles elimination. The effective measures that have been implemented and adapted by the countries of the Americas to eliminate endemic measles and rubella will serve as an example to other countries and regions embarking on this endeavor.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Vacuna Antisarampión , Sarampión/prevención & control , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán)/prevención & control , Américas/epidemiología , Benchmarking , Humanos , Sarampión/epidemiología , Vacuna Antisarampión/administración & dosificación , Política , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán)/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo
9.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 30(1 Suppl): S61-6, 2011 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21183843

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Two effective and safe rotavirus vaccines became available in 2006 and have been recommended for use in all countries by the World Health Organization. This article provides an update on the use of rotavirus vaccine in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. METHODS: Data reported by LAC countries to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) were reviewed. RESULTS: As of May 2010, 14 LAC countries and 1 territory have introduced the rotavirus vaccine into their national expanded program on immunization (EPI). Reported coverage levels for rotavirus vaccine are lower than those for other EPI vaccines recommended at the same age. A total of 15 LAC countries are part of the PAHO's LAC rotavirus surveillance network; 12 of them are using the vaccine. LAC countries are conducting several studies on rotavirus vaccine effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and monitoring safety. Also, LAC countries are generating lessons learned on the public health implications of introducing a new vaccine into the EPI. Nine countries and the Cayman Islands pay for the entire cost of the vaccine using government funds. All but 2 countries purchase their rotavirus vaccine through PAHO's Revolving Fund. CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus vaccine introduction in LAC has been faster than for other new vaccines, but coverage levels need to increase to maximize the effect of the intervention. Rotavirus surveillance needs to expand and be strengthened to better assess the effect of vaccine use. LAC countries will continue to provide useful data to monitor rotavirus trends and vaccine effect.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra Rotavirus/administración & dosificación , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/tendencias , Región del Caribe , Preescolar , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Lactante , América Latina , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/efectos adversos , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/economía , Vacunación/efectos adversos , Vacunación/economía
10.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2009.
en Inglés, Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49236

RESUMEN

[Preface]. Some 100 years ago, public health regularly began to include graphic arts among its armamentarium in the fight against diseases. It was an era of devastating epidemics and endemic infectious diseases, as health workers began to organize coordinated media campaigns that sought to mobilize the community and enlist its participation through striking posters, illustrated pamphlets, films, and other graphic materials. In its classical book, Rats, lice, and history, published in 1934, Hans Zinsser wrote: “infectious diseases are one of humankind’s great tragedies. They permanently struggle to exist through different ways of life.” This battle has sparked the imagination and creativity of many a graphic artist, who have variously depicted this ongoing saga in the course of time. / Es para mí un privilegio presentar Imágenes que inspiran: la movilización de las Américas para eliminar el sarampión y la rubéola, publicación que recoge los afiches utilizados por los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) para la eliminación del sarampión y la rubéola en la Región de las Américas. Los afiches compilados aquí ofrecen un boceto del sistema visual e iconográfico que fue desarrollado para informar, persuadir, dar reconocimiento y motivar a los pueblos de las Américas a mantenerse fieles a su compromiso de eliminar estas dos enfermedades, promoviendo así la equidad. Desde una perspectiva histórica, estos afiches ofrecen mucho más de lo que originalmente se propusieron: son espejos que reflejan las percepciones, sesgos y actitudes de la cultura, sociedad y tiempo en que fueron creados. En ellos se unen el arte, la cultura, la ciencia, la religión y los valores en pro de la salud.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Inmunoterapia , Sarampión , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán) , Síndrome de Rubéola Congénita , Américas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Inmunoterapia , Sarampión , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán) , Síndrome de Rubéola Congénita
11.
Washington, DC; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 2009. 118 p.
Monografía en Inglés, Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-972183

RESUMEN

Esta publicación recoge los afiches utilizados por los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) para la eliminación del sarampión y la rubéola en la Región de las Américas. Los afiches compilados aquí ofrecen un boceto del sistema visual e iconográfico que fue desarrollado para informar, persuadir, dar conocimientos y motivar a los pueblos de las Américas a mantenerse fieles a su compromiso de eliminar estas dos enfermedades, promoviendo así la equidad. Desde una perspectiva histórica, estos afiches ofrecen mucho más de lo que reflejan las percepciones, sesgos y actitudes de la cultura, sociedad y tiempo en que fueron creados. En ellos se unen el arte, la cultura, la ciencia, la religión y los valores en pro de la salud.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Inmunoterapia , Sarampión , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán) , Síndrome de Rubéola Congénita , Américas
13.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 27(2): 487-93, 2008.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18332506

RESUMEN

The child mortality rate has been greatly reduced in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). More than half of the gains in reducing child mortality are attributable to immunization. The Revolving Fund of the Pan American Health Organization contributed to this achievement by catalyzing policy innovations that sustained national immunization programs, such as vaccine legislation and budgetary decrees to ensure delivery of services. In addition to measuring the impact of immunization on the child mortality reduction target of the Millennium Development Goals in the LAC region, this paper provides a policy framework to ensure that the rest of the target is reached.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Programas de Inmunización , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Prioridades en Salud , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas de Inmunización/tendencias , Lactante , Recién Nacido , América Latina/epidemiología , Masculino , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/prevención & control , Objetivos Organizacionales , Tétanos/epidemiología , Tétanos/prevención & control , Tos Ferina/epidemiología , Tos Ferina/prevención & control
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