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1.
J Basic Microbiol ; 61(4): 330-338, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599337

RESUMEN

Microalgae have received continued attention as a potential source for biofuel production. However, the lack of suitable strains that provide a lipid-rich biomass and tolerate harsh condition inhibits their industrial application. This report describes an effort to transform Synechocystis sp. with genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a key regulatory enzyme in the lipogenesis pathway, from the white mustard plant (Sinapis alba) and the bacterium Escherichia coli DH5α using chitosan nanoparticles. Although a recombinant plasmid encoding S. alba ACC failed to express, successful transformation was achieved with a recombinant plasmid encoding E. coli DH5α ACC. The successful transformant, Synechocystis sp. PAK13, exhibited increased ACC expression compared with its wild-type parent (11.8 vs. 7.2 ng), which significantly increased its lipid content (by 3.6-fold). Synechocystis sp. PAK13 also exhibited a significant (20%) reduction in photosynthetic pigments, a 1.52-fold higher glucose content and a 3.5-fold lower sucrose content than the wild-type. In conclusion, this report introduces a useful strategy to overexpress the ACC gene in microalgae, creating strains with improved lipid production that are suited to industrial applications.

2.
Muscle Nerve ; 2020 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382094

RESUMEN

Neuromuscular ultrasound is a rapidly evolving specialty with direct application for patient care. Competency assessment is an essential standard needed to ensure quality for practitioners, particularly for those newly acquiring skills with the technique. Our aim was to survey experts' opinions regarding physician competency assessment of neuromuscular ultrasound and to identify minimal competency of knowledge and skills. The opinions of 18 experts were obtained through the Delphi method using two consecutive electronic surveys. A high degree of consensus was achieved on items regarding framework and the conduct of neuromuscular ultrasound assessment and the knowledge and skills that a candidate needs to attain minimal competency in neuromuscular ultrasound. In this study, a group of neuromuscular ultrasound experts developed a general framework for neuromuscular ultrasound competency assessment and recommended testable areas of knowledge and skills suitable for establishing minimal competency.

3.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; : e2000186, 2020 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169870

RESUMEN

In this study, some novel cyanine dyes, 1, 3, and 5-15, were synthesized by a one-pot step reaction of pyridinium salts 2 and/or 4 with benzenaminium salt 1. N-{[1-Chloro-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)methylene]benzenaminium} chloride 1 was obtained by the reaction of α-tetralone with Vilsmeier-Haack reagent, followed by a mixture of an equimolar ratio of anilin/ethanol (1:1). All new cyanine dyes were evaluated in vitro for their anticancer activity against two cell lines, that is, HepG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma) and MCF-7 (breast cancer). The obtained results were compared with human lung fibroblasts (WI-38) and Vero cells (derived from the kidney of an African green monkey) as normal cells. In particular, some of these compounds, 6, 9, 13, and 14, were found to be the most potent derivatives against all the cancer cell lines, without effect on the normal cells. According to the structure-activity relationship, compound 13 (IC50 = 8.8 µg/ml) exhibited a higher activity against HepG2 cells, as it contains the azo group and two phenyl rings and due to the presence of the π-conjugated system attached to the two pyridine rings. Compound 6 (IC50 = 8 µg/ml) exhibited a higher activity against MCF-7 cells, as it contains two chlorine atoms and the π-conjugated system of the pyridine rings.

4.
Muscle Nerve ; 60(4): 361-366, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335971

RESUMEN

Neuromuscular ultrasound has become an essential tool in the diagnostic evaluation of various neuromuscular disorders, and, as such, there is growing interest in neuromuscular ultrasound training. Effective training is critical in mastering this modality. Our aim was to develop consensus-based guidelines for neuromuscular ultrasound training courses. A total of 18 experts participated. Expert opinion was sought through the Delphi method using 4 consecutive electronic surveys. A high degree of consensus was achieved with regard to the general structure of neuromuscular ultrasound training; the categorization of training into basic, intermediate, and advanced levels; the learning objectives; and the curriculum for each level. In this study, a group of neuromuscular ultrasound experts established consensus-based guidelines for neuromuscular ultrasound training. These guidelines can be used in the development of the specialty and the standardization of neuromuscular ultrasound training courses and workshops.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Curriculum , Guías como Asunto , Neurólogos/educación , Enfermedades Neuromusculares/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía/normas , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Fisiatras/educación , Radiólogos/educación , Reumatólogos/educación
5.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 129(12): 2658-2679, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309740

RESUMEN

Over the last two decades, dozens of applications have emerged for ultrasonography in neuromuscular disorders. We wanted to measure its impact on practice in laboratories where the technique is in frequent use. After identifying experts in neuromuscular ultrasound and electrodiagnosis, we assessed their use of ultrasonography for different indications and their expectations for its future evolution. We then identified the earliest papers to provide convincing evidence of the utility of ultrasound for particular indications and analyzed the relationship of their date of publication with expert usage. We found that experts use ultrasonography often for inflammatory, hereditary, traumatic, compressive and neoplastic neuropathies, and somewhat less often for neuronopathies and myopathies. Usage significantly correlated with the timing of key publications in the field. We review these findings and the extensive evidence supporting the value of neuromuscular ultrasound. Advancement of the field of clinical neurophysiology depends on widespread translation of these findings.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Neuromusculares/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Electrodiagnóstico/métodos , Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios , Humanos , Enfermedades Neuromusculares/fisiopatología , Ultrasonografía/normas , Ultrasonografía/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
J Neuroimaging ; 27(6): 589-593, 2017 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28524416

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Autonomic neuropathy is a serious and common complication of diabetes mellitus. The vagus nerve is the longest autonomic nerve, and may be affected in diabetes as a part of generalized neuropathy. Our objective was to assess for possible sonographic changes of the vagus nerve in diabetic patients. METHODS: The vagus nerve was bilaterally scanned in 20 healthy volunteers and 54 patients with diabetes in the axial plane at the lateral neck. RESULTS: The mean cross-sectional area of the vagus nerve was significantly smaller in patients with diabetes compared with controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed an area under the curve of .96, and an optimum cutoff point of 3 mm2 with a sensitivity of 85.2% and specificity of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a degree of vagus nerve atrophy in patients with diabetes. This finding may have relevance in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic neuropathy if further validated.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico por imagen , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico por imagen , Neuropatías Diabéticas/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía , Nervio Vago/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
9.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 97(7): 1093-9, 2016 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26705883

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To propose new sonographic criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS). DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Academic referral center. PARTICIPANTS: Adult healthy volunteers (n=17) and adult patients (n=14) with electrodiagnostically proven idiopathic TTS (mean age, 43.4±8.7y; height, 161.4±7.0cm; weight, 90.6±13.9kg) (N=31). The exclusion criteria were patients with diabetes, neurological disorders, associated ankle and/or foot disorders, electrodiagnostic evidence of a widespread lesion, or feet that were electrophysiologically negative for TTS or with structural abnormalities detected via ultrasound imaging. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tibial nerve CSA at the proximal tarsal tunnel, tibial nerve CSA within the tunnel, within tunnel-to-proximal tunnel CSA ratio. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the within tunnel CSA and within tunnel-to-proximal tunnel CSA ratio between the TTS group and controls (P=.002 and P=.001, respectively). The optimum cutoff value was 19mm(2) for the within tunnel CSA and 1 for the within tunnel-to-proximal tunnel CSA ratio. Sensitivities were 61% and 74%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The within tunnel-to-proximal tunnel CSA ratio and the within tunnel CSA are the most accurate sonographic parameters and can be helpful in the assessment of idiopathic TTS.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome del Túnel Tarsiano/diagnóstico , Nervio Tibial/diagnóstico por imagen , Centros Médicos Académicos , Adulto , Tobillo/anatomía & histología , Tobillo/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Síndrome del Túnel Tarsiano/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía
10.
J Neuroimaging ; 25(4): 564-70, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26076910

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuromuscular ultrasound of the cranial nerves is an emerging field which may help in the assessment of cranial neuropathies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of neuromuscular ultrasound in Bell's palsy. A second objective was to assess the possibility of any associated vagus nerve abnormality. METHODS: Twenty healthy controls and 12 Bell's palsy patients were recruited. The bilateral facial nerves, vagus nerves, and frontalis muscles were scanned using an 18 MHz linear array transducer. Facial nerve diameter, vagus nerve cross-sectional area, and frontalis thickness were measured. RESULTS: Mean facial nerve diameter was .8 ± .2 mm in controls and 1.1 ± .3 mm in patients group. The facial nerve diameter was significantly larger in patients than controls (P = .006, 95% CI for the difference between groups of .12-.48), with a significant side-to-side difference in patients as well (P = .004, 95% CI for side-to-side difference of .08-.52). ROC curve analysis of the absolute facial nerve diameter revealed a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 70%. No significant differences in vagus nerve cross-sectional area or frontalis thickness were detected between patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound can detect facial nerve enlargement in Bell's palsy and may have a role in assessment, or follow-up, of Bell's palsy and other facial nerve disorders. The low sensitivity of the current technique precludes its routine use for diagnosis, however, this study demonstrates its validity and potential for future research.


Asunto(s)
Parálisis de Bell/diagnóstico por imagen , Músculos Faciales/diagnóstico por imagen , Nervio Facial/diagnóstico por imagen , Neuroimagen/métodos , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Nervio Vago/ultraestructura , Adulto , Músculos Faciales/inervación , Femenino , Humanos , Interpretación de Imagen Asistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Adulto Joven
11.
J Clin Neurol ; 11(2): 109-21, 2015 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25851889

RESUMEN

Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

12.
Muscle Nerve ; 52(5): 767-71, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25728397

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerve ultrasound has become an effective imaging technique. However, imaging of cranial nerves, especially in healthy volunteers, has received minimal attention. The objectives of this study were to describe the sonographic characteristics of the facial nerve and to establish average values of its diameter. METHODS: The extra-cranial part of the facial nerve was scanned bilaterally along its longitudinal axis inside the parotid gland using a 13-MHz probe in 50 healthy adults. The diameter was measured at the nerve's thickest region. RESULTS: The facial nerve appeared as a thin, tubular, hypoechoic structure inside the parotid gland. The mean facial nerve diameter was 0.5 ± 0.1 mm, and the mean side-to-side difference in diameter was 0.1 ± 0.1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The average facial nerve diameter values may provide help with identification of nerve abnormalities using ultrasound.


Asunto(s)
Nervio Facial/anatomía & histología , Nervio Facial/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ultrasonografía , Adulto Joven
13.
Int Orthop ; 38(12): 2513-7, 2014 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25248861

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and clinical outcome of combined TCC resection and medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy for treatment of symptomatic talocalcaneal coalition. METHOD: This is a prospective case series study on 27 patients (30 feet) who had symptomatic rigid pes planovalgus due to talocalcaneal coalition. All patients were treated by coalition resection and medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy. Pre-operative clinical and radiological assessment was done. Pain was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) and the functional assessment was done by the American Foot and Ankle Society score (AOFAS) for the hind foot. Pre-operative and postoperative plantar pressure assessment was done for all patients barefoot using the mat scan (Tekscan, Inc., vs. 6.34, Boston, USA). RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 27.44 months (±2.47, range 23-33). Heel valgus improved from 15.03 (±6.9) degrees pre-operative to 3.09 (±2.3) degrees postoperatively. There was a statistically significant improvement in the VAS from 8.48 (±0.70) pre-operative to 3.70 (±1.13) postoperative. The mean AOFAS score showed statistically significant improvement from 39.88 (±6.09) pre-operative to 84.37 (±7.06) postoperative. There was a statistically significant decrease in mid foot pressure during standing from 48.05 kPa pre-operative to 35.30 kPa postoperative, and during walking from 148.08 kPa pre-operative to 90.22 kPa postoperative. CONCLUSION: A combination of medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy with TCC resection showed statistically significant improvement in VAS and AOFAS scores, as well as decreasing the plantar pressure on the mid foot during standing and walking.


Asunto(s)
Calcáneo/cirugía , Deformidades Congénitas del Pie/cirugía , Pie/cirugía , Osteotomía/métodos , Articulación Talocalcánea/cirugía , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Osteotomía/efectos adversos , Dimensión del Dolor , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Periodo Posoperatorio , Estudios Prospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Resultado del Tratamiento , Caminata
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