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Immunohorizons ; 4(2): 47-56, 2020 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034084


Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an inflammatory complication in leprosy. Yet, the involvement of ENL neutrophils in the inflammatory response against Mycobacterium leprae remains poorly explored. Our primary aim was to investigate the utility of the surface expression of neutrophil IL-10R1 as an ENL biomarker and, secondarily, to evaluate whether leprosy or healthy M. leprae-stimulated neutrophils produce cytokines and are able to respond to IL-10. We, in this study, describe a subpopulation of circulating neutrophils of ENL patients that exclusively expressed IL-10R1, providing evidence that IL-10R1+ neutrophils are present in ENL lesions. It was also found that ENL neutrophils, but not those of nonreactional leprosy controls, were able to secret detectable levels of TNF ex vivo and the addition of IL-10 blocked TNF release. It was likewise observed that M. leprae-stimulated, healthy neutrophils expressed IL-10R1 in vitro, and ENL-linked cytokines were released by M. leprae-cultured neutrophils in vitro. Moreover, consistent with the presence of a fully functional IL-10R, the addition of IL-10 prevented the release of M. leprae-induced cytokines. Most importantly, dead M. leprae revealed its superior capacity to induce CCL4 and IL-8 in primary neutrophils over live Mycobacterium, suggesting that M. leprae may hamper the inflammatory machinery as an immune escape mechanism.

Front Immunol ; 10: 495, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949168


Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular bacillus Mycobacterium leprae that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nerves. One of the most intriguing aspects of leprosy is the diversity of its clinical forms. Paucibacillary patients are characterized as having less than five skin lesions and rare bacilli while the lesions in multibacillary patients are disseminated with voluminous bacilli. The chronic course of leprosy is often interrupted by acute episodes of an inflammatory immunological response classified as either reversal reaction or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Although ENL is considered a neutrophilic immune-complex mediated condition, little is known about the direct role of neutrophils in ENL and leprosy disease overall. Recent studies have shown a renewed interest in neutrophilic biology. One of the most interesting recent discoveries was that the neutrophilic population is not homogeneous. Neutrophilic polarization leads to divergent phenotypes (e.g., a pro- and antitumor profile) that are dynamic subpopulations with distinct phenotypical and functional abilities. Moreover, there is emerging evidence indicating that neutrophils expressing CD64 favor systemic inflammation during ENL. In the present review, neutrophilic involvement in leprosy is discussed with a particular focus on ENL and the potential of neutrophils as clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets.