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1.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565316

RESUMEN

Traditional surveys only provide local observations about the topological structure of isolated individuals. This study aims to develop a novel data-driven approach to reconstructing the social network of men who have sex with men (MSM) communities from locally observed information by surveys. A large social network consisting of 1075 users and their public relationships was obtained manually from BlueD.com. We followed the same survey-taking procedure to sample locally observed information and adapted an Exponential Random Graph Model (ERGM) to model the full structure of the BlueD social network (number of local nodes N = 1075, observed average degree k = 6.46). The parameters were learned and then used to reconstruct the MSM social networks by two real-world survey datasets in Hong Kong (N = 600, k = 5.61) and Guangzhou (N = 757, k = 5). Our method performed well on reconstructing the BlueD social network, with a high accuracy (90.3%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the feasibility of using parameters learning methods to reconstruct the social networks of HIV key populations. The method has the potential to inform data-driven intervention programs that need global social network structures.

2.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(2): e25666, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569913

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Youth engagement in HIV research is generally recognized as essential, but often neglected or minimally implemented in practice. Engagement is a process of working collaboratively with diverse groups of people to address common issues. We conducted a scoping review of youth HIV prevention interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to identify and categorize forms and levels of youth engagement across the lifespan of intervention research. METHODS: We followed Arksey and O'Malley's framework for organizing a scoping review. We searched seven databases for related articles on identified intervention studies through May 28th 2020. Included studies focused on youth (10 to 24 years old) HIV prevention interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Two reviewers independently examined citations and full manuscripts for inclusion. Data were extracted on study characteristics, location, description of youth engagement and extent of engagement. Youth engagement approaches were categorized based on Hart's ladder as substantial engagement (strong youth decision-making power), moderate engagement (shared decision making with adults), minimal engagement (no youth decision-making power) or no engagement. RESULTS: We identified 3149 citations and included 112 studies reporting on 74 unique HIV interventions. Twenty-two interventions were in low-income countries, 49 in middle-income countries, and three were in both. Overall, only nine interventions (12%) had substantial or moderate youth engagement, two-thirds (48, 65%) had minimal youth engagement and 17 interventions (23%) had no youth engagement. We also identified specific engagement strategies (e.g. youth-led research, crowdsourcing) that were feasible in multiple settings and resulted in substantial engagement. CONCLUSIONS: We found limited youth engagement in youth HIV prevention intervention studies in sub-Saharan Africa. However, several activities resulted in substantial youth engagement and could be relevant in many low-and-middle-income-country (LMIC) settings.

3.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; : e21777, 2021 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619747

RESUMEN

Bombyx mori cypovirus (BmCPV) is one of the most important pathogens causing severe disease to silkworm. Emerging evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play importantly regulatory roles in virus infection and host immune response. To better understand the interaction between silkworm, Bombyx mori and BmCPV, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis on lncRNAs and mRNAs between the virus-infected and noninfected silkworm larvae midgut at two time points postinoculation. A total of 16,753 genes and 1845 candidate lncRNAs were identified, among which 356 messenger RNA (mRNAs) and 41 lncRNAs were differentially expressed (DE). Target gene prediction revealed that most of DEmRNAs (123) were coexpressed with 28 DElncRNAs, suggesting that the expression of mRNA is mainly affected through trans- regulation by BmCPV-induced lncRNAs, and a regulatory network of DElncRNAs and DEmRNAs was then constructed. According to the network, many genes involved in apoptosis, autophagy, and antiviral response, such as ATG3, PDCD6, IBP2, and MFB1, could be targeted by different DElncRNAs, implying the essential roles of these genes and lncRNAs in BmCPV infection. In all, our studies revealed for the first time the alteration of lncRNA expression in BmCPV-infected larvae and its potential influence on BmCPV replication, providing a new perspective for host-cypovirus interaction studies.

4.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471242

RESUMEN

We assessed if same-sex sexual behavior disclosure of index men who have sex with men (MSM) was related to number of HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits requested by index participants, and number of test results successfully uploaded by alters in a network-based HIVST intervention. Index participants are men who accessed and distributed HIVST kits and alters are index's social contacts who received kits. We analyzed treatment arm data [N = 106, mean age = 27 (SD = 5.3)] of an intervention conducted among MSM in Guangzhou, China, May 2019-December 2019. Index MSM who disclosed sexual behavior to their family tended to request more kits [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 1.42, 95% CI 1.06, 1.90, p < .05]. Index men who disclosed sexual behavior to their family (aIRR 2.47, 95% CI 1.17, 5.24, p < .05) tended to yield an increase in number of alter test results uploaded. Findings have implications for the development of network-based interventions for key populations.

5.
HIV Med ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511687

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: An intervention developed through participatory crowdsourcing methods increased HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men [MSM; relative risk (RR) = 1.89]. We estimated the long-term impact of this intervention on HIV transmission among MSM in four cities (Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Jinan and Qingdao). METHODS: A mathematical model of HIV transmission, testing and treatment among MSM in China was parameterized using city-level demographic and sexual behaviour data and calibrated to HIV prevalence, diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage data. The model was used to project the HIV infections averted over 20 years (2016-2036) from the intervention to increase self-testing, compared with current testing rates. RESULTS: Running the intervention once would avert < 2.2% infections over 20 years. Repeating the intervention (RR = 1.89) annually would avert 6.4-10.7% of new infections, while further increases in the self-testing rate (hypothetical RR = 3) would avert 11.7-20.7% of new infections. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated annual interventions would give a three- to seven-fold increase in long-term impact compared with a one-off intervention. Other interventions will be needed to more effectively reduce the HIV burden in this population.

6.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e041503, 2020 12 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376172

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Underscreening of HIV and syphilis in clinical settings is pervasive in resource-constrained settings. Heavy patient loads and competing health priorities in these settings inhibit provider's ability to meet screening coverage targets. The objective of this study was to examine determinants of provider-initiated HIV and syphilis testing uptake at sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in China. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed between July 2016 and December 2016. SETTING: Seven STD clinics in Guangdong Province, China. PARTICIPANTS: Heterosexual STD clinic patients met the inclusion criteria, regardless of their interest in receiving HIV or syphilis testing. OUTCOME MEASURES: The syphilis and HIV testing uptake determined by patient receipt of results. RESULTS: A total of 1943 individuals were recruited in this study. Among those participants, 60.6% (1177/1943) and 74.3% (1443/1943) conducted HIV testing and syphilis testing during the study, respectively, of whom, 2.2% (26/1177) and 21.5% (310/1443) were found to be HIV-positive and syphilis-positive, respectively. The most common reason for rejecting HIV and syphilis testing was a low self-perceived risk of HIV and syphilis infection. After adjusting for covariates, condom use in the last sexual act, consistent condom use in the last 6 months, having paid sex in the last 6 months and having received any kind of HIV/STD-related knowledge during the last 12 years were positively associated with both HIV and syphilis testing uptake. CONCLUSIONS: The low-level of HIV and syphilis testing uptake, alongside with the high-level of engagement in risky sexual behaviours among heterosexual STD clinic patients, warranted a more targeted and intensive behavioural interventions to promote HIV and syphilis testing in this population.

7.
Trials ; 21(1): 931, 2020 Nov 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203449

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are an important HIV key population in China. However, HIV testing rates among MSM remain suboptimal. Digital crowdsourced media interventions may be a useful tool to reach this marginalized population. We define digital crowdsourced media as using social media, mobile phone applications, Internet, or other digital approaches to disseminate messages developed from crowdsourcing contests. The proposed cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) study aims to assess the effectiveness of a digital crowdsourced intervention to increase HIV testing uptake and decrease risky sexual behaviors among Chinese MSM. METHODS: A two-arm, cluster-randomized controlled trial will be implemented in eleven cities (ten clusters) in Shandong Province, China. Targeted study participants will be 250 MSM per arm and 50 participants per cluster. MSM who are 18 years old or above, live in the study city, have not been tested for HIV in the past 3 months, are not living with HIV or have never been tested for HIV, and are willing to provide informed consent will be enrolled. Participants will be recruited through banner advertisements on Blued, the largest gay dating app in China, and in-person at community-based organizations (CBOs). The intervention includes a series of crowdsourced intervention materials (24 images and four short videos about HIV testing and safe sexual behaviors) and HIV self-test services provided by the study team. The intervention was developed through a series of participatory crowdsourcing contests before this study. The self-test kits will be sent to the participants in the intervention group at the 2nd and 3rd follow-ups. Participants will be followed up quarterly during the 12-month period. The primary outcome will be self-reported HIV testing uptake at 12 months. Secondary outcomes will include changes in condomless sex, self-test efficacy, social network engagement, HIV testing social norms, and testing stigma. DISCUSSION: Innovative approaches to HIV testing among marginalized population are urgently needed. Through this cluster randomized controlled trial, we will evaluate the effectiveness of a digital crowdsourced intervention, improving HIV testing uptake among MSM and providing a resource in related public health fields. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900024350 . Registered on 6 July 2019.

8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa360, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072806

RESUMEN

Background: Most people around the world do not have access to facility-based diagnostic testing, and the gap in availability of diagnostic tests is a major public health challenge. Self-testing, self-sampling, and institutional testing outside conventional clinical settings are transforming infectious disease diagnostic testing in a wide range of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We examined the delivery models of infectious disease diagnostic testing outside clinics to assess the impact on test uptake and linkage to care. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, searching 6 databases and including original research manuscripts comparing testing outside clinics with conventional testing. The main outcomes were test uptake and linkage to care, delivery models, and adverse outcomes. Data from studies with similar interventions and outcomes within thematic areas of interest were pooled, and the quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. This study was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42019140828).We identified 10 386 de-duplicated citations, and 76 studies were included. Data from 18 studies were pooled in meta-analyses. Studies focused on HIV (48 studies), chlamydia (8 studies), and multiple diseases (20 studies). HIV self-testing increased test uptake compared with facility-based testing (9 studies: pooled odds ratio [OR], 2.59; 95% CI, 1.06-6.29; moderate quality). Self-sampling for sexually transmitted infections increased test uptake compared with facility-based testing (7 studies: pooled OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.97-3.12; moderate quality). Conclusions. Testing outside of clinics increased test uptake without significant adverse outcomes. These testing approaches provide an opportunity to expand access and empower patients. Further implementation research, scale-up of effective service delivery models, and policies in LMIC settings are needed.

9.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083811

RESUMEN

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting HIV care globally, with gaps in HIV treatment expected to increase HIV transmission and HIV-related mortality. We estimated how COVID-19-related disruptions could impact HIV transmission and mortality among men who have sex with men (MSM) in four cities in China. Methods Regional data from China indicated that the number of MSM undergoing facility-based HIV testing reduced by 59% during the COVID-19 pandemic, alongside reductions in ART initiation (34%), numbers of sexual partners (62%) and consistency of condom use (25%). A deterministic mathematical model of HIV transmission and treatment among MSM in China was used to estimate the impact of these disruptions on the number of new HIV infections and HIV-related deaths. Disruption scenarios were assessed for their individual and combined impact over 1 and 5 years for a 3-, 4- or 6-month disruption period. Results Our China model predicted that new HIV infections and HIV-related deaths would be increased most by disruptions to viral suppression, with 25% reductions for a 3-month period increasing HIV infections by 5-14% over 1 year and deaths by 7-12%. Observed reductions in condom use increased HIV infections by 5-14% but had minimal impact (<1%) on deaths. Smaller impacts on infections and deaths (<3%) were seen for disruptions to facility testing and ART initiation, but reduced partner numbers resulted in 11-23% fewer infections and 0.4-1.0% fewer deaths. Longer disruption periods of 4 and 6 months amplified the impact of combined disruption scenarios. When all realistic disruptions were modelled simultaneously, an overall decrease in new HIV infections was always predicted over one year (3-17%), but not over 5 years (1% increase - 4% decrease), while deaths mostly increased over one year (1-2%) and 5 years (1.2 increase - 0.3 decrease). Conclusions The overall impact of COVID-19 on new HIV infections and HIV-related deaths is dependent on the nature, scale and length of the various disruptions. Resources should be directed to ensuring levels of viral suppression and condom use are maintained to mitigate any adverse effects of COVID-19 related disruption on HIV transmission and control among MSM in China.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 732, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028241

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex have been linked to higher sexual risk and STI infection in adulthood among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries. This study aimed to examine adolescent and non-consensual anal sexual debut among Chinese MSM and to evaluate factors associated with adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual anal sex. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted recently among Chinese men assigned male sex at birth, ≥18 years old, and who had ever engaged in anal sex with a man. Participants answered questions regarding socio-demographics, condomless sex, age at anal sexual debut with a man, and whether the first anal sex was consensual. Factors associated with an adolescent sexual debut (< 18 years old) and non-consensual sex at sexual debut were evaluated. We defined adolescent sexual debut as having anal sex with another man at 17 years old or younger, and the participants were asked whether their first male-to-male anal sex was non-consensual. RESULTS: Overall, 2031 eligible men completed the survey. The mean age of sexual debut was 20.7 (SD = 4.3) years old. 17.6% (358/2031) of men reported adolescent sexual debut, and 5.0% (101/2031) reported a non-consensual sexual debut. The adolescent sexual debut was associated with having more male sexual partners (adjusted OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.15) and condomless anal sex in the last three months (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.34-2.18). MSM whose sexual debut was non-consensual were more likely to have condomless anal sex (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.17-2.66), and to have reported an adolescent sexual debut (AOR = 2.72, 95% CI 1.75-4.21). CONCLUSIONS: Many Chinese MSM reported adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex, both of which are associated with sexual risk behaviors and drive STI transmission. These findings highlight the need for designing tailored interventions for MSM who experienced adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex at debut.


Asunto(s)
Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , China , Condones , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Asunción de Riesgos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e21743, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001829

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak was designated a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. The relationship between vaping and contracting COVID-19 is unclear, and information on the internet is conflicting. There is some scientific evidence that vaping cannabidiol (CBD), an active ingredient in cannabis that is obtained from the hemp plant, or other substances is associated with more severe manifestations of COVID-19. However, there is also inaccurate information that vaping can aid COVID-19 treatment, as well as expert opinion that CBD, possibly administered through vaping, can mitigate COVID-19 symptoms. Thus, it is necessary to study the spread of inaccurate information to better understand how to promote scientific knowledge and curb inaccurate information, which is critical to the health of vapers. Inaccurate information about vaping and COVID-19 may affect COVID-19 treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Using structural topic modeling, we aimed to map temporal trends in the web-based vaping narrative (a large data set comprising web-based vaping chatter from several sources) to indicate how the narrative changed from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We obtained data using a textual query that scanned a data pool of approximately 200,000 different domains (4,027,172 documents and 361,100,284 words) such as public internet forums, blogs, and social media, from August 1, 2019, to April 21, 2020. We then used structural topic modeling to understand changes in word prevalence and semantic structures within topics around vaping before and after December 31, 2019, when COVID-19 was reported to the World Health Organization. RESULTS: Broadly, the web-based vaping narrative can be organized into the following groups or archetypes: harms from vaping; Vaping Regulation; Vaping as Harm Reduction or Treatment; and Vaping Lifestyle. Three archetypes were observed prior to the emergence of COVID-19; however, four archetypes were identified post-COVID-19 (Vaping as Harm Reduction or Treatment was the additional archetype). A topic related to CBD product preference emerged after COVID-19 was first reported, which may be related to the use of CBD by vapers as a COVID-19 treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our main finding is the emergence of a vape-administered CBD treatment narrative around COVID-19 when comparing the web-based vaping narratives before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results are key to understanding how vapers respond to inaccurate information about COVID-19, optimizing treatment of vapers who contract COVID-19, and possibly minimizing instances of inaccurate information. The findings have implications for the management of COVID-19 among vapers and the monitoring of web-based content pertinent to tobacco to develop targeted interventions to manage COVID-19 among vapers.


Asunto(s)
Cannabidiol/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etiología , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/etiología , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Vapeo/epidemiología , Cannabidiol/efectos adversos , Cannabidiol/farmacología , Cannabidiol/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Fumadores/psicología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Productos de Tabaco
12.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 147, 2020 Oct 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092641

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing may help improve test uptake among female sex workers. China has implemented many HIV self-testing programs among men who have sex with men, creating an opportunity for promotion among female sex workers. However, there is a limited literature on examining HIV self-testing among female sex workers. This study aimed to examine HIV self-testing experiences and its determinants among female sex workers in China. METHODS: A venue-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among Chinese female sex workers in 2019. Participants completed a survey including social-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, and HIV self-testing history, the distribution of which were analyzed using descriptive analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify associations with HIV self-testing. RESULTS: Among 1287 Chinese female sex workers, 1072 (83.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 81.2-85.3%) had ever tested for HIV, and 103 (8.0%, 95% CI 6.6-9.6%) had ever used HIV self-testing. More than half reported that the self-test was their first HIV test (59.2%, 61/103), around one-fifth reported HIV self-testing results influenced the price of sex (21.4%, 22/103). A minority of individuals reported ever experiencing pressure to undertake HIV self-testing (6.8%, 7/103). After adjusting for covariates, HIV self-testing was positively associated with receiving anal sex in the past month (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.5), using drugs before or during sex (aOR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.8-4.5), injecting drugs in the past 6 months (aOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-6.0), being diagnosed with other sexually transmitted infections (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.5), tested for other sexually transmitted infections in the past six months (aOR = 3.4, 95% CI 2.1-5.5), ever tested in the hospital (aOR = 3.4, 95% CI 2.0-5.6), and ever tested in the community (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that HIV self-testing could expand overall HIV testing uptake, increase HIV testing frequency, reach sub-groups of high-risk female sex workers and has limited potential harms among female sex workers. HIV self-testing should be incorporated among Chinese female sex workers as a complement to facility-based HIV testing services.

13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 640, 2020 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867706

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world deeply, with more than 14,000,000 people infected and nearly 600,000 deaths. This review aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results and laboratory findings of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We scoped for relevant literatures published during 1st December 2019 to 16th July 2020 based on three databases using English and Chinese languages. We reviewed and analyzed the relevant outcomes. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic was found to have a higher transmission rate compared to SARS and MERS and involved 4 stages of evolution. The basic reproduction number (R0) is 3.32 (95% CI:3.24-3.39), the incubation period was 5.24 days (95% CI:3.97-6.50, 5 studies) on average, and the average time for symptoms onset varied by countries. Common clinical spectrums identified included fever (38.1-39.0 °C), cough and fatigue, with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) being the most common complication reported. Body temperatures above 39.0 °C, dyspnea, and anorexia were more common symptoms in severe patients. Aged over 65 years old, having co-morbidities, and developing complications were the commonest high-risk factors associated with severe conditions. Leucopenia and lymphopenia were the most common signs of infection while liver and kidney damage were rare but may cause bad outcomes for patients. The bilateral, multifocal Ground-Glass Opacification (GGO) on peripheral, and the consolidative pulmonary opacity were the most frequent CT results and the tendency of mortality rates differed by region. CONCLUSIONS: We provided a bird's-eye view of the COVID-19 during the current pandemic, which will help better understanding the key traits of the disease. The findings could be used for disease's future research, control and prevention.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Linfopenia/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , /epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Tos/epidemiología , Demografía , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Disnea/epidemiología , Fatiga/epidemiología , Femenino , Fiebre/epidemiología , Humanos , Laboratorios , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/patología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
14.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925974, 2020 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973126

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease, and acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS) plays an important role in the process of disease aggravation. The detailed clinical course and risk factors of ARDS have not been well described. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively investigated the demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of adult confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Beijing Ditan Hospital from Jan 20 to Feb 29, 2020 and compared the differences between ARDS cases and non-ARDS cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were employed to explore the risk factors associated with ARDS. RESULTS Of the 130 adult patients enrolled in this study, the median age was 46.5 (34-62) years and 76 (58.5%) were male. ARDS developed in 26 (20.0%) and 1 (0.8%) death occurred. Fever occurred in 114 patients, with a median highest temperature of 38.5 (38-39)°C and median fever duration of 8 (3-11) days. The median time from illness onset to ARDS was 10 (6-13) days, the median time to chest CT improvement was 17 (14-21) days, and median time to negative nucleic acid test result was 27 (17-33) days. Multivariate regression analysis showed increasing odds of ARDS associated with age older than 65 years (OR=4.75, 95% CL1.26-17.89, P=0.021), lymphocyte counts [0.5-1×109/L (OR=8.80, 95% CL 2.22-34.99, P=0.002); <0.5×109/L(OR=36.23, 95% CL 4.63-2083.48, P=0.001)], and temperature peak ≥39.1°C (OR=5.35, 95% CL 1.38-20.76, P=0.015). CONCLUSIONS ARDS tended to occur in the second week of the disease course. Potential risk factors for ARDS were older age (>65 years), lymphopenia (≤1.0×109/L), and temperature peak (≥39.1°C). These findings could help clinicians to predict which patients will have a poor prognosis at an early stage.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , /etiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infecciones Bacterianas/etiología , China , Ciudades/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Fiebre/etiología , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Linfopenia/etiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(12): 779-789, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773611

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STI), such as chlamydial, gonorrheal, and trichomonal infections, are prevalent in pregnant women in many countries and are widely reported to be associated with increased risk of poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. Syndromic STI management is frequently used in pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries, yet its low specificity and sensitivity lead to both overtreatment and undertreatment. Etiologic screening for chlamydial, gonorrheal, and/or trichomonal infection in all pregnant women combined with targeted treatment might be an effective intervention. However, the evidence base is insufficient to support the development of global recommendations. We aimed to describe key considerations and knowledge gaps regarding chlamydial, gonorrheal, and trichomonal screening during pregnancy to inform future research needed for developing guidelines for low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We conducted a narrative review based on PubMed and clinical trials registry searches through January 20, 2020, guidelines review, and expert opinion. We summarized our findings using the frameworks adopted by the World Health Organization for guideline development. RESULTS: Adverse maternal-child health outcomes of potential interest are wide-ranging and variably defined. No completed randomized controlled trials on etiologic screening and targeted treatment were identified. Evidence from observational studies was limited, and trials of presumptive STI treatment have shown mixed results. Subgroups that might benefit from specific recommendations were identified. Evidence on harms was limited. Cost-effectiveness was influenced by STI prevalence and availability of testing infrastructure and high-accuracy/low-cost tests. Preliminary data suggested high patient acceptability. DISCUSSION: Preliminary data on harms, acceptability, and feasibility and the availability of emerging test technologies suggest that etiologic STI screening deserves further evaluation as a potential tool to improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes worldwide.

16.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(8): e25553, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844580

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Nearly 40 years into the HIV epidemic, the persistence of HIV stigma is a matter of grave urgency. Discrimination (i.e. enacted stigma) in healthcare settings is particularly problematic as it deprives people of critical healthcare services while also discouraging preventive care seeking by confirming fears of anticipated stigma. We review existing research on the effectiveness of stigma interventions in healthcare settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), where stigma control efforts are often further complicated by heavy HIV burdens, less developed healthcare systems, and the layering of HIV stigma with discrimination towards other marginalized identities. This review describes progress in this field to date and identifies research gaps to guide future directions for research. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of HIV reduction interventions in LMIC healthcare settings using Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus (through March 5, 2020). Information regarding study design, stigma measurement techniques, intervention features and study findings were extracted. We also assessed methodological rigor using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for systematic reviews. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our search identified 8766 studies, of which 19 were included in the final analysis. All but one study reported reductions in stigma following the intervention. The studies demonstrated broad regional distribution across LMIC and many employed designs that made use of a control condition. However, these strengths masked key shortcomings including a dearth of research from the lowest income category of LMIC and a lack of interventions to address institutional or structural determinants of stigma. Lastly, despite the fact that most stigma measures were based on existing instruments, only three studies described steps taken to validate or adapt the stigma measures to local settings. CONCLUSIONS: Combating healthcare stigma in LMIC demands interventions that can simultaneously address resource constraints, high HIV burden and more severe stigma. Our findings suggest that this will require more objective, reliable and culturally adaptable stigma measures to facilitate meaningful programme evaluation and comparison across studies. All but one study concluded that their interventions were effective in reducing healthcare stigma. Though encouraging, the fact that most studies measured impact using self-reported measures suggests that social desirability may bias results upwards. Homogeneity of study results also hindered our ability to draw substantive conclusions about potential best practices to guide the design of future stigma reduction programmes.

18.
Res Sq ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818208

RESUMEN

Background: Even people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) were considered to be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the driving force among this group of individuals is still not clear. Methods : We investigated 1,701 PLWHA through a telephone interview and found 11 COVID-19 patients in four districts of Wuhan, China. The demographic features and major clinical characteristics of these patients were retrieved from the information management systems for COVID-19 patients of four districts' CDC. Statistical analysis was performed to find out the driving force of COVID-19 among PLWHA. Results : The incidence proportion of COVID-19 in PLWHA is 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2% - 1.0%), which is comparable to the overall population incidence rate in Wuhan city (0.6%). Nine out of the 11 COVID-19/AIDS patients had relatively high CD4+ T lymphocyte count (>200/µl) and undetectable HIV viral load (<20 copies/ml), and ten of them were on antiretroviral therapy. PLWHA who were old, had low CD4+ T lymphocyte count, infected HIV through homosexual activity, and had been diagnosed for HIV for a long time, were more likely to develop COVID-19. Conclusions: PLWHA has comparable COVID-19 morbidity rates as the general population, and older age, low CD4 count, long length since HIV diagnosis, and treatment-naive were potential driving forces of COVID-19 occurrence among PLWHA. Strategies in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWHA with worse immune responses are needed. Article Summary Line: As COVID-19 continues to spread around the world, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are also at risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2. We investigated the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWHA in Wuhan, China.

19.
Res Sq ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818216

RESUMEN

Background : The limited knowledge on the diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the early stage of the pandemic may lead to misdiagnoses, especially when the nucleic acid inspection cannot meet the mass requirement. This condition is even actual for people who are living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), for the latter is vulnerable to variable infections. Case Presentation : In this short communication, we introduced two HIV infected individuals who had PCP but was misdiagnosed as COVID-19 initially, and finally infected with SARS-CoV-2 in hospital in Wuhan, China. Eventually, both patients improved soon after they were switched to the treatment of SMZ/TMP. Conclusions : We suggested that the hospitalized COVID-19 cases should be screened with HIV and other pathogens, to prevent that PLWHA who have PCP from being misdiagnosed as COVID-19.

20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 84(5): 453-462, 2020 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692103

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social media key opinion leaders (SMKOLs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) are 2 leading delivery strategies for HIV self-testing (HIVST). This study compared respondent characteristics, linkage to care, antiretroviral treatment, and cost of HIVST among men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited via SMKOLs and CBOs in China. METHODS: Between January and December 2018, SMKOLs distributed HIVST advertisements to MSM through WeChat public platforms; simultaneously, CBOs distributed HIVST program messages to local MSM. All participants were required to pay a deposit to apply for the HIVST kit and had their deposit refunded after completing an online survey and uploading HIVST results. Trained staff provided HIV referral services by telephone and WeChat. RESULTS: One thousand seven hundred forty-three [63.0% (1743/2766)] and 1023 [37.0% (1023/2766)] individuals met criteria via SMKOLs and CBOs, respectively. MSM reached by SMKOLs had a lower HIV seropositive rate [2.1% (33/1561) vs. 12.5% (100/803)] and higher proportion received antiretroviral treatment [94.4% (31/33) vs. 29.0% (29/100)] compared with CBO-recruited MSM (all P < 0.05). The average number of HIVST respondents recruited by each investigator in SMKOL-strategy was higher than that of CBO-strategy (290 vs. 49). The SMKOLs had lower cost of per person tested (USD 13.18 vs. USD 101.21) and per newly identified HIV infection case (USD 632.66 vs. USD 812.70). CONCLUSIONS: SMKOLs have lower cost of per person tested, whereas CBOs can reach MSM subpopulations with higher HIV seropositive rates. Both recruitment methods are efficient and should be used as complementary HIVST delivery strategies to address low HIV testing coverage among Chinese MSM.

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